Skip to main content

Full text of "The story of Genesis and Exodus, an early English song, about A.D. 1250"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 

\-t^^'^-'-- ■■■' ■ 


^U j$t0r{ 4 (&tnm ui ^^in. 


ABOUT A«D. 1250. 






BDiTom or "bampols's pucks op oohbcishcs ; '* **sau.t siraLxm alutebatitb povn," 





Pzlntod by arxPHXii Aunui. 



The Editor of the present valuable and interesting record 
of our old English speech will, no doubt, both astonish and 
alarm his readers by informing them that he has never seen the 
manuscript from which the work he professes to edit has been 

Buty while the truth must be told, the reader need not enter- 
tain the slightest doubt or distrust as to the accuracy and faith- 
fulness of the present edition ; for, in the first place the text 
was copied by Mr. F. J. Fumivall, an experienced editor and 
a zealous lover of Old English lore ; and, secondly, the proof 
sheets have been most carefully read with the manuscript by 
the Rev. "W. W. Skeat, who has spared no pains to render the 
text an accurate copy of the original.^ I have not been satis- 
fied with merely the general accuracy of the text, but aU 
doubtful or difficult passages have been most careMly referred 
to, and compared with the manuscript, so that the more ques- 
tionable a word may appear, either as regards its form or 

* My obligatioiifl to Mr. Skeat (in whose accuracy and judgment I have the fullest 
confidence) are numerous ; and I am indebted to him, among other obligations, for 
the detcription of the manuBcript, and for some interesting remarks upon the metre 
of the poem. My thanks are also due to the Rot. J. R. Lumhy, who most kindly 
and readily re-oollated nearly half the text with the manuscript 

141 aoO 


meaning, the more may the reader rest assured of its cor- 
rectness, so that he may be under no apprehension that he is 
perplexed by any typographical error, but feel confident that 
he is dealing with the reading of the original copy. 

The editorial portion of the present work includes the punc- 
tuation, marginal analysis, conjectural readings, a somewhat 
large body of annotations in the text of the poem, and a 
Glossarial Index, which, it is hoped, will be found to be com- 
plete, as well as useful for reference. 

The Corpus manuscript^ is a small volume (about Sin. x 4|in.), 
bound in vellum, written on parchment in a hand of about 
1300 A.D., with several final long f's, and consisting of eighty- 
one leaves. Genesis ends on fol. 496 ; Exodus has the last two 
lines at the top of fol. 81a. 

The writing is clear and regular ; the letters are large, but 
the words are often very close together. Every initial letter 
has a little dab of red on it, and they are mostly capitals, except 
the b, the /, the ^, and sometimes other letters. Very rarely, 
however, B, F, and D are found as initial letters. 

The illuminated letters are simply large vermilion letters 
without ornament, and are of an earlier form than the writing 
of the rest of the manuscript. Every line ends with a fuU stop 
(or metrical point), except, very rarely, when omitted by acci- 
dent. Whenever this stop occurs in the middle of a line it has 
been marked thus (.) in the text. 


Our author, of whom, unfortunately, we know nothing, intro- 
duces his subject to his readers by telling them that they ought 
to love a rhyming story which teaches the "layman" (though 

» It is thus described— wrongly, of course, as to age— in thd printed catalogue 
of the Corpus manuscripts:— *<ccccxliT. A parchment book in Sto., written in the 
zv. oentnrj, containing the history of Genesis and Exodus in Old English Terse." 


ke be leftmed in no booka) how to lore and aerve God, and to 
liye peaceably and amioably with his fellow Christians. His 
poem, or *' song/' a9 he calls it, is, he says, turned out of Latin 
into English speech ; and as birds are joyful to see the dawning^ 
so ought Christians to rejoice to hear the " true tale" of man's 
&11 and subsequent redemption related in the vulgar tongue 
("land's speech"), and in easy language ("small words"). 

So eschewing a "high style" and all profane subjects, he de- 
clares that he will undertake to sing no other song, although his 
present task should prove unsuccessful.^ Our poet next invokes 
the aid of the Deity for his song in the following terms : — 
*' Fader god of alio ^inge, 

Abnigtin louerd, hegeft kinge, 

%n giue me fcli timinge 

To thaunen ^is werdes bigimiinge, 

^, leuerd god, to wur^inge, 

Que^er fo hie rede or finge !"• 

Then follows the Bible narrative of Genesis and Exodus, here 
and there varied by the introduction of a few of those sacred 
legends so common in the medieval ages, but in the use of 
which, however, the author is far less bold than many subse- 
quent writers, who, seeking to make their wt)rks attractive to 
the " lewed," did not scruple to mix up with the sacred history 
the niost absurd and childish stories, which must have lendered 
such compilations more amusing than instructive. It seems to 
have been the object of the author of the present work to present 
to his readers, in as few words as possible, the most important 
facts contained in the Books of Genesis and Exodus without 
any elaboration or comment, and he has, therefore, omitted such 
facts as were not essentially necessary to the completeness of 

1 From lines 19-26 we might infer that our author intended to include in his son; 
mnch more of the Bihle narrative than we have in the present work. 

* Father, God of all things, Almighty Lord, highest king, Give then me a propi- 
tioos season, (enable thou me suocessftilly) to show this world's beginning, Thee, Lord 
God, to honour, whetherso I read or sing. 



his narratiye ;^ while, on the other hand, he has included certain 
portions of the Books of Numbers and Deuteronomy,* so as to 
present to his readers a complete history of the wanderings of 
the Israelites, and the life of Moses their leader. 

In order to excite the reader's curiosity, we subjoin a few 
passages, with a literal translation : — 


Lantech is at %e sexte kne, 
%e feuende man after adam, 
^at of caymes kinde cam. 
%if lomech waf ^ firms man 
%e bigamie firft bi-gan. 
Bigamic is unkinde %ing, 
On engleis tale, twie-w^ng ; 
for ai was rigt and kire bi-fom, 
On man, on wif, til he was boren. 
Lamcch him two wifes nam. 
On adda, an no^er wif fellam. 
Adda bar him funo lobal. 
He was hirde wittere and wal ; 
Of mcrkc, and kinde, and helde, 

& ble, 
fundring and famening tagte he ; 
lobal if broker fong and glow, 
Wit of mnfikfe, wel he knew ; 
On two tablef of tigel and braf, 
Wrot he ^at wiftom, wif he was, 
^at it nc fulde ben undon 
If fier or water come ^or-on. 
Sella wnne% oc lamech wi%, 
Ghe bar tubal, a fellic fmi^ ; 

Lamech u at the sixth degree, 
The seventh man after Adam, 
That of Cain^s kin came. 
This Lamech was the first man 
IFho higamy first began. 
Bigamy is unnatural thing. 
In English speech, twi-wiving ; 
Far aye was right and purity before^ 
One man, one wife, till he was bom. 
Lamech him two wives took, 
One Ada?*, another wife Zillah. 
Adah bare him a son Jubal, 
He was a [shep-yierd wise and able ; 
Ofmark,^ breed, age and colour, 

Separating and assembling taught he ; 
Jubal his brother poetry and mnsiCf 
Craft of music, wel he knew ; 
On two tables of tile and brass^ 
Wrote he that wisdom, wise he was, 
That it should not be effaced 
If fire or water came thereon. 
Zillah dwelleth also Lamech with. 
She bare Tubal, a wonderftH smith ; 

^ The following aro the chief omissions: — I. Genesis, chapters ii. 10-14; ix. 
20-27; X. 2-7, 10-32; xxiii. 3-20; xix. 1-5, 14-16, 87-43; xxxi. 1-17; xxxyi.; 
xxxviii. ; xlviiL ; xlix. 1-27. 2. Exodus, chapters xii. 40-51 ; xiii. 1-16 ; xx. 20-26 ; 
xxi. ; xxii. ; xxiii. ; xxv. ; xxvi. ; xxTii. ; xxyiii. ; xxix. ; xxx. ; xxxL ; xxxiii. 12-23 ; 
xxxir. 1-82 ; xxxv. ; xxxri. ; xxxvii. ; xxxviii. ; xxxix. ; xl. 

^ Nnmbera, chapters xi. ; xii. ; xiii. ; xiy. ; xri. ; XTii. ; xix. ; xx. ; xxi. ; xxii. ; 
xxiii. ; xxir. ; xxt. ; xxtL ; xxTii. ; xxxi. Dent, xxxiv. 

* Natural marks ? 


Of irin, of golde, filuer, and bras 
To randren and mengen wif he was ; 
Wopen of wigte and tol of gri^, 
"Wei cu^e egte and fafgte wi%. 


Of iron J ofgoldy sih^r, and brass 
7b separate and mix^ wise he was; 
Weapon of war and tool ofpeaee. 
Well could he hurt or heal with. 
— (U. 444-470.) 

Lantech ledde long lif til >$an 
^t he wur^ biihe, and haued a man 
%at ledde him ofte wndef ner, 
To fcheten after ^e wilde der ; 
Al-80 he miflagte, alfo he fchet, 
And caim in %e wnde if let ; 
Bis knape wende it were a der, 

An lamech droge if arwe ner, 
And letet flegen of ^e ftreng, 
Caim nnwar[M]de it under-feng, 
Gmfnede, and llrekede, and flarf 

Lamech wi^ wre^e if knape nam, 
Vn-bente if boge, and bet, and slog, 
Til he fel dun on dedef fwog. 
Twin-wifing ant twin-manflagt, 

Of his fonle be% mikel hagt. 

Lamech led long life till that (^time) 
That he became blind and had a man 
That led him oft woods near, 
To shoot after the wild deer (animals) ; 
As he mistaught, so he shot. 
And Cain in the wood is led ; 
His knave {servant) weened it were 

a deer J 
And Lamech drew his arrow near 
And let it fly off the string, 
Cain unwarned it received^ 
Groanedj fell prostrate {stretched) 

and died with-that. 
Lamech with wrath his knave seized^ 
Unbent his bow, and beat and slew, 
Till he fell down in death's swoon, 
Twi' wiving {bigamy) and twi» 

slaughter {double homicide) 
On his soul is great trouble {anxiety). 
-(U. 471-486.) 


Ghe brogte him bi-foren pharaon, 

And ^if king wnr^ him in herte 

So fwide faiger was ^if child; 
And he toe him on funcs flede. 

And hif comne on his heued he 

And let it flonden aync flund ; 
^e child it warp dun to ^e grund. 
Hamonef likenef was ^or-on ; 
%if crune is broken, %if if mifdon. 

She ( Thermutis) brought him {Moses) 
before Pharaoh, 

And this king became to him in 
heart mild, 

So very fair was this child] 

And he took him on son^s stead {in- 
stead of a son), 

And his crown on his head he did 

And let it stand a stound {instant) ; 

The child it threw down to the ground, 

HamorCs likeness was thereon ; 

This crown is broken, this is misdone. 


Biflbp Eliopoleos 

fag %if timing, ft up he rof ; 

"If «if child," quad he, *'mote 

He fal egyptes hale hen." 
If ^or ne wore helpe twen lopcn, 
^ifchilde adde %an fone he dropen ; 
%e king wi%-ftod & an wif man, 
He feide, "%e child do% alf he 

We fulen nu witen for it dede 
^if witterlike, or in child-hede ; " 
He had ^is child hrenncn to colen 
And he too is (hu migt he it %olen), 

And in hife muth fo depe he if dede 

Hife tungcs ende if hrent %or-mide ; 
^or-fore feide ^e ehni witterlike, 
%at he fpac ii^en miferlike. 

The Bishop of Hdiopolu 

Saw this circumstance, andup herese i 

If this child, quoth he, might thrive 

(grow up). 
He shall EgypVs hale he. 
If there had not helpers Hween leapt. 
This child had then soon heen killed; 
The king withstood and a wise man. 
He said, The child doth as he can 

{knows) ; 
We should now learn whether it did 
This wittingly, or in childishness ; 
He offered this child two huming coals 
And he took them {how might he them 

And in his mouth so deep (Jar) he 

them did (placed) 
His tongue^ s end is humt there with ; 
Therefore said the Hehrew truly. 
That he spake afterwards indistinctly, 
— (U. 2634-2668.) 


Bi %at time %at he was gu%, 

Wi^ faigered and llrengthe ku^, 
folc ethiopienes on egipte cam. 
And hrcnde, & Aug, & wreche nam, 

Al to memphin %at riche cite, 
And a-non to %e reade fe ; 
^o was egipte folc in dred. 
And afkedcn here godes red ; 
And hem fciden wi% anfweren, 
^at on ehru cude hem wel weren. 

By that time that he was a youth 

(young man). 
For heauty and strength renowned, 
Ethiopian folk on Egypt catne, 
And humt, and slew, and vengeance 

All to Memphis that rich city, 
And anon to the Red Sea ; 
Then was Egypt's folk in dread, 
And asked their gods^ advice ; 
And they said them in answer, 
That one Hehrew could them well 

Moyfcs was louered of ^at here, Moseshecameleaderofthat(Egyptian) 


HSor he wur^ *ane egyptcs were ; There he hecame then Egypfs pro- 
tector ; 
» Or, how might he endure them ! i.e., hotc could he bear the pain ! 



Bi a loud weige he wente rigt, 
Andbrogteyn-wamedeon hemfigt ; 
He hadden don egipte wrong, 
He bi-loo hem & finette a-mong, 
And flag %or manige ; oc fumme 

Into faba to borgen ben. 
Moyfes bi-fette al %at burg, 
Oc it was riche & (trong at-%hnrg ; 

Ethiopienes kinges dowter tarbis, 

Biche maiden of michel prif, 
(>af ^if riche burg moyfi ; 
Lnue-bonde hire ghe it dede for-^i. 
%or ife fon he leide in bonde, 
And he wnr% al-migt-fol in %at 

He bi-lef ^or(.) tarbis him fcro^, 
%og was him %at furgerun M lo% ; 
Mai he no lene at hire taken 
but-if he it mai wi% crafte maken : 
He waf of an flrong migt [&] wif. 
He carf in two gummes of prif 

Two likeneiles, fo graven & meten, 

^is do^ Menken, & ^o^er for- 

He fed is in two ringes of gold, 
Oaf hire %e ton, he was hire hold ; 
[And quan awei nimen he wolde 
Oaf hire ^e to^er, he was hire 

Ghe it bered and ^if luue if for- 

Mojfes %ns haued him leue bi- 

Sone it migte wi% leue ben, 
Into egjpte e wente a-gen. 

By a hnd-way he went rights 
And hrought unwarned on ihem fight: 
They had done Egypt wrong, 
He compassed them and smote among, 
And slew there many; hut some fled 

Into Sheba to he saved, 
Moses heset all that horough. 
But it was rich and strong out- 
thorough {throughout) ; 
larhiSj the Ethiopian king's 

Rich maiden of great renown, 
Oave this rich city to Moses; 
Love-hond's hire she did it, therefore. 
There his foes he laid in hond. 
And he became all-powerful in that 

JSe remained there, Tarhis him urged. 
Yet was to him that sojourn full loath ; 
May he no leave of her take 
Unless he it may with craft make : 
Me was of a strong might and wise. 
He carved in two gems {stones) 

Two likenesses alike carved and 

This one causes to remember, and 

the other to forget ; 
Me fastened them in two rings of gold, 
Gave her the one, he was dear to her; 
\_And when depart he would 
Gave her the other, and was dis- 
tasteful to her'} 
She it heareth and this love is for- 
Moses thus hath him leave begotten ; 

Soon it might with leave be. 
Into Egypt he went again. 

-Gl- 2665-2708.) 



And aaron held up his bond And Aaron held up his hand 

to ^e water and %e more lend ; To the water and the greater land ; 

^0 cam %or up fwilo froikes here Then came there up such host of frogs 
%e dede al folc cgipte dere ; ITtat did all JSgypfsfolk annoy ; 

Somme woren wildc, and fumme Some were wild, and some tame, 

And %o hem deden %e mode fame ; And those caused them the most 

{greatest) shame; 
In hufe, in drinc, in metes, in bed, In house, in drink, in meats, in bed. 
It cropen and maden hem for-dred ; Theg crept and made them for-dread 

{afraid) ; 
Somme florucn and gonen flinc, Some died and gate {put) stinky 

And vn-hileden mete and diinc ; And {others) uncovered meat and 

drink ; 
Polheuedes, and frofkes, & podes Tadpoles and frogs, and toad's venom 

Bond harde egipto folc in [vn-](ile. Bound hard Egypfs folk in sorrow. 

— (U. 2967-2978.) 

The reader must not be disappointed If he fails to find but few 
traces in this work of our pious author's poetic skill ; he must 
consider that the interest attaching to so early an English version 
of Old Testament History, as well as the philological value of the 
poem, fully compensates him for the absence of great literary 
merit, which is hardly to be expected in a work of this kind. 
And, moreover, we must recollect that it is to the patriotism, 
as well as piety, of such men as our author, that we owe the 
preservation of our noble language. The number of religious 
treatises written in English during the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries proves that the dialect of religion approached 
more closely to the speech of the people than did the language 
of history or romance. And it is a curious fact that the most 
valuable monuments of our language are mostly theological, com- 
posed for the lowed and unlearned, who knew no other language 
than the one spoken by their forefathers, and who clung most 
tenaciously to their mother tongue, notwithstanding the changes 


oonsequent upon tHe Norman inyasion, and tHe oppression of 
Norman rule, which, inasmuch as it fostered and kept up a 
patriotic spirit, exercised a most important and beneficial influ- 
ence upon Early English literary culture and civilization. 


The mere examination of an Early English work with respect 
to its vocabulary and grammatical forms, will not enable us (as 
Price asserts) to settle satisfactorily the date at which it was 
written. The place of composition must also be taken into 
consideration, and a comparison, if possible, must be made with 
other works in the same dialect, the date of which is known 
with some degree of certainty. The date of the text before us 
must not, therefore, be confounded with that of the manuscript, 
which is, perhaps, a few years earlier than a.d. 1300. A care- 
ful comparison of the poem with the Bestiary, printed by Mr. 
Wright in the Beliq. Antiq. p. 208, which is in the same 
dialect, and most probably by the same author/ leads me to 
think that the present poem is not later than a.d. 1250.^ 

The vocabulary, which contains very few words of Bomance 
origin,' is not that of Eobert of Gloucester, or of Robert of 
Brunne, but such as is found in La^amon's Brut, or Orm's 
paraphrases, and other semi-Saxon works of the twelfth and 
earlier part of the thirteenth centuries. 

1 The Begtiary presents not only the same grammatieal and v&rbiH forms which 
distingaish the Ghenesis and Exodus from other Early English compositions, hut also its 
crihographieal peculiarities, $.g, f for aeh; 15 for th; g for y and } (^A), etc. The 
editor assigns this poem to the wrly part of the thirteenth century. 

s Warton assigned it to the reign of Henry II. or Eichard I. ; Sir F. Madden to 
the time of Henry III. (1216-1272.) 

* Those employed (about ^((y altogether) are more or less technical— am:^^, autery 
mtinmomig^t ortmHrtke^ htgamii^ biuop, critmt^ charitd^ cantiele, ^reumeit, corune^ 
crun^y deuri, grauntey gruehedey holoeautt, ha$Ul, iumes (journey), iutUd (allied), 
Ueh$rkf Uprey moimt, fimUry meiaUr, neve (nephew), qfUy pate, plente, pare^ preunty 
pretty prUy prieuHy promianoun, prophet, roche, aaeredey aeiti (city), apirity apieeay 
\ (ioioum), ewinadc (quinsy), aeruey aeruieey ydeleay ptMatrie, 


The employineiit of a dual for the pronouns of the first and 
8ec<md persons mar^ an early date (certainly not later than the 
time of Henry IIJ.) even in works composed in the Southern 
dialect, which, it is wejl known^ retained to a cpmparatiyely 
late period those Anglo-Saxon inflections that had long pre- 
yiously been disused in more IN'orthem dialects. 

The Corpus manuscript is evidently the work of a scribe, to 
whom the language was more or less archaic, which accounts 
for such blunders as Prosing for ^roaem, waspene for wasteme, 
lage for tn-lage, sile for vn-sile^ gratien for ^rauen, etc. 

The original copy of Genesis most probably terminated with 

" And here ended completely 
The book which is called Genesis, 
Which Moses, through God's help, 
Wrote for precious souls' need.*' 

The concluding lines, in which the author and scribe «re men- 
tioned, seem to me to be the work of a subsequ^it transcriber : 

" GK)d shield his soul from hell-bale, 
Who made it thus in English tale (speech) ! 
And ho that these letters wrote, 
May God help him blissfully. 
And preserve his soul from sorrow and tears, 
Of hell-pain, cold and hot !" 

The Ormulum is the earliest printed Early EngUsh work which 
has come down to us that exhibits the uniform employment of the 
termination -en (-n) as the inflection of the plural number, pre- 
sent tense, indicative mood ; or, in other words, it is the earliest 
printed example we have of a Midland dialect. I say a Midland 
dialect, because the work of Orm is, after all, only a specimen 
of ooe variety of the Midland speech, most probably of that 
spoken in the northern part of the eastern counties of England, 
including what is commcmly called the district of East Anglia. 

Next in antiquity to the Ormulum come the Bestiary, already 


mentioned, and the present poem, both of which uniformly | 
employ the Midland affix ^en, to the exclusion of all others, as 
the inflection of the present plur^ indicative. 

There are other peculiarities which these works have in 
common ; and a careful comparison of them with the Onm^um 
induces me to assign them to the East Midland area ; but there 
are certain peculiarities, to be noticed hereafter, which induce 
me to believe t^iat the work of Orm represents a dialect spoken 
in the northern part of this district, while €he Genesis and 
Exodus, together with the Bestiary, exhibit the speech of the 
more southern counties of the East Midland district. Thus, if 
the former be in the dialect of Lincoln, the llatter is in ^at of 

The chief points in which the present poem and the Bestiary 
agree with the Ormulum are the following : — 

I. The absence of compound vowels. 

In the Southern dialects we find the compound vowels ue,, eo, 
ie, ea (yea). The Ormulum eo occurs, but with thp spund ftf fi, 
and ^ in Genesis and Exodus is written for e. 

n. The change of an initial % (th) into t after words ending 
in4, tfiif 8, that is to say, afber a dental or a sibilant.' 

" Sterne if Us fruit wel fwi^ good.*' — (Gen. and Ex., 1. 334.) 
'< %e flrll moned and te j&rfl dai, 

He fag er^e drie & U water awei."— /itrf,,,ll. 616-6.) 
" %m berg tsaitin werger ie ham."— (/W., J- 926.) 
"At fe weUe[n].'U-(^*«^-» 1- 2766.) 
This practice is much more jGrequent in the Bestiary, whijch is, 
^Mrhaps, a proof that the present ipoem has suffered somewhwt 
in iihe course of transcription. 

"neddre is it.^ name.-— (Beliq. Antiq., p. 211.) 
"it is ^ ned."— (/W<f., p. 212.) 

^ It auHt^ iQcoUeetod that tbe Onnuluiii is mnoh earli«r than the Genens and 

* See Ormulum, Introduction, p. Ixzyiii.) note 106; Izzzi., note 112. 


%at te neddre ganged bi, 
And tis is ^e ^irl of ^e ston, 
^at tu salt ^urg gon."— /Jirf., p. 213.) 

" at tin herte."— (ZJirf., p. 210.) 

m. Simplicity of grammatical structure and construction of 

1. The neglect of gender and number in nouns. 

2. The genitive singular of substantives end in -e« in all 

3. The absence of the gen. pi. of substantives in -etie. 

4. The employment of an uninflected article.® 

5. The use of ^at (that) as a demonstrative adjective, and 
not as the neuter of the article. The form ^as (those), common 
enough in the fourteenth century, does not occur in this poem 
or in the Ormulum. 

6. No inflection of the adjective in the accusative singular. 
The phrase *godun doi,' good day, in L 1430, p. 41, contains a 
solitary instance of the accusative of the adjective, but it is, no 

^ While agreeing with the editor of the Ormiiluin, that the simplicity of gram* 
matical formB may fairly be considered as indicating a less artificial, and therefore 
adyanced, stage of the lang^ge, I cannot adopt his theory, that " the strict rules of 
grammar" were therefore abandoned, and thereby was anticipated, to a certain extent, a 
later phraseology and structure; or that Orm, or any other O.E. writer, ever sacri- 
ficed " the more regular for a simpler, though more corrupt, structure and style." It 
must always be borne in mind that our earlier writers always speak of their language 
as English ; but it was the English of the district in which they liyed. In some dis- 
tricts, as in the Northumbrian, for instance, the language underwent certain changes 
at a yery early period, which more Southern dialects did not adopt for more than a 
century afterwards : thus, in works of the 14th century, we find the Midland more 
archaic than the Northumbrian, and the Southern more archaic than either. Authors 
seeking to become popular would write in the dialect best understood by their readers, 
without considering whether it was simple or complex. Thus the Ayenbite of Inwyt 
(▲.D. 1340), written for the men of Kent, contains far more of the older inflectional 
forms than the Ormulum of the twelfth century. 

* Southern writers before 1340 formed the g.s. of fem. nouns in -« and not in -m. 

> In the Southern dialect the article had separate forms for the nominative fem. 
(theOf tho)f and neuter {th^l, that) ; the fem. gen. sing. {thoTf thir), and the masc. 
ace. {thaUf then). 


doubt, a mere remnant of the older speech, just like our * for 
ths nonce' (=for then once), and is no proof that the writer or 
his readers employed it as a common inflection. The form 
godun is a corruption of godne, as it is more properly written in 
works in the Southern dialects as late as the middle of the four- 
teenth century. 

7. Adjectiyes and adverbs with the termination -like. 

The Southern form is, for adjectives, -lich (sing.), -liche (pi.) ; 
for adverbs -liehe. Thus the adoption of this affix really (though 
at first it appears a matter of no importance) marks a stage in 
the language when the distinction between the sing, and pi. 
form of adjectives was not very strictly observed, and was, 
moreover, a step towards our modem -/y, which is adjectival as 
well as adverbial. 

Even in this poem adjectives occur in -/i, as reuK= piteous, 
which is the earliest example I have met with. Orm employs 
double forms in -like and It}} {=lg?)> -/y has arisen not out of 
'lecA or -liche (which would have become lidge or litch), but out 
of some such softened form as /tf. 

8. The tendency to drop the initial y, t (A.S. ge) of the pas- 
sive participles of strong verbs. 

The Ormulum has two or three examples of this prefixal 
element, and in our poem it occurs but seldom. 

I Y. A tendency to drop the t of the second person of verbs, as 
OB, hast ; beas, beest ; findee, findest. 

Examples of this practice are very common in the Bestiary 
and Gfenesis and Exodus, but it occurs only four times in the 

V. The use of am, aren, for ben of the Midland dialect, or 
be^ of the Southern dialect.^ 

VI. The employment of the adverbs thethen, hethen, quethen (of 

^ See Ormnliim, Introduction, p. Ixxyiii., note 105. 

* Swdm, are, oocun in the Onnnlom and the Bestiary, bnt ia not employed in the 
preaent poem. 



Scandinavian origin), instead of the Southern thenne (thennen), 
thence ; henne (hennen), hence ; whanne {whanene), whence. 

Vll. The use of oe, ok (also, and), a form which does not occur 
in any specimen of a Southern, West-Midland, or Northern 
dialect that has come under my notice. The use of on, o, for 
the Southern an or a, as anlike, alike, alike, on-rtim, apart, oii- 
sunder, asunder, is also worth noticing. <' 

YIII. The coalition of the pronoun it with pronouns and verbs, 
as get (Bestiary) = she it {^ot in Ormulum ; of. ]>tt/ = thu iU, thou 
it); <^/fe/=tellit; iwi&fe^ = would it ; w<= is it, is there; waai, 
was it, was there, etc. 

The Ormulum, the Bestiary, and Genesis and Exodus have 
some few other points of agreement which will be found noticed 
in the Grammatical Details and Glossary. There are, however, 
grammatical forms in the latter works which do not present 
themselves in the former, and which, in my opinion, seem to 
indicate a more Southern origin. 

I. Plurals in «. 

I do not recollect any examples of plurals in n in the Ormu- 
lum, except ehne, eyes ; in this poem we have cokn, coals ; deden, 
deeds ; fon, foes ; sfSen, sides ; eon, shoes ; sieden, places ; aunent 
sons; tren,treeB; ^e^, teats; fwiten, laws, abilities, etc. (see p. xxii.) 

n. The pronoun ie (e«)=them. In the fourteenth century 
we only find this form is (hiee) in pure Southern writers.^ 

"Diep he if dalf under an ooc."'— (G^^i. and lbs., 1. 1873, p. 64.) 
" For falamon findin tf fal.">— (/*u?., 1. 1877, p. 64.) 
" He toe tC—ilhid., 1. 2654, p. 76.) 
" Alle hise fet steppes %or he stepped, 

After him he filled, o^er dust o^er deu, 

drage% dust wi% his stert %at he ne cunne i» finden."^ 

^Reliq. Antiq., p. 226.) 

1 Robt. of Gloucester, Shoreham, Dan. Michel's Ayenbite of Invyt. 
' Deep he them buried under an oak. 

> For Solomon find them shall. « He took them, 

All \i\sfootBtepM after him he filleth, draweth dust with his tail where he steppeth, 
or dust or d«w (moisture), that they are not able to find them. 


Our author, however, employs this curious pronoun in a way 
quite peculiar to himself, for he constantly joins it to a pronoun 
or a verb,^ and the compound was at first rather perplexing. 
ITes =^he + i8, he, them ; toes = toe + 18, we, them ; caldes, called 
them ; dedis, did (placed) them; seites, set them ; icroutis, wrought 

them, etc. 

** Alle hes hadde wi^ migte bigeten/'*— (^«». and Ex. 1. 91 1, p. 27.) 
" Vndelt he£ leide quorso hei tok."»— (/W<f., 1. 943, p. 27.) 
** ^ culver have^ costes gode, 
alle uw ogen to hauen in mode."* — {Reliq, Antiq., p. 226.) 
" Bala two childre bar bi him, 
Hachcl ealdes dan(.) neptalim ; 
And Zelfa two sunes him bar, 
Lia calde m(.) Gad(.) and asser."' 

—{Oen. andJSx,, 1. 1700, p. 49.) 
*'^e tabernacle he dedis in.'*«— (/Ji^^., 1. 3830, p. 109.) 
"He ietUs in ^c firmament."'— (i*iV^., 1. 135, p. 5.) 
In the Kentish Ayenbite of 1340 he never coalesces with hise 
(them), e.g. : — 
" He (the devil) is lyejore and vader of Icazingfis, ase he J^et made 
" ye verste leazinge, and yet he hise makej^ and tck} echo daye." — (Ayen- 
bite of Inwyt, p. 47.) 

(He is a liar and the father of leadings, as he that made the first 
leasing, and yet he them^ i.e. lies, makcth and teacheth each day.) 

III. The pronoun he, they (Southern hii heo ; Northumbrian 
thay). Orm uses ]>e}}, as well as ]>e}ier (their), ]>e}}m (them).® 

> I baye taken the liberty of separating tbe pronoun from tbe yerb (for tbe con- 
Tenience of tbe reader), giying the MS. reading in tbe margin ; but I am sorry now 
that I did not let tbem stand as in tbe original copy. 

* All he them bad (be bad tbem all) witb might begotten (obtained). 
' Undealt (undivided) he them laid, wbercso he them brought. 

^.Tbe dove batb babits good, 

All we them ougbt to baye in mind 
{i.e. we ougbt to bave tbem all in mind). 
* Bala two children bore by him, 

Rachel called them Dan, Napbtalim ; 

And Zelfa two sons to bim bore, 

Leah called them Gad and Asher. 

* The tabernacle bo pi$t them in. "^ He eet them in tbe firmament. 

* Hei occurs <mee only in the present poem, ]?^}r, ]?^}ffi, not at all. 


lY. htfie, hin, in = them. This form occurs as late as I34O9 
and still exists under the form en, un, in the modem dialects of 
the South of England, but is not employed by Orm ; nor dp we 
find any traces of whan (whom), another very common example 
of the -n accusative inflection, either in the Ormulum or the 
present work. 

V. The substitution of n for a vowel ending in nouns. Dr. 
Ghiest has noticed this peculiarity, but he confines this substitu- 
tion to the naminatwe case of nouns of the n declension,^ and to 
the definite form of the adjective, which has, no doubt, given 
rise to the O.E. himaeluen, etc., bothen (both), as well as, 
perhaps, to auren (ours), fieren (theirs), etc. 

In the present poem, however, the n seems added to the 
vowel ending of all cases except the possesive, in order to 
rhjrme with a verb in the infinitive, a passive participle, or 
an adverb terminating in ^en, and is not always limited to 
nouns of the -n declension, but represents in A.S. an a or « : 
' on boken,'^ on book, 1. 4 ; *on so^e-sagen,' on sooth-saw, 1. 11 ; 
meten (ace.) meat, U. 363, 1537, 2256, (nom.) 2079 ; *in meten,' 
3151 ; sunen (nom.) son, 11. 403, 931, 1656; 'of luuen,' of love, 
635 ; *for luuen,* for love, 1517, 2002; * after «e wunen,' (after 
the custom), 1. 688; steden (nom.), place, 1114 ; 'on steden,* on 
place, 3296 ; * in a cauen,' in a cave,' 1137 ; * for hire saken,' for 
her sake, 1392, 3731 ; * in tvunen,' in wise, manner, 1655 ; * for 
on-Bagen,* for reproach, 2045; wliten (nom.), face, 3614, (ace.) 
2289 ; ' of heren,* 6i expedition, 2479 ; 'wi'S amweren,* in answer, 
2673 ; ' at te wellen,* at the well, 2756 ; bileuen (ace.) remainder, 
3154 ; uuerslagen (ace.) lintel, 3155 ; namen (ace.), name, 3497. 

Dr. Guest considers this curious nxmnation to be a Northern 
peculiarity, but as we do not meet with it (as far as I know) in 

1 Philolog. Soc. Proceedings, toI. i., pp. 78, 261. Mmigtiny almighty, p. 2, 1. 30, 
is the only odfftctwe I find with this termination. 
• The datiye of the A.8. b6e was Wp. 


any Northumbrian work, his statement is rather doubtfuL On 
the other hand it is well known that the plurals bretheren (bro- 
^6eren^ in Shoreham), ealveren* (calves), chiUren,^ dorm (doors)/ 
eyren (eggs),^ honden (hands),^ kine^ lambren (hmha),^ aoulen 
(souls) — ^very common forms in the Southern dialects in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries — are examples of the sub- 
stitution of n for, or in addition to, the vowel ending, and were 
unknown in the Northern dialect. 

The Southern dialect could drop or retain, at pleasure, the 
n final in the past participles, the preterite plurals, and infini- 
tive mood of verbs. 

VI. A very small Norse element in the vocabulary. 

The only words of undoubtedly Norse element that occur in 
the present poem, and were unknown to Southern English, 
are— fro (fra), from, ilk (bad), for-sw^en (to bum), flitten (to 
remove), laSe (bam), lowe (flame), »itrA:(dark), ransaken (to search), 
awcf6e (flame), til (to), uglike (horrible), werre (worse) .• 

The Ormulum, being more Northern, contains a larger number 
of words that must be referred to one of the Scandinavian 
idioms :^^ — qfell (strength), o/fedtf (begotten), 6^ jjac (bitter), *Wti«»< 
(blunt, dull), brace (noise), *4ra> (angry), Hrd\p}pe (anger), *brodd 
(shoot), brodden (to sprout), bro]>]>/all (fit), *bun (ready, bound)^ 
*clake (accusation), *(T<w (device), *dw/ (bold), *dill (sluggish), 
*eggenn (to urge, egg on), *egginng (urging), *flittenn (to remove, 
flit), ^flitting (change, removal), ^forrgart (opposed, condemned), 
ybrrgloppned (disturbed with fear, astonishment), *gaie (way), 
gowesst (watchest), *ha]herr (dexterous), ha]herle})e (skill), ^ha]- 

' ffM^Sertn (A.S. bnf^ru) ogcuts in the SeAii>Sax. GotpelB. * A.S. eeal/ru. 

• eUdru. * dura, * Offru. • handa, ' cy. ® lambru. 

* grei^ (prepare), kipte (seized), lit (stain), liSe (listen), mal (speech), witterlike 
(tmlj), are found in Sonthem English, and maybe the remains of the Anglian element 
in the A.Saxon. 

^^ Those marked * thos constantly occur in Northumbrian and Midland works 
(with Northern peculiarities) of the 14 th centur}'. 


he rr like (fitly), hqf (moderation), hqfelces (immoderately), *ille 
(bad), *imme88 (variously), *kinndlenn (to kindle), ^lasst (crime, 
fault), k}he (hire, pay), *hj}tenn (O.E. layte, inquire, seek), o-lo/t 
(aloft), *lo]he (fire), ^mune (must, will), na]>e (grace), nowwi 
(cattle^ O.N. naut; tlie Southern form is neei, nete, A.S. neat), 
*ploh (plough), ^radd (afraid), *ros (praise), *ro8en (to boast), 
^rosinng (boast), rowwst (voice), *8caldes8 (poets, O.E. 8cald, a 
great talker, boaster, E. scold), *8it (pain), *8ket (quickly), ^skir- 
pe]>]> (rejecteth), *«&]> (track, path), smikerr (beautiful, O.E. 
smug), satow]>es8 (sheep), stoffnedd (generated, O.E. stoven, trunk, 
stem), *8umm (as), *till (to), */(>r (hard, difficult), *Mgg (true), 
uppbrixle (object of reproach, O.E. brixk, reproach), usell 
(wretched), *tt?awrf (rod), *wandra\>, O.'E.tcandreih (trouble), *frerr^ 

As most, if not all, of the words in the foregoing list are not 
found in works written in the Southern dialect, — so far as we at 
present know them — ^we may reasonably suppose that they indi- 
cate fairly the Danish element in the English literature of the 
12th and the 13th centuries. In the Northumbrian, and the 
West, and East-Midland productions of a century later this ele- 
ment prevails to a much larger extent, and Herbert Coleridge's 
list of such words may be largely increased (Phil. Soc. Trans., 
1869, p. 26-30). 

I. Nouns. 

1. Number. — The plural is generally formed by adding -ea 
to the singular. Some few nouns make the plural in -en, as 
feren^ (companions), /on (foee), goren (spears), loten (features), 
sunen (sons), teien (teats), tren (trees), weden (garments), tvunefi 
(laws). The plurals of brother and child are breihere and childere, 
Der (deer), erf, orf (cattle), got (goat), neat (oxen), sep (sheep), 
scrud (garbs), wrim (reptiles), of the neuter gender, are unin- 

* fert occurs iorferen^ so «;«M>tf= sinews (A.S. «ihm, sing., sina, pi.). 


fleeted in the plural. Winter, ger (year), and nigt (night), are 
plural aa in Anglo-Saxon. Adjectives in the plural are often 
used substantively, as brende (burnt ones), clcfSede^ (clothed 
ones), eUere (elders), aide (old ones), nakede^ (naked ones). 

2. Chnder. — ^As a general rule the names of inanimate things 
are of the neuter gender. The names of towns, however, are 
considered as masculine. 

3. Ca&e. — ^The genitive singular and plural of masculine and 
feminine nouns end in -es. Occasionally proper nouns form the 
genitive in -is. The means or instrument occasionally stands 
in the genitive without the preposition : * deader driuen,' influ- 
enced by death ; 'awerdes slagen,* slain with the sword ; ' teres 
wet,' wet with tears. Of. ^flourea bred,' bread made with flour ; 
' bredea mel,' meal consisting of bread ; ' winea drinc,' drink con- 
sisting of wine. 

Corresponding to the modem word kinsmen we have such 
forms as * daigea-ligt* (daylight), ^hinea-Jblk* (servants), ^wi/ea- 
kin' (women). The genitive is used adverbially, as netcea, anew ; 
liuea, alive. 

We have a few traces of the genitive in -e in the following 
examples: 'helle nigt,' 1. 89 (hell's night) ; 'helle migt,' 1. 2626 
(hell's might) ; ' aterre name,' 1. 134 (star's name), * aa/le same,' 
L 349 (shame of form), 'tverlde nigt,' 1. 1318 (world's night).* 

The genitive of fader and moder is, as is very seldom the case 
in Early English writers, /oc/r^a and modrea. 

An n is often added to the final -e (representing an A.Sax. 
vowel-ending) in the nom., dat., and ace. of nouns. For ex- 
amples, see p. XX. 

1 Bcitiary, Beliq. Antiq., p. 213. * Ibid, 

* As a role fern, nouns, and noons of the n declension, take the inflexion -ea ; as, 
*§itmei same' (sin's shame), *90tcUt frame' (soul's profit), *helies male' (hell's mail), 
^weHdet drof' (world's assembly). The Bestiary contains the following genitives 
in -f :— *«i«t0 smel' (EeUq. Antiq., p. 208), *wette grond' (/*., p. 210), 'kirke dure' 
(/*., p. 212), *»(nile drink' (J»., p. 213), 'aoule spouse' (2J., p. 225), 'h^iU pine' 
(76., p. 226). 


n. AjXTEcrnvES. 

1. Adjectiyea have a definite and an indefinite form; the 
former is used when the adjective is preceded by the definite 
article, a demonstrative adjective, or possessive pronoun. 

Indef. ids (wise), god (good). 

Def. fcise, gode. 

2. Number. — ^The plural is formed by the addition of to the 


snroxrLAB. pIiVbal. 

fet (fat), fette. 

gret (great), grete. 

other, othere. 

tother, tothere. 

But the -e (pi.) is seldom added to the past participle of 
irregular verbs. This forms the plurals thes (oblique cases these), 
this {thise). Tho is the plural of that. 

Cases. — One makes the genitive ones ; as, * ones bles,' of one 
colour. The gen. pi. 're occurs in ald-re (=alre), of all; as, 
^hure aldre bale,' the bale of us all, 'here aldre heuedes,' the 
heads of them all. 

Degrees of Comparison.^-^The comparative ends in -ere (-er), 
the superlative in -este (est).^ Very few irregular forms occur 
in the present poem. 


ille, werre. 

lite, lesse, leist. 

"»■«• [Y:^] — 

nik«l, (^^j morte, 

neg, neste. 

old, eldere, eldeste. 

Numerah. — ^The Northumbrian forms in -nde have superseded 

^ The forms in -#r, •#«<, are properly adyerbial and not adjeetiTal. 


the Southem ones in -^the ; as, wuende (aeyentli), egtende (eighth), 

tende (tenth).^ 

ni. Pronouns. 

1. The first personal pronoun Ic is never found softened into 
IcA as in La^amon's Brut, the Ancren Biwle, and other Southem 
works. / is found only once or twice throughout the poem. 

2. The first and second personal pronouns have a dual as well 
as a plural number; as, tcii, we two; unc, us two; gune, you 
two ; gunker, of you two. 

3. Sine {hin, in) (ace.) occasionally occurs, but more fre- 
quently him (dat.) does duty for it. 

4. Oe, ghe,^ she, represents the A.Sax. Mo (O.E. heo, ho, and 
hi). The curious form sge ( =sye), as weU as 9ehe, occurs for she, 
the earliest instance of which is sccb in the A.Sax. chronicle. 

5. The neuter pronoun is written it and not hit, and is fre- 
quently used as a plural. It coalesces with the pronoun ge, ghe^ 
(she), and with the preterite of verbs terminating in -de or -te,^ 
and with some few irregular verbs ; as, sagt (saw there), p. 37, 
1. 1301. The curious form negt (in 1. 3964, p, \l2)=neg+it= 
nigh it. 

6. The A.Sax. At (they) is represented by Ae,* a form common 
enough in the Romance of Havelok the Dane. 

This pronoun, as has already been shown, coalesces with the 
plural (ace.) is (them), and gives us the compounds hea, he+ 
them ; wee, we+them.* 

Not satisfied with joining he (they) to the pronoun is, the 
author of this poem occasionally employs the more perplexing 
combination h€m=fie+hem, he, them.'' 

bred kaluef fleif, and flures bred, 
Roatted calves^ flesh, and flowr-hred, 

1 ti^^ tithe, tenth, ocean in L 896, and tigi^w in 1. 1628. 

* Orm usee the more Northern \ho (Northumbrian mo). 

s f»<sihe it : *'al ^#< hit twinne," she biteth it all in two (Bestiary, Reliq. Antiq., 
p. 214). * See p. xyiii. * "Ket occnrs bnt once only. 

* See pp. ZTiii., ziz. ^ I hare, I am afraid, raggeated that it is an error for k; 


And buttere, h&m 9o sondes bed. 
And butter, he them the meeeengere offered.^{l. 1014.) 
In fichem feld ne fonde hem nogt, 
In Shechem field found he them not. — (1. 1933.) 
Do (btte fundri hem to waken. 
Then set sundry he them to watch, — (L 2551.) 
%o feide %af quanne hem cam dun, 
Then said thus when he to them came dawn, — (1. 4022.) 
In L 2673 hem seems to stand for Ae+hem, they+thenL 
And hem ieiden wi% anfweren,^ 
And they to them said %n answer. 
The SoutHem me, one (Fr. on) is absent from this poem as well 
as from the Ormulum ; its place is supplied by man and men^ 
used with a verb in the singular number, ^e is frequently used 
as a relative pronoun as well as ^at, but iminflected ; quo (who), 
quat (what) are interrogative ; whether signifies which of two. 


Nom. Ic, I 
Gen. nun 
Dat. me 
Ace. me 


Nom. wit we 


Gen. -^— ure gunker gure 

Dat. us 

Ace. unc us 


gunc gu 


Nom. He ge, ghe (sge, sche) It 

Gten. His Hire Is, His 

Dat. Him Hire It 

^~- E 1 =^ I* 

1 If god$9^god% ieiden (pi.) may be an error for seide (mng.), aad Jbiw will 
then s=he+ hem, he them. 
* Chaaoer comtantly tues men with a ver^ in tht singular wambet, thixd pemm. 



Mase. Neut. InterrogatiTe. 

Norn. He It 

Gen. Here Here 

Dat. Hem It 

Ace. Hem It 





The third personal pronoun is occasionally used reflexiyely ; 
as Atm^bimself. Self is used adjectively in the sense of own, 
yery, and the form Beltoen (from the A.Saz. 9y{fa) is joined to 
the personal pronouns ; as ^eselven, himseli^n, etc. 

The independent possessives are min, ^in, hia (hm), hire 
(hers), ure (ours), gure (yours), here (theirs).* 

IV. Verbs. 

Infinitive Mood. — ^The infinitive terminates in -en, which is 
seldom dropped. 

There are no infinitives in -y or te, as in Southern English 
writers, nor do we find them in the Ormulum, or in Robert of 
Brunne's "Handlyng Synne,*' and they were, most probably, 
wholly unknown to the East Midland district. 

The t in the 2nd pers. sing. pret. is occasionally dropped, as 
beoM {=be8t) is, betea, heatest, findee, findest, etc. ; but not in the 
preterite of regular verbs. 

There are no instances of the 3rd pers. sing, present in -e« in 
this poem. 

The final $ of the first and third persons, (sing.) of the pre- 
terite tense is often dropped before a vowel or an A,' and, in a 
few cases, through the carelessness of the scribe,' it is imwritten 
before a consonant, where we should expect to, and do, find it 
in the majority of instances. 

^ The genitiTe and poflsessiTe are denoted bj one form ; as, ttre, of us ; ffure, of 
yon ; here^ of them. ' Because elided in these cases. 

' The Bestiary is far more aocurate in this respect 


Some few strong verbs have become weak, as grapte (grasped^ 
felt), gette (poured), Bmette (smote). 

Imperative Mood. — ^Yerbs forming the past tense in. de ov te 
take no inflexion in the 2nd pers. sing, imperative. 

Participles. — 1. The active or imperfect participle ends in 
-ende or -ande^ the former being the Midland and the latter 
the Northumbrian form. The Southern affix is -tmfe, from 
which we have the modem ing (O.E. -inge). 

Our author rhymes apecande with iockende, and in the Bestiary 
we find that the participle in -ande rhymes with an infinitive in 
-en,^ and this accounts for such forms as etinken == atinkende, 
brennen = brennende, in the present poem. 

2. The passive or perfect participle of regular or weak verbs 
terminates in ^ed; of irregular or strong verbs in -en. In bigote 
(begotten), funde (foimd), geue (given), the absence of the n is 
probably an error of the scribe. 

3. The prefix t- or y- (A.S. ge-) is not of frequent occurrence 
either in this poem or in the Bestiary ; in the former we have 
i^wreken (avenged), i-wrogt (wrought), yhiried (buried), y^oten 
(called) ; and in the latter we find udtgt (arranged). 

There are two conjugations of verbs, regular (weak) and 
irregular (strong). The regular verbs form their past tense in 
-«fe, -efe, or -te] the past participle ends in -ed^ -rf, or -<. 
Irregular verbs form their past tense by a change of vowel, 
and the past participle terminates in -en. 


I. Glass. Infinftive Mood — Loven^ love. 



Sing^ar. Plural. 

1. love, X. loven, 

2. lovest, 2. loven, 

3. love's. 3. loven. 

1 $angand$ rbymee with iUmdm (Reliq. Antiq. p. 223, U. 82, 83, 40, 41). 




1. lovede, 

2. lovedest^ 

3. lovede. 



1. loyeden, 

2. loveden, 

3. loveden. 









Singular. Plural. 

let Form. 2nd Form. 

2. love. love^, love.* 





PAST OB PAiaxm. 

II. Class. iNFiNmvE Mood— Jffiwwi, hear. 




1. here, 

2. herest, 

3. here%. 














(Like the Indicative.) 

2. her. 


Ist form. 


2nd form, 

herende. . 



This form ib used when the pronoun follows. 

* FMowed by the pronoun. 


III. Glass. Infinitivb Mood— &Aw», seek. 



Singular. Plural. Singular. PluraL 

1. seke^ seken, 1. sogte, sogten, 

2. sekest, seken, 2. sogtest, sogten, 

3. seke^. seken. 3. sogte. sogten. 



Singular, Plural, 

seke. seken. (Like the Indicatiye.) 

Singular. Plural, 

let form. Ist form. 2nd form. 

2. iiek. seke%. seke. 



sekande, \ 

sekende. i ^ * 


A. (no change of vowel in the ploral preterite.) 

Infinitive Mood— JSTo/ifew, hold. 






PluraL Singular, 
holden. 1. held, 




holden. 2. helde/ 




holden. 3. held, 




Singular. Plural Singular. Plural, 
holde^ holden. helde, helden. 


2. hold. 


Ist Form. 2nd Form. 

holder, holde. 

1 The second person of irregular rerlw (pret.) does not occur in the poem. In the 
Orm. the inilectbn is -^ which is occasionally dropped. 








helpen aingen. 

B. (cliange of vowel in the preterite pluraL) 

iNFUfiTiYE 'KooD'^Selpen, help; iingen, sing. 



Singnlar. Plural. 

1. helpe^ singe, 

2. helpesty singest, 

3. helped, singed, , 


Singular. Plural. 

1. halp. Bang, \ 

2. holpe,^ sunge,^ > holpen, Bungen. 

3. halp, s&ng> / 



Singular. Plnral. 

helpe, singe. holpen, 


Singular. Floral. 
1ft Form. 

2. help, sing. helped, singed. 

2nd Form. 
helpe, singe 


helpande, singande,) , . 

hdpende, sin^de, ^^^I"^' '^^''' 


A. — Regular. 

PTMent Preterite. 
Class I. Loven, (to love), lovede, 

PasiiTe Participle. 

etc. etc. 


Glass n. (a) Callen (call), calde, 
Feden (feed), fedde. 


^ Theie forma do not occnr in the poem. 



Present. Preterite. PasnTe Participle. 

Greden (cry), gredde, gred- 

Heren (hear), herde, herd. 

Leden (lead), ledde, led. 

Sriden (clothe), sridde, arid. 

Wenen (think), wende, wend, 

etc. etc. etc. 

(&.) Bimenen (lament), bimente, biment. 

Bitiden (betide), bitidde, bitid. 

Delen (divide), delte, delt. 

Demen (judge), dempte, dempt. 

Kepen (keep), kepte, kept. 

Wenden (go), wente, went. 

Class III. Bigen (buy), bogte, bogt. 

Biseken (beseech), bisogte, bisogt. 

Biteche (assign), bitagte, bitagte. 

Cachen (drive), kagte, kagt. 

Lachen (seize), l&gte, lagt. 

Sellen (sell), solde, sold. 

Tellen (tell), tolde, told. 

Worchen (work), wrogte, wrogt. 


Class I. {a) Beren (bear), | ^' | 

Bidden (bid), bad, 

Bi-speken (speak), bi-spac, 

Bigeten (beget), bigat. 

Broken (break), brae, 

Cumen (come), cam, 

Eten (eat), at. 









Passire Participle. 

Forgeten (forget), 



Giuen (give). 


. given. 

Nimen (take, go). 


. numen. 

Seren (shear). 


Stolen (steal). 



Sweren (swear), 



Beten (beat), 



Class II. Bidden (ask, entreat), bed. 


Bibeten ) , . . 
Heten J (P™°^)^ 

( bibet, 



Drepen (slay). 


FaUen (fell). 



Forhelen (bide), 


Hingen (bang). 



Holden (bold). 



Lepen (leap). 



Leten (leave), 



Slepen (sleep). 



Wepen (weep), 



Wassen (wasb), 



Waxen (wax). 





Wreken (avenge). 


Class III. Dragen (draw), 

( drog, 


Faren (go). 



Forsaken (forsake). 



Graven (bury). 


Slon (slay), 

. slag, 





Class IL 



PaBsiTe Participle. 

Standen (stand), 



Taken (take), 



Waken (wake), 




At-winden (depart) 

, at-wond. 

Abreden (awake). 


Bergen (protect). 



Binden (bind), 


' brusten. 
. brosten. 

Bresten (burst), 


Bigunnen (begin), 



Delven (buy). 



Drinken (drink). 



Figten (fight). 



Finden (find). 

fand, 1 
fond, ) 


Gelden (requite), 



Helpen (Help), 



Melten (melt), 



Scri^en (invite), 


Singen (sing). 



Sinkin (sink). 



Springen (spring). 



Sterfen (die), 



Stingen (strong). 



Wergen (defend). 


Werpen (throw). 



Dresten (thrust). 


At-witen (go, depart] 

), atwot. 

Biten (bite). 



Class m. 





PudTe Participle. 

Driven (drive), 



GKden (glide), 



Bisen (rise), 



Sinen (shine). 



Smiten (smite). 



Writen (write), 



Beden (oflfer). 

bed, \ 


Crepen (creep). 



Chesen (chosen). 



Dregen (suffer). 



Flegen (fly). 



Fleten (float). 



Foriese (lose). 

fories, 1 
forieas, ) 


Scheten (shoot), 


Segen (see), 





Se^en (boil), 



Stigen (ascend). 



Ten (go), 



Den (thrive). 




Anomalous Verbs. 

Cunen (can), 3 pera. sing, can, pL cunen, pret. cu^e, p.p. cu^. 

Daren (dare), pres. pi. d}JLren,preL durste. 

Mogen (may), 3 pers. sing, mai, pi. mogen, mowen, pref. 
migte (2 pers. pret. migt). 

Mot (may), pret. muste. 

Ogen (owe, ought), 2 pers. sing, og, pi. ogen,pret. ogte. 

.Sal (shall), 2 pers. sing, salt, pi. sulen, pret. sulde, pret. pL 


Witen (know), 3 pera. sing, wot, pret. wiste. 
WUen (will), pret wulde ; iiile=will not ; nolde=would not. 
The verb ben, 'to be,' is conjugated after the following 
manner : — 









art, beas. 


ben, am^ (aren). 


is, be^, 










weren, worn (woren, wore) 






The adverbs hence, thence, whence, do not occur, being super- 
seded by the Norse forms he^en, ^e^efi, que^en. 

Adverbial Terminations, — ^Adverbs are formed from adjectives 
by the addition of « ; as Img (adj.), Imge (adv.). 

'Um (dative) occurs in whilum and seldum. 

-es (gen.) in lives, alive, newes, anew. 

-en in abouten, aboven, binnen, be/oren (foren), bisiden, uten, 

VI. Prepositions. 

Fro (Northumbrian /rfl) takes the place of the Southern ^aw 
(from), and til (imknown to Southern writers) occurs frequently 
for to. 

' ^tVtdSmsare, occurs in the Bestiary and the Ormolum. 


The essence of the system of versification which the poet has 
adopted is, briefly, that every line shall have four acemted syllables in 
it ; the unaccented syllables being left in some measure, as it were, to 
take care of themselves. 

The words which Coleridge prefixed to his poem of ** Christaber* 
are by no means inapplicable here. He says, " I have only to add, 
that ike metre of the * Christaber is not, properly speaking, irregular, 
though it may seem to be so from its being founded on a new (?) prin- 
ciple: namely, that of counting in each line the accents, not the 
syllables. Though the latter may vary from seven to twelve, yet in 
each line the accents will be found to be only four." 

The normal form of the line of the present poem is that simple one 
of eight syllables, consisting of four (so-called) iambics, which is 
so common in English poetry. But it should be remembered that 
this line is at all times convertible with one of seven syllables, 
generally described as consisting of three trochees and a long syllable. 
This is easily exemplified by taking the first two lines of the Con- 
clusion to the Second Part of Coleridge's ** Christabel." 

A Ut I tie child | a lim | ber elf i| 

Singing | dancing | to it | self || 

This is adopting the common form of scansion given in English proso- 
dies; but which is far from being a very correct method; since to 
make trochaic and iambic metres convertible is to introduce all sorts of 

The fact is, that the Beven-syllahle line, though trochaic to the ear^ is 
really an iambic line, of which the/r«^ syllable is deficient, i.e., supplied 
by dk pause; and the truer scansion is, 

A lit I tie child | a lim | ber elf i| 

— Sing I ing danc | ing to | itself || 

or, at any rate, to adopt this latter method (of beginning to mark off the 
feet from the end, instead of from the beginning of t^be line) will be 
found to be far more convenient in practice ; since the accented sylla- 
bles, instead of drifting about, will thus always be placed at the end of 
a foot. "We should thus, for instance, introduce the same marking off 
of syllables in the line. 

And I i$e sex | te d& | is ligt || 1. 167, 


as we have in the line, 

«o c4m|«e Af|te d&|ia ligtll 1.168. 
Examples of couplets containing a line of each kind are not uncommon ; 
thus, IL 29, 30 :— 

F& I der g6d I of id I le thinge 

Almig I tin 16u | erd h6g | est kfnge H 

Also lines 289, 290. 

And g^t I ne kti | t$e b6 1 nogt blinne H 
F6r I to d6n I an 61S | er finne | 

See also 11. 309, 310 ; 439, 440, etc. 

The introduction of these seven-syllable lines, far from being a 
defect, is a natural and agreeable variation, adopted by all our best 

The next chief variation to be noted is that two very rapid syllables 
are often (as in other English metres) substituted for an unaccented 
one, as in 1. 88 : — 

(5r|«e nigt|and iS\ terJSe d&yfl 

Again, in 1. 93 :— - 

On m 6-5|er daSj'Sis mid|del 6rd|| 

and in 1. 474 : — 

To scb^ |ten &f I ter "Se wil | de d6r || 

See also 11. 321, 503, 505, 656, etc. ; and compare the line from 

'* That Bb& I dowy in | the moon | light shone y " 

The syllables thus most frequently slurred over — ^the term elided is but 
weak and improper, explaining nothing — are the final syllables -en, -^, 
-et, etc., as in 11. 96 and 116 : — 

Ai I ab(i I ten -Sis w&lk | ne 86nt || 

Was w& I ter and 6ii$e | o f6n | der (kd || 

Some lines — and these sound rather harshly— require a little forcing 
to make them to conform to the strict type ; as, e.g., 1. 66, which, to 
make it agree with the rest, must be written, 

16 1 to this iShU\ ternefle h^r | bin^-^en || 

A poet's business is, in fact, to take care that the syllables which are 
to be rapidly pronounced are such as easily can be so ; and that the 
syllables which are to be heavily accented are naturally those that 
owfht to be. If he gives attention to this it does not much matter 
whether each foot has two or three syllables in it. 

A man is master of his art when he can write — 

Ckmie in I to the gar | den, Maud (| 

For the black | bat, night, | has flown || 

And the wood | bine spi | cea are waf | ted abroad ) 

And the mnsk | of the rose | is blown || 


With respect to the final -m, it should be further noted — 

(1) That it is sometimes fully pronounced, as in U. 87 and 91— 

fT6 |-5at time | we t61 1 lea kj g 
Ho g&n I hem d& | gen w61 1 iwifle || 

(2) That it is sometimes rapidly slurred over, as in 1. 96, already 
cited; and 

(3) That (especially after an r) it is often so pronounced as to be 
incorporated with the syllable preceding it, so that the whole word, 
supposing it a dissyllable in appearance, becomes monosyllabic in pro- 
nunciation ; as in 1. 514 — 

Mata I fal6 1 was b6reiL| if fine D 
and, again, in 1. 655 — 

W6reD|ftalw&r|'5i b6ren|bi t&le g 

Thus, we may find the same word written and pronounced as a dis- 
syllable — 

W6 1 ren t$&ne | don (6ne | an6n || 1. 3591 ; 

and, in another place, written and pronounced as a monosyllable — 
In g6u I elengt^'h | e w6m | it m&d i 1. 147. 
Thus, the n must have been r^ry slightly touched, as is shewn also 
by the riming of e and en. Examples, 1. 11, 12 ; 363, 364, etc. 

As to the final -e, it may be observed that it is pronounced, or not, 
at pleasure ; but it is most frequently pronounced just when it is most 
essential, tIz., when it marks a grammatical inflexion, or an adverbial 
form, as, e.g, :— 

Til ih^lsns b4«|on B6|dd d6n|| 1.386; 

W61 1 he fei I den and fwi | ^k w61 1. 1645. 

In the second place, it is very liable to be slurred over before a vowel 
following, as in 1. 148 — 

In B^lke fUjlejn fanjder fh&d 

and, thirdly, it is frequently added to words without cause, and is 
therefore mute, as in 1. 60 — 

"Sat k\k I ere f]pr6ng | in w6rld | wid g 
It seems to be always mute after -ed, when -ede forms part of a verb. 
See U. 1396, 1433, etc. 

Attention to the metre may detect errors in the text. Thus, in 1. 75, 
the word dais is missing : — 

foi1$ gl6d I "Sat fir I me [d& | is] ligt g 
See 1. 113, which proves the point. 

In 1. 1846 the definite form of the adjective is required, and strtrng 
should be Btnmge — 

«e Btr6ng|e g6d | of Jrs | ra^] y 

It has been noted that the first foot of a line sometimes consists of 
one syllable only, and that one accented. By a bolder license, this is 



sometimes the case not only with the^r*^ foot, but with other feet, e.g. 
with the third foot. Line 2572 :— 

Quan 6 I bru child | mid [be b6ren || 
Again, with the last foot, as in 1. 3580, unless we read dmte : — 
And aired | It &1 1 to daft | Hr || 
Very many other curious variations occur, which the reader will 
probably obserre for himself with some interest. Thus, in 1. 60, just 
above cited, the question arises whether or not the r in werld was pro- 
nounced with so strong a burr as to render the word dmyllahic, as is 
often the case in Scotch poetry with words containing r/, rn, etc. 


AS. Anglo-Saxon. 

Da. Danisb. 

Du. Dutch. 

Allit. Poems, Early English AUiteratiye 

Poems (Ed. Morris). 
O.E. Old English. 
ProY.E. Proyincial English. 
Fr. French. 
Fris. Frisian. 
Ger. German. 
Gotb. Gotbic. 
M.H.Ger. Middle High German. 

O.n.Ger. Old High German. 

La}. La^amon's Brut (£d. Sir F. Madden). 

Met. Hom. Metrical Homilies (Ed. 

O.N. Old Norse. 
Orm. Onnulura. 
P. of C. Pricke of Conscience, Hampole's 

(Ed. Morris). 
Prompt. Parv. Promptorium Panrulorum 

(Ed. Way). 
S.Sax. Semi- Saxon. 
Sw. Swedish. 



{or from read ifito. 

for fro read fro, 

side-note 2, for wroutia f read wroutia, 

for ^e read de. 

foot-note 5, for lonerd-hel read louered hel. 

for on (as in MS.) we should read o/(from) ? 

marginal analysis, dele ten, 

for nigt (as in MS.) we should read ligt f 

dele sidc-noto 1. 

for erajlike read eraflike, 

for dese read ^ese^ and dele side-note. 

for qttad read gt/rfS. 

for clepit read clepede. 

for %ai read dat, 

for wid read M7«iJ. 

for aiden read ai^m, 

for %td€n read ^^en. 






5, line 













































MAn og to luuen ^at rimes ren, 
^e WiflTe^ wel ^e logedc men, 
hu man may liim wel loken 
4 ^og ho ne be lered on no boken, 
Luuen god and feruen him ay, 
For he it hem wel gelden may, 
And to alle criftenei men 
8 beren paif and luue bi-twen ; 
^an fal him almightin luuen. 
Her bi-ne^en and ^und* abuuen, [> gund?] 

And giuen him blifle and foules re(le[n] 
12 ^at him fal earuermor leften. 

Ut of latin ^is fong is dragen 
on engleis fpeche, on fo^e fagen ; 

Cristene men ogen ben fo fagen 
16 fo fueles am quan he it fen dagen, 

^an man hem telled so^e talc 

Wid' londes fpeche and wordes fmale, [« wi« ?] 

Of blidcs dune, of forwes dale ; 
20 Qwhu lucifer, ^at deuel dwale, 

[Brogt mankinde in sinne and bale] 

And held hem fperd in belles male 

til god frid him in manliched, 
24 dede mankinde bote and red. 

And unfpered al ^e fendea fped, 

And halp ^or he fag mikel ned. 

%ol. 1.] 
Man ought to 
lore those who 
instruct the lewd, 

80 that he who is 
not book-learned 
may love and 
serve God. 

God shall love all 
Christian men, 
and give them 


that shaU 
Out of Latin is 
this song turned 
into English 

Christian men 
ought to be as 
glad as birds are 
of dawn to hear 
the story 

of man's bliss and 

and how salva- 
tion came 
through Christ, 

and destroyed the 
power of Satan. 


[Fol. 16.1 
Father, God of 
all things, 

enable thou me to 
sing this world's 

wrought with 
wit, wisdom, and 
good loye. 

In the Creatoi^ 
wisdom was all 
deyised ere it 
came into being. 

Heaven and earth 
were wroui^ht 
when God bad 
exist time and 

First all was 

Light came by 
God's word, that 
is His Son. 

He existed long 
before time. 

These two rule 
all things with 

In the Godhead 
there are three 
persons of one 
counsel and 

[Fol. 2.] 

Light came at the 
divine command. 

Then was the fint 
morning time 
that ever sprang 
in the world. 

Biddi* hie fingen now o^er led, 
28 ^og' hie folgen idel-hed. 

FAder god of alle ^hinge, 
Almigtin louerd, hegefl kinge, 
^u giue me feli timinge 
32 To thaunen ^is werdes biginninge, 
^e, leuerd god, to wur^inge, 
Que^er fo hie rede or finge ! 

P bidde ?] 


Wit, and wisdam, and luue godd, 

And fer ear bi^ohte al in his modd, 

In his wifdom was al bi^ogt 

Ear ^anne it was on werlde brogt. 

In firme bigini[n]g, of nogt 
40 "Was heuene and er^e famen wrogt ; 

^0 bad god wur^en (hmd and flede, 

^is middes werld ^or-inne' he dede, p MS. ime.] 

Al was ^at firme ^rofing in nigt, 
44 Til he wit hife word made ligt ; 

Of hife word, ^u wiflike miine, 

Hife word, ^at is, hife wife fune, 

^e was of hin fer ear bi-foren 
48 Or ani werldes time boren ; 

And of hem two ^at leue luuen, 

^e welden al her and abuuen, 

^at heJi luue, ^a[t] wife wil, 
62 ^at weldet alle %inge wit rigt and [f]kil ; 

Migt bat wit word wur^en ligt, 

(Hali froure welt oe ^at migt ; 

for ^hre phones and on reed, 
56 On migt and on godfolhed.) 

^o fo wur^ ligt fo god it bad, 

fro ^iflemefle o fimde[r] fad ; 

^at waf ^e firme morgen tid, 
60 %at euere fprong in werld wid« 

« ma^r is inserted between 'Sog and hie in a later hand. 


wi^ ^at ligt worn angles wrogt, 
And in-to newe heuene brogt, 
%at if ouer dis^ walkenes turn, 

64 God hem qtoiad %or leli foriam ; 
Summc for pride fellen ^e^en, 
In to ^is ^hifterneflb her bi-ne^en ; 
Pride made angel deuel dwalc, 

68 %at made ilc forge, and cu^rilc bole, 
And eu^rilc wunder, and eu^rilc wo, 
%at if, or fal ben euere mo. 
He was mad on %e funedai, 

72 He fel out on %o munendai ; 
(^is ik wort in ebrifle wen, 
He witen ^e fo^e ^at if fen.) 
for% glod %at firme ligt, 

76 And after glod %at firme nigt ; 
^ daigening cam ell' a-gon. 
His flrme kinde del was a-gon. 
On walkenes turn wid dai and nigt 

80 Of fouN and twenti time rigt ; 
%eB firenkis men o franco moal, 
it nemnen " un iur natural ; '' 
And eu^re gede ^ dai bifom, 

84 ii^en ^at newe world was boren. 
Til ihesus crifl fro helle nam, 
Hif quemed wid' eue and adam ; 
fro %at time we tellen ay, 

88 Or ^e nigt and after ^e day, 
for god ledde hem frx) helle nigt 
to paradises leue ligt ; 
%o gan hem dagen wel iwifle, 

92 Quan god hem ledde in-to blifle. 

On an o^er dai %if middel-erd, 
waf al luken and a-buten fperd ; 
^o god bad ben ^e firmament, 
96 Al abuten ^is walkne fent, 



With that Ught 
were angels 

and hrougbt into 
a new hearen. 

Some for pride 
fell thence into 
nether darkness. 

Pride turned an- 
geU into derils, 

who became the 
source of every 
sorrow, bale, and 

The dcTil was 
made on the Sun- 
day and fell out 
oo the Monday. 

Forth gUded the 
first light, and 
afterwards the 
first night. 

The dawning 
came again. 
Thtu In the wel- 
kin's coarse 
comes c!ay and 
night "of twenty- 
four hours 
[Fol. 2*.] 

So ever came the 
day first, 

tiU Christ 
brought his 
[Swit$?] Mints fh>m hell. 

From that time 
we ever reckon 
first the night 
and then the day. 

For God led them 
f^om Hell's might 
into Paradise's 
bright light. 

On the second 
day the earth was 
enclosed by the 


by frozen water* 
and wall of ioe. 

No fire has ever 
et melted thia 


This endoeore 
may be called 

It ahan last until 

[Fol. 8.] 

Above this is an- 
other heaven ftdl 
of bliss and life. 

Thus passed this 
od day's 

I day's 

Then came the 
third day's light. 

Water and earth 
became sepa- 

The earth did 
bring forth grass, 
herb, and fruit 

Thus was earth 
made mother of 

Then was all fair 
here below. 

God saw that it 
was so, and 
blessed it. 

Then came the 
fourth day's 
Ught, and Might 
made the sun and 
moon and each 
bright star. 


Of waters firoren, of yfef wal, 

^is niiddel werld it luket al ; — 

May no fir get melten ^at yf ; 
100 He ^e it made if migtful and wis, — 

It mai ben hoten henene-Rof ; 

It hiled al %is werldes drof, 

And fier, and walkne, and water, and lond, 
104 Al if bi-luken in godes bond, 

Til domef-dai ne fal it troken. 

Al middel-erd %er-inne is loken, 

watres ben ber ^er-nnder fuuen, 
108 And watres %or a-buuen ; 

And oner ^at fo fal i-wis, 

An o^er beuene fal o blis, 

And ful o lif ^e lefted oo, 
112 wo may bim ben ^e fel ^or-fro. 
or^ glod ^is o^er daif nigt, 
%o cam ^6 %ridde dais ligt : 

^e ^ridde dai, fo god it bad, 
116 was water and er^e o fonder £ad ; 

God bi-q«uad watres bere ftede, 

And er%e brimen and bercn dede ; 

nk gres, ilc wurt, ilc bir^beltre, 
120 Hif owen fed beren bad be ; 

Of euerilc ongt, of eumlc fed, 

Waf er^e mad moder of fped. 

^e ^ridde dai was al ^is wrogt, 
124 And er^es fodme on werldes brogt ; 

An exxarilc fodme bis kinde qtmeme^en. 

^0 was it ber fair bi-ne^en, 

God fag bis fafte fair and good, 
128 And blifcede it wid mildo mood. 

or^ glod ^is dridde* daif nigt, [» •Sridde ?] 

^o com ^e fer^e daif ligt. 

%e fer%e dai made migt 
132 Sunne, and mone, and ilc fterre brigt. 



walknes wur^inge, and erdes framoy 

He knowncd one ilc flerre name. 

He fett 68^ in %e firmament, [} M 

136 Al abuten %is walkne went ; 

%e feuene he bad on fligte faren. 

And toknes ben, and times garen. 

Sunne and mone %e mode ben, 
140 Of alle %e toknes %at men her fen ; 

%e mone if more bi mannes tale, 

^an al ^is er^e in werldes dale ; 

And egefl fwUc %e funnes brigt, 
144 If more %anne %e mones ligt. 

%e mones ligt is mone% met, 

^or-after if ^e funne fet ; 

In geneleng^he worn it mad, 
148 In Reke-fille, on funder fhad; 

Two geueleng^hes timen her, 

And two folflices in %e ger. 

On four doles delen he 
152 ^e ger, ilc dole of mone^ ^hre ; 

Euere fchinen %o toknes brigt, 

And often giuen if on er^e ligt ; 

wel wnr^e his migt lefful ay, 
156 ^e wrout is' on ^e fer^e day ! [» MS. wroutiB?] 
or^ glod ^is fer^e daif nigt, 
%o cam %e fifte dais ligt ; 

^e fifte day god made y wis 
160 of water, ilc ftiel and erumlc [sic] fil. 

And tagte fuel on walkene his fligt, 

Ilc fif on water his flotes migt, 

And blifced hem, and bad hem %en 
164 And tuderande on werld ben. 

^if fifte dai held for^ his fligt, 
And for^ endede ^at fifte nigt ; 

And ^e fexte dais Ugt, 
168 So made god wid witter migt, 

[Fol. 86.] 

SmM*t>^ 1 God •et them in 
.settee.] the firmament. 

He let them be 

for sifUB «nd for 

San and moon 
are the greatest 
of all these to- 

The moon is 
greater than the 

The son's bright- 
ness is greater 
than the moon's 

The moon's light 
is the measure of 
a month. 

In the eqoinox 
was it made. 

Two equinoxes 
and two sobitices 
are in the year. 

In four parts the 
year is divided, 
each part being 
of three months. 


On the fifth day, 

[Fol. 4.] 
God made of 
water each fowl 
and fish, 

and bad them 


This fifth day 
took its fiight, 

and on the sixth 
day Cod made 
all cattle, rep- 
tiles, and wild 
deer (beasts). 


God knew that 
Adam would sin, 

•o He made tame 
cattle to help him 
in bis labour and 
to give him food 
and clothing. 

Ood made the 
wild deer to 
trouble man with 
sorrow and dread 
and cause bun to 
moan his sinftil- 

Eacb Idnd of 
cattle, reptile, 
and beast waa 
made of earth. 

[Fol. 4i.1 
All were good 
while Adam wat 

But reptiles and 
wild beasts hurt 
man as soon an he 
became sinftil. 

Lions and bears 
tear him in 

Flies hare no awe 
of him. 

Cattle help him 
tbrough God's 

Ood made Adam 
of earth, 
and blew into bis 
body a "life's 

Holy Ghost, 

Al erue, and wrim, and wilde der, 
Qwel* man mai fen on werldo her. 
God fag bi-fore quat after cam, 

172 %at fingen fulde firme adam. 

And him to fremen and do' frame, 
He made on werlde al erue tame, 
^e fulde him her, in fwinkes ftrif, 

176 to fode, and find, to helpen ^e lif ; 
And him to pine, and loar her, 
God made wirme and wilde der. 
He pine man wid' forwe and dred, 

180 And don hcm^ monen hif (inftilhed, 
^at if him loar quan he fe^, 
^an ho for finne in forwe be^. 
nk kinnes erf, and wrim, and der 

184 Was mad of er^e on werlde her. 
And eu^ilc on in kinde good, 
^or quilcs adaw fro finne ftod ; 
Oc der and wrim it deren man 

188 fro ^an ^at he fingen bi-gan ; 

In ^e mode and in ^e lefte he forlef, 
Hif loiwred-hed* qMuanne he mif-chef ; 
Leunes and beres him wile to-dragen, 

192 And flegcs fen on him non agen ; 
Hadde he wel loked him wi^ (kil. 
He belle fulde don hif wil ; 
Erf helped him ^urg godes me%, 

196 Hif lordehed ^or-onne he fe^. 
And for hife finne oo ho to miinen, 
^at mofte and leifio him ben binumen. 




©if fcxte dai god made Adam, 
And his licham of er^e he nam, 
And blew ^or-in a lines blafi, 
A liknefie of his hali gafi. 


^ louerd-hel in MS. 



A Ipirit ful of wit and fckil ; 
204 %or qimiles it folgedo heli wil, 

God felf ^or quile liket if, 

An un-lif ^ quuanne it wile mif. 

[I]N feld damaske adam was mad, 
208 And ^e%en fer on londe fad ; 

God bar him in-to paradif, 

An erd al ftil of fwete blif ; 

fol wel he wid' him ^or dcde, 
212 bi-tagte him al %at mirie flede ; 

^c an bodeword ^er he hiw forbad, 
if he wulde him fildcn fro ^e dcd, 

%at he fuldo him %er loken fro 
216 A fruit, %e kenned wel and wo, 

And hiegt him ded he fulde ben 

If he %at bode-word ne gonno flen. 

God brogt adam ^or bi-fom 
220 He kinnes belle of er%e boren, 

and f^gel, an fif, wildo and tame, 

^or gaf adam ilc here if name ; 

Ne was %or non lik adam. 
224 God dede dat' he on fweuene cam, 

And in %at fweuene he let him fen 

Mikel ^at after fulde ben. 

and tkUl." 

[» un-Uk ?] 


Ut of his fide he toe a rib, 


And made a wimman him ful fib, 
And heled him %at fide wel 
^at it ne wrocte him neu^e a del. 

Adam abraid, and fag %at wif, 
Name ho gaf hire dat* if ful Rif ; 
Ifla waf hire firfte name, 
^or-of ^urte hire ^inken no fame ; 
Mayden, for fche was mad of man, 
236 Hire firft name ^or bi-gan ; 
Si^en ghe brocte us to woa, 
Adam gaf hire name eua. 

In Damascus field 
Adam waa made. 

Ood bore him 
into Paradise, an 
abode full of 
sweet bliss. 

Pwi«?] [Fol. 5.] 

He intruKted to 
him all that 
pleasant place. 

But forbad him 
to touch the fhiit 
which taught 
** weal and woe." 

Deod should he 
be if he broke 
this command. 

Ood brought all 
beauts of the 
earth, fowl, and 
fish unto Adam, 

who gave to each 
a name. 

r» « ♦an ^°^ caused a 
1^' x>ai r J sleep to come 
upon Adam, 
and in that sleep 
he saw much that 
should hereafter 

Out of his side 
Gad took a rib, 
aud out of it made 
a woman. 

Adam awoke and 
saw his wife. 


Issa was her first 

because she was 
noade of man. 

[Fol. 56.1 
After shehrought 
us to woe Adam 
eaUed her Bra. 


For sin they lost 
the bliss of Para- 

The sixth day 
passed and 

the seventh 
morning sprung. 
That day beto- 
kened long rest. 

God ordained this 
day a day of bliss 
and rest. 

So it remained 
until Christ rose 
fh>m the cold 

Then the Sunday 
from that time 
forth became hal- 
lowed for ever. 

[Fol. 6.] 

So shall it remain 
until Doomsday. 

Wisdom made 
each thing of 

Lucifer waxed 

and with that 
pride came envy. 


Addcn he folged godes red, 
240 Al man-kin adde fell fped ; 

for (inne he ^at blifle for-loren, 

%at derede al %at of hem was boren ; 

It is her-after in ^e fong, 
244 Hu adam fel in pine Urong. 

^or6 glod ^if fexte dais lig[t], 
After glod ^e fexte nig[t] ; 

^e feuendai morgen fpro[n]g, 
, 248 %at dai tokenede refle long ; 

^is dai waf for^ in refte wrogt, 

lie kinde newes ear waf brog[t] ; 

God fette ^is dai folk bitwen, 
252 Dai of blifle and off refte ben, 

for ^at time ear fear bi-fom, 

Til ihesus was on werldc boren, 

And til he was on ^e rode-wold, 
256 And biried in ^e roche cold. 

And reftede him after ^e ded, 

%at ilke dai god aligen bed. 

Si^en for-lef ^at dai if prif, 
for ih0sus\ god and man fo wis, [» MS. ihc.] 

Rof fro ded on ^e funenday, 
^at is for^ fi^en worked ay ; 
And it fal ben ^e lafte tid, 
264 Quan al man-kinde, on werlde wid, 
Sal ben fro dede to line brogt, 
And feli (ad fro ^e forwrogt, 
An ben don in blifle and in lif, 
268 fro fwinc, and forwe, and deades ftrif. 
rifdom ^e made ilc ^ing of nogt, 

qwuat-fo-eu^re on heuone or her if wrogt. 
Ligber he fridde a dere frud, 
272 An he wiir^e in him-feluei^ prud, 
An wi^ ^at pride him wex a ny^, 
^at iwel welded al liis fi^ ; 



%o ne migte he non lou^ ^hauen, 
276 %at him fulde ^hinge grauen : 

"Min fligt," he feide, '* ic wile up-taken, 

Min fete nor% on heuene maken. 

And %or io wile fitten and fen 
280 Al ^e ^hinges ^e in wer[l]de ben, 

Twen heuone hil and helle dik, 

And ben min lou^ geuelic. 

^0 wur^ he drake ^at ear was knigt, 
284 ^o wur^ he mire ^at ear was ligt, 

And euenlc on ^at helden wid ' him, 

%o wur^en mire, and fwart, and dim, 

And fellen ut of heuones ligt, 
288 In to ^is middil walknes nigt ; 

And get ne kn^e he nogt blinne 

for to don an o%er finne. 

Eflen* he fag in paradif 
292 Adam and eue in mike[l] prtf, 

Newelike he was of er^e wrogt, 

And to %at mirie bliile brogt ; 

^owgte ^is quead, ** hu ma it ben, 
296 Adam ben king and eue quuen 

Of alle ^e ^inge [^e] in werlde ben. 

Hu mai it hauen, hu mai it fen. 

Of fif, of fugel, of wrim, of der, 
300 Of alle %hinge ^e wunen her, 

Eumlc %hing haued he gene name. 

Me to forge, fca^e, and fame ; 

for adam ful ^us, and his wif, 
304 In blifle ^us leden lefteful lif ; 

for alle ^o, ^e of hem fule cumen, 

fulen ermor in bliflb wunen, 

And we ^e ben fro heuene driuen, 
308 fulen ^ufle one in forwe liuen ; 

Get ic wene I can a red, 

^at hem fal bringen iwel fped ; 

"My flight." he 
sajs, "I will up 

and make my seat 
north of hcaren, 
and therein will 
I sit and 8oe all 


[' eften ?] 

Then became he 
dragon that ere 
was knight; 

aU that held with 
him became dark, 
dim, and black, 

and fell oat of 
heaven's light. 

[Fol. 66.1 
Yet would Satan 
not cease to com- 
mit sin. 

HcM w Adam and 
Eve in Paradise 
in great bliss and 

How may it be, 
thought he, that 
Adam is king and 
Eve queen of all 
things in the 

while 1 am in 
sorrow, scathe, 
and shame. 

Evermore shall 
they remain in 

while we must 
live in sorrow. 
Yet I think I 
know of a plan 
to bring them 
into sin. 



For if they doeth 

vbAt God forbid- 

d«th they shaU 


This I wiU with- 

out delay brisg 

aboat to day. 

FFol. 7.1 
I think that Eve 
and I vhall de- 
prive Adam of his 

Thus he thought 

and up he vent, 

and to the earth 


He went into a 

** vorm'* and told 

Eye a tale. 

"Eve/' he said, 
**What meaneth 
it that a tree is 
forbidden you. 

a tree that sur- 
I all others, 

which shall teach 
ycmeril and good. 

and make you as 
wise as those who 
dwell above in 

When Eve saw 
that it was fair 
to the sight and 
soft to the hand, 

she ate thereof, 
and took some 
and brought it to 

[Fol. 76.] 

He ate that fruit 
ani did foolishly. 

Thou death's two 
bonds eame on 



for gef he don ^ad' god for-bead, [} tJai] 

312 %at fal hem bringen to %o dead. 

And fal get %is like dai, 

%or buten honte if ic mai ; 

Ic wene ^at ic, and eue hife wif, 
316 Men adam bilirten of hife lif. 

Ic weno %at ic and eue 

fulen alle is blifle dreue." 

©us he ^hogte, and up he fleg, 
And eften' til dat er^ he teg, 

Wcnte in to a wirme, and tolde eue a tale ; 

And fenkede hire hure aldre bale. 

** Eue," feide he, ^at neddre bold, 
' Quat oget nu ^at for-bode o-wold, 

%at a tre gu forboden is, 

^at ouer alle o^re bered pris ? 

for if fruit fired mannes mood, 
328 To witen bo^en iwel and good, 

Sone ge it ^or-of hauen etcn, 

Al ge it fulen witent ' and nogt forgeten. 

And ben fo wife alle euene 
332 So %o %e wunen a-buuen in heuone." 
^anne %ogte eue on hire mod, 

^anne if tif fruit wel fwi^e good, 

fair on fig^he and fofte on bond, 
386 Of ^if fruit wile ic hauen fond. 

Sum ghe %er at, and fum ghe nam, 

And bar it to her fere adam ; 

So manie times ghe him fcro^t, 
340 Qtie^er so him was lef or lo^t, 

for to for^en if fendes wil. 

At he dat^ fruit, and dede unskil ; 

Sone it was under brefl numen ; 
344 Dedes two bondes on hem ben comen ; 


" eftcn? 

» witen? 




Yn-buxumhed he hauen hem don, 
Yn-buxumhed if hem comen on ; 
Yn-welde woren and in win, 

348 Here owen limes hem wi^-in. 
flcfles fireme%e and fafte fame 
bo%en he felten on hero lichame ; 
%o gunen he fame fridcn, 

352 And limes in leues hidon. 
Nu wot adam fum-del o wo, 
Her-after fal he leren mo. 


A fter ^if dede a fteuone cam, 

"^u, nu, qttor ait, adam, adam?*' 
" Loutfrd, qwat fame if mo bi-tid, 
for ic am naked and haue me hid?" 
" Quo feido ^e dat gn^ wer naked ; 

360 ^u haues ^o forges fig^he waked, 
for ^hu min bode- word haues broken, 
%hu fait ben ut in forge lukon, 
In fwinc ^u fait tilen ^i mete[n], 

364 ^in bred wid fwotes t^res eten, 
Til gu* beas eft in to er^e cumen, 
Quer-of gu^ beaf to mannc numen ; 
And wif fal under were wunen, 

368 In heumlc bir^he forge numen ; 

And ni^ful neddre, lo^ an li^er, 
fal gliden on hifc brefl nc^cr. 
And er^e freten wile he mai linen, 
372* And atter on is tungc cliuen ; 

And ni^, and ihif, and ate, and fan, 
Sal ben bi-twen neddre and wiwman ; 
And get fal wimman ou^cumen, 
376 His heued under fote bi-numen." 

Iwo pilches woren ^urg engeles wrogt. 
And to adam and to eue brogt, 
^or-wi^ he ben nu bo^en frid, 
380 And here fame fumdel is hid. 


WeakuMt and 
■orrow troubled 
their limbs. 

They were 
aehuned of their 

and shrouded 
themselvee in 

After this deed a 
Yoice came, 
"Where art thou, 
Quoth Adam, ** I 
am naked and 
hid myaelf." 

Then said God, 
** Because thou 
haat broken my 

thou ahalt till thy 
meat with toil, 
and eat thy brMU 
with sweat and 

until thou come 
ri UnJ-i agahi to the 
•• J earth. 

[Fol. 8.] 

Woman shall be 
under man, and 
have sorrow in 
every birth. 

The adder shall 
glide on his breast 
and eat earth. 

Poison shall 
deaye to his 

Enyy, strife, hate 
and shame shaU 
be between the 
adder and the 

Two pilches the 
angels wrought 
for Adam and 

so that their 
shame might be 



They were turned 
oat of Paradise. 

Clierubln closed 
the gates. 
Never shall thev 
be undone till 
Christ is cruci- 

Thus Adam and 
Eve became ac- 
quainted with 
sorrow and care. 

[Fol. 86.] 
Eril and death 
troubled them. 
They thought 
that they must 
never look upon 
one another. 

Message came 
from Uod, 

"Adam, know 
live together. 

Some that shall 
be bom of you 
shall come to 
bliss, others shall 
be in sorrow after 
their death. 

Ood*s dear son 
shall bring man 
again into Para- 

These tidings 
partly softened 
Adam's sorry 

Adam and Eve 
lived together. 

Children had 
they, many more 
than Genesis tells 

After fifteen 
▼ears Cain was 


He ben don ut of paradif, 
^at erd al ful of fwete blif ; 
He ben don ut of blilTes erd, 

384 Cherubin hauet %e gatef fperd ; 
Ne fulen it neu^re ben un-don, 
Til ihesiu be% on Bode don ; 
Ne fulen it neu^rmore ben opened, 

388 Til ihesua be% on rode dead. 

[ff mikel is forge, and more care, 

Adam and eue it wite ful gare ; 
Of paradif hem %inke^ fwem, 

392 Of iwel and dead hem flonde^ greim. 
On fundri ^henken he to ben, 
And nei^ere on o^er fen, 
Til angel brogte adam bode, 

396 bodeword and tiding fro gode : — 
'* Adam, ^hu knowe eue ^in wif, 
And leded famen gunker lif ; 
Summe fulen of gu to kumen, 

400 Sulen ben in to refle numen ; 
Summe fulen folwen fendes red. 
And ben in forwe after %e dead ; 
And get fal godef dere fune 

404 In gure kin in werlde wunen. 
And he fal bringen man a-gen 
In paradif to wunen and ben." 
Swilc tiding %hugte adam god, 

408 And fumdel queme^ it his feri mood, 
^if angel is to heuono numen, 
And adam if to eue cumen, 
More for emefle dan* for gamen ; 

412 Adam and eue wimen fumen, 
And hadden childre manige i-wif, 
Mo ^an of telle^ ^e genoHs, 
for fiftene ger hadde adam ; 

416 %an caim of eue cam, 






And o^er fiftene al fwilc fel, 

Quane eue bar rigt-wife abel.* 

Abel an hundred ger waf hold, 
420 ^an he was of if broker wold ; 

An hundred ger after if dead, 

Adam iro eue in frifte ahead. 

To hundred ger and .xxx.^ mo 
424 was adam hold and eue %o, 

%an bor ghe feht in %e (lede 

Of caym ^at abel for-dede ; 

Or or midleft, or after ^o 
428 Bar eue of adam manige moo. 

^or quiles %at adam forge dreg 
for abel, caym fro him fleg, 

wi^ wif and hagte, and wur^ ut-lage, 
432 wi^ dead him flood hinke and age. 

He ches a flede toward eden, 

And to him' fameden o%er men, 

wallede a burg, e-no hi name ; 
436 %eft and reflac %hugte him no fame, 

for %at he made him manige fon, 

^or he ^hogte he flonden agon. 

Met of com, and wigte of fe, 
440 And merke of felde, first fond he. 

Tellen ic wile fo bir^e bad, 
Adam, caym, enos, iraab, 

Malaleel, matusale ; 
444 Lamech is ^t %e sexte kne, 

%e feuende man after adam, 

%at of caymes kinde cam. 

^if lamech waf ¥e firme man, 
448 ^e bigamio firfl bi-gan. 

Bigamie is unkinde %ing. 

On engleis tale, twie-wifing ; 

* At the bottom of fol. 8* is the catchword— Abel a hundred. 
' him is by a later hand. 

and aftf rwards 
Kve bore rigbte> 
oua Abel. 

[Fol. 9.] 

Abel waa a hun- 
dred years old 
by his brother. 
After this Adam 
from Eve in shrift 
abode one hun- 
dred years. 
Seth was b<nm 
when Adam was 
230 years old. 

Cain fled from his 
home and became 

He chose an 
abode near Eden. 

He built a city, 
Enoch by name. 
Theft and rob- 
bery was no sin 
to him ; many 
foes he made. 

Measure of com, 
increase of cattle, 
division of land, 
taught he flrst. 

[Fol. 96.] 
The seventh man 
after Adam, of 
Cain's kind, was 

He first began 



Two wives he 
took— Adah «ad 

Adah bare Jabal. 

He waa a cun- 
ning shepherd. 

He taught sepa- 
ration and as- 
Juhal his brother, 
wise in song and 

wrote on tile and 

a mighty smith. 
Iron, gold. sUrer 
and brass he well 
knew how to 
separate and mix. 

Hs was skilled 
in making wea- 
pons of war and 
household tools. 

[Fol. 10.1 
Lamech at last 
became blind. 

He had a man to 
lead him to the 
woods in search 
of wild deer. 

The knave mis- 
took Cain for a 

Lamech let fly an 

which struck 
Cain and kiUed 

Lamech beat and 
slew his servant. 

Thus was he 
guilty of twi- 
wiving and twin- 


for ai was rigt and kire bi-forn, 
452 On man, on wif, til he was boren. 
Lamech him two wifes nam, 
On adda, an no%er wif fellam. 

Adda bar him fune lobal, 
.^w He was hirde witt^e and wal ; 

Of merke, and kinde, and helde, & ble, 
fondring and fameni[n]g tagte he ; 
lobal if broker fong and glew, 
460 Wit of mufike, wel he knew; 
On two tablef of tigel and braf, 
wrot he ^at wiflom, wif he was, 
%at it ne fulde ben undon 
464 If fier or water como ^or-on. 
Jella wnne^ oc lamech wi^, 
ghe bar tubal, a fellic fmi% ; 
Of inn, of golde, filuer, and bras 
468 To fundren and mengen wif he was ; 
Wopen of wigte and tol of gri^, 
wel ca^e egte and fafgte wi^. 

Lamech ledde long lif til %an 
%at he war% bifhe, and haued a man 

%at Icdde him ofte wndes ner, 

To fcheten after ^e wilde der ; 

Al-so he miftagte, alfo he fchet, 
476 And cairn in- ^e wude if let ; 

His knape wende it were a der, 

An lamech droge if arwe ner, 

And let et ^ flegen of ^e ftreng, 
480 Caim unwarde it under-fcng, 

Grufnede, and ftrekede, and ftarf wi^-^an 

Lamech wi^ wre^e if knape nam, 

Vn-bente if boge, and bet, and slog, 
484 Til he fel dun on dedef fwog. 

Twin-wifing ant twin-manflagt 

Of his foulo be^ mikel hagt. 

[» letet MS.] 




Of hife endinge ne wot ic nogt, 
488 oc of if kinde worea brogt 

On werlde feue and feuenti %liafant men, 

Or or flam noe fpredde hif fen ; 

Que%er fo it %hogte hem iuel or good, 
492 Alle he drinkilden in %at flood. 
^f fethy %e waf adam-if fune, 
cam enos ; he gan ali wunc 

Of bedes, and of godefrigtihed, 
496 for lines helpe and foules red. 

Ic wile rigt teUen, if ic can, 

Adam, feth, enos, caynan, 

Malaleel, iareth, enoch, 
500 for alied god felf him toch 

fro mannes mene i» to ^at ftede 

%at adam forles for iuel dede ; 

get liue^ enoch wi^-vtcn ftrif, 
504 In paradif in fwete lif ; 

Get he fal cnmen or domef-day, 

And wenden iewes, if he may, 

To ^e wittenefle of iefiis crift, 
508 And tholen dead ynder antecrist ; 

Si^en fal antecrifl ben flagen. 

And man and angeles wur%en fagen. 

chirches ben wiiriiped mor and mor, 
612 And fendes dregen forge and for. 

Or enoch wente [fro] werldes wune, 

Matufale waf boren if fune, 

And lamech of matufale, 
516 And of lamech rigt- wife noe. 
[etodius, ali martyr, 

Adde in his herte fighe* fir ; [J 

Alfo he god adde ofte bi-fogte, 
520 Wiiliko was him in herte brogt 

^is midelerdes biginning, 

And middel-hed, and if ending ; 

Of his death we 
know nothing. 

Hi« draoendants 
were all destroy- 
ed by Noah*8 

Of Seth came 
Enoa, who waa 
prarerftU and 

[Fol. 10ft.] 

Ood took Enoch 
to Himself, 

to dwell with 
Him in Paradine. 

Enoch shall come 
before Doomsday 
to turn the Jewa 
to Christ. 


Before Enoch 
went from the 
world Methuae- 
lah was bom. 

Lamech came of 
Lamech begat 

Methodius, holy 
martyr, knew 
_;_jcu^ ai much of this 
Big«he?] world's begin- 
ning, middle, and 



[Foi. n.] 

He wrote a book, 
well known to 

Cain*8 kind 
wrought against 

Women waxed 
evil, unchaste, 

Men began to ad- 
diet themseWet 
to wretched prac- 

Seth's sons made 
marriages con- 
trary to Adam's 

They chose wires 
of Cain's seed, 
and mixed with 
the accursed 

or them were 
giants bom who 
wrought many 

[Fol. lib.] 

For their great sin 
there came wrath 
and vengeance 
upon the world. 

A flood drowned 
man and beast. 

Noah and his 
fkmily were saved 
in an ark. 

He wrot a boc dat manige witen, 
524 Manige tiding %or on if writen ; 
%or if writen quat agte awold, 
dat* ^if werld waf water wold. 


F hundred ger of ^at ^ufent 

[» «at?] 




%at mankin was on werlde fent, 
Caymes funes wrogten vn-lage, 
Wi^ bre^ere wifes hore-plage ; 

And on ^8 fexte hundred ger 
Wimmen welten weref mefter, 
And fwilc woded wenten on, 
Golhed hunkinde he gunnen don ; 

And ^e fifte hundred gei> 
wapmen bi-gunnen quad mefter, 
bi-twen hem-feluen hun-wrefte plage, 
A ^efis kinde, a-genes lage. 

Two hundred ger after ^o wunes, 
Mis-wiuen hem gunnen fe^es funes, 

Agenes ^at adam for-bead, 

And leten godef frigti-hed ; 

He chofen hem wiwes of caym, 
544 And mengton wi^ waried kin ; 

Of hem woren ^e getenes boren, 

Migti men, and figti, [and] for-loren ; 

He wrogten manige [sinne] and bale, 
548 Of ^at migt is litel tale ; 

for ^at he god ne luueden nogt, 

^at migt if al to forge brogt ; 

for fwilc (inful dedes fake, 
552 fo cam on werlde wreche and wrake 

for to blifTen fwilc iinnes fame, 

%at it ne wexe at more hun-frame. 

Bo wex a flod ^is werlde wid-hin, 
^^^ and [o]uer-flowged men & deres kin, 

wi^-vten noe and hise ^re funen, 
Sem, Gam, laphet, if we rigt munen. 



And here foure wifes woren hem wi^ ; 
560 ^ise .viij. hadden in ^e arche gri^. 

Bat arche was a fetelee good, 
fet and limed a-gen %e flood ; 

^hro hundred elne waf it long, 
564 Naild and fperd, ^ig and ftrong, 

And .1.** elne wid, and .xxx.** heg ; 

^or huten noe (.) long fwing he dreg. 

An hundred winter, eumlc del, 
568 welken or it was ended wel ; 

Of alle der HSe on werlde wunen, 

And foueles, wereu ^er-inne cumo;» 

Bi feuene and feuene, or bi two & two, 
572 Al-migtin god him bad it fo. 

And mete qt«)rbi ^ei migtcw liuen, 

^or quiles ho woren on water driuen. 

Sexe hundred ger noe was hold 
576 Quan he dede him in ^e arche- wold ; 
Iwo ^hufant ger, fex hundred mo, 
And fex and fifti for^ to ^o, 

weren of werldes elde numon 
580 ^an noe waf in to ^e arche cumen. 

lie wateref fpr/nge here flrcng^e undede, 

And Reyn getto dun on eu^rilk ftedo 

fowerti daif and fowcrti nigt, 
584 So wex wat^r wi^ magti mij!:t ; 

So wunderliko it wex & get 

^at fiftene elne it ouer-flet, 

Ouer ilk dune, and ou^r ilc hil, 
588 ^hurge godes migt and godes wil ; 

And o^er fowerti ^orc-to, 

Daif and nigtes ftod ct* fo ; p ftodet MS.] 

^0 waf ilc fleif on wer[l]do flagon, 
592 ^0 gunnen ^e wat^res hem wi^-dragen. 
^e feuend moned waf in cumen, 

And feuene and .xx.^ dais numen, 


The ark wu a 


Thre« hundred 
ells was it long, 

fifty wide, and 
thirty high. 

A hundred win- 
ters was Noah in 
building it. 

Clean animals en- 
tered tho ark by 
■even and seven, 
unclean by two 
and two. 

TFol. 12.] 
Biz hundred 
rears old was 
Koah when he 
entered the ark. 

The water 
springs undid 
their strength. 
Rain poured 
down on every 

Fifteen ells it 
overflowed, over 
ercry hill and 

Then was all flesh 


In the seventh 
month and the 



day the ark stood 
in Annenia. 

When the tenth 
month eame the 
watan withdrew. 

Sol. 136.] 
ijn after 
thifl' the ark'a 
window is on- 
done, the raTen 
cat flew, and 
came not 
to the ark. 
The doTe found 
no clean plaoe, 
and eame again 
to the ark. 

After seren davs 
the dore left the 
ark and retnmed 
with an oliTe 

Seren nights 
after all are let 
oat of the ark. 

Noah looked out 
of the ark and 
saw that theearth 

Tet went he not 
out till he was 
bidden by Qod. 

At God's oom- 
mand he *nH his 
fkmily left the 



altar and saori- 

fleed thereon. 

[Pot l».] 
The serenth dear 
was oflbredup, 

the others were 
allowed to escape 

rarmenie >5at arche flod, 

^0 waf wi^-dragen ^at ilc flod. 
%e tende moned cam in, 

So wur^ dragen ^e watref win ; 
Dunes wexen, ^e flod wi^-drog, 
600 It adde lefled longe a-nog. 

Pwerti daif after ^if, 
Arches windoge undon it if, 
^e Eauen ut-fleg, hu fo it gan ben, 
604 Ne cam he nogt to ^e arche a-gen ; 
De dnue fond no clene flede, 
And wente a-gen and wel it dede ; 
%e feuendai efl ut it tog, 
608 And brogt a grene oliues bog ; 
Seue nigt fi^en eumlc on 
He is let ut flegen, crepen, and gon, 
wi^-uten ilc feuend clene der 
612 ^e he facrede on an aucter. 

ex hundred gar and on dan* olde [• «an ?] 

Noe lag ut of ^e arche- wolde ; 
%e flrfl moned and te firfl dai, 
616 He fag er^e drie & tc wat^ awai ; 
get he waf wif and nogt to rad, 
Oede he nogt ut, til god him bad. 

Be to^er mone^ was in cumen, 
^-w And feuene and twenti dais numen, 

^0 herde Noe wol bli^e bode 

Of a fteuene, ^e cam fro gode ; 

He and hife wif wenten ut fre, 
624 Hife funes and here wifes ^re ; 

He made an aucter on godef name. 

And facrede he ^or-on for fowlef frame 

Ilc feuende der of clene kin, 
628 ^e waf holden in arche wi^-hin, 

And leten %e o^re to Hue gon, 

of hem ben tudered manigon. 




Often he [bad] wid ' frigti bede, [» wi« ?] 

682 %at fwiulc wreche fo god %o dede 

Ne fulde more on werlde cumen, 

(£tat wreche fo ^or wur^e nnmen. 

God gat it a token of luuen, 
636 Taunede him in ^o wakene' a-buuen 

Rein-bowe, men cleped reed and bio ; 

^e bio tokened de wattes wo, 

%at if wi^-uten and is gon ; 
640 ^e rede wid-innen toknet on 

wreche ^at fel get wur^en fent, 

wan al ^if werld wur>5e brent ; 

And al-fo hege ^e lowe fal gon, 
644 So %o flod Act de dunes on ; 

fowerti ger or domef-dai, 

%if token no man ne fen mai. 

Of noe ii^en an if ^re funen, [' Of MS.] 

648 ben boren alio ^e in werlde wunen, 

And or he waf on werlde led, 

His kinde waf wel wide fpred ; 

Al it if writen ic tellen mai 
652 Of his kin bi hif Hue dai ; 

vten childre and vten wiwmen, 

wel fowre and .xx. ^hufent men 

woren ftalwur^i boren bi tale, 
656 wi^-uten wif-kin and childre fmale ; 

.ix. hundred ger and fifti told, 

or or he flarf, noe waf old. 


"VTembrot gat hife feres red, 

for %at he hadde of water dred. 
To maken a tur, wel heg & ftrong, 
Of tigel and ter, for water-gong ; 
Twelwe and fezti men woren ^or-to, 
664 Meifbr men for to maken it fo. 

Noah besought 
God that he 
woald no more 
•end auch dee- 
traction upoQ 

God granted hia 
request, and 
ahewed him the 
rain-bow as a 
token of His lore. 
The rain-bow ia 
called red and 

The blae denotes 
the water that 
drowned all flesh. 
The red betoken- 
eth the destruc- 
tion of the wwld 
by fire. 

From Noah and 

his three sons all 

mankind hare 


Before his death 

his family were 

widely spread. 

[Fol. 186.] 
They numbered, 
czcludiuflr women 
and children, 
24,000 stalworth 

Nimrod had 
dread of water, 
so he advised his 
followers to make 
a tower high and 

were employed 
about it. 

* An error for walken^. 



All spoke one 
speecA before. 

Now sundry 
tongues arose 
and sorely terri- 
fied the work- 

speecbes were 
toen spoken. 

That tower mm 
oaUed Babel. 

The folk became 
icattered afar 
upon the earth. 

Belus was Nim- 
rod's son, and 
after bim reigned 
Nilus, who set up 
an image in re- 
membrance of bis 

[Fol. 14.] 

Nilus rewarded 
aU that honour- 
ed this likenew. 

They called it 
. Bel» alter Belum. 

Many made like- 
nesees of their 

Bel was the first, 
and hence the 
names Bal or 

Thus was idola- 
try introduced, 
by which nuny 
•re destroyed. 

Al waf on fpeche ^or bi-foren, 
%or woren fundri fpeches boren ; 
^0 wur^en he ftigti and a-grifen, 

668 for dor* waf fundri fpechel rifen, 
Sexti lond-fpcchcs and .xii. mo, 
weren delt ^ane in werlde ^o. 
Babel, ^at tur, bi-lef un-mad, 

672 ^at folc if wide on lon[de] fad; 

Nembrot nam wi^ ftreng^he ^at lond, 
And helde HSe tor o babel in hif bond. 

Beluf king waf nembrot func, 
w, w Nilns bif fune gan ille wune ; 

Belus wur% dead, and nilus king 
Made likeneile, for muni[n]g, 
After hif fader, and he fo dedo, 

680 He it fetten on an mine ftede ; 
Eumlc man he gaf lif and fri^ 
^at to ^at likenefle fogte gri^ ; 
for ^at M^ ^at [gaf] hem ^e king, 

684 He boren ^at liknefle wur^ing, 
Calden it bel, after belum ; 
After ^is cam fwilo o^er fum, 
Manie man, if frend for to munen, 

688 Made liknefle after %e wunen, 
Bel was ^e ftrfte, and after him 
Sum higte belaud, fum balim. 
And fum bel, and fum bal ; 

692 fendes flei^ing wex wi^-al, 
To wenden men fro godes reed, 
To newe luue and to newe dred ; 
Ydolatrie ^uf waf boren, 

696 for qtiuam mani man if for-loren. 

^f fem, and of ^e folc ^e of him cam, 
luue and dred under gode nam ; 
Of ^is kinge wil we leden fong, 

700 Cristes helpfe be us amonge ! 






Noe, fern, arfaxath, fale, 

Heber, phaleth, %e fexte il* he, 

Reu, iaruch, nachor, thare, 
704 ^if if ^e tende fro noe. 

^is o^er werldes elde if fo, 

A Anient ger feuenti and two. 

^e ^ridde werldef elde cam, 
708 Quanne thare bi-gat abram ; 

for he bi-gat a fane aram, 

Kachor midleft, lafl abr<nn ; 

Aram bi-gat loth, and farray, 
712 And mcleham, and waf fort leni. 

In lond caldea, hur hicte %e tun, 

Qttor deades fbrenge warp him dun ; 

^or fader, and bre^ere, and childre, and wif, 
716 Him bi-ftoden wi^ forwes ftrif ; 

^o %ogte thare on hif mod, 

long bigging if here nogt god. 

Kachor he gaf wif melcam, 
720 And trewe (array abram. 

QtMnne abram wur% wif and war 

^at farray non childre ne bar, 

He toe him loth on funes ftede ; 
724 He waf hife neve, wol wel he dede. 

Thare let bur, and %o%cn he nam, 

And wnlde to lond canahan, 

Cam into a burgt %at het aram, 
728 In londe mefopothaniam. 

Wi% him ledde he nachor, melcam, 

Sarray, loth, and abram. 

Tho* hundred ger and fifue mo, 
732 Thare waf old, ftarf he ^o. 

Teref gliden for heitef for 

fro loth, and abram, and nachor ; 

Thare li^ biried in aram. 
736 Ood feide wurd to abram :«— 

The family of 

[Fol. 146.] 

The third Ag« of 
the world began 
when Terah oe- 
gat Abram. 

Haranbeffflt Lot 
and Saruh and 

They dwelt in Ur 
of the Chaldcea. 

Much strife wai 
there between 
fiither and bro- 
ther, children 
and wife. 

Terah did not 
care to remain 
long in this town. 

Abram having no 
children adopted 
Lot as his son. 

Terah left Ur and 
came to Ilaran in 

With him he took 
his sons and 

[UWO?] [FoLlS.] 

Terah died when 
he was two hun- 
dred and fire 
years old. 

Ho lies buried 



Qod then com- 
manded Abram 
to leaT« Haran. 

Bo departed, 
taking with him 

First he came to 

and afterwards 
Are cities of the 

wherenow stands 
the Dead Sea. 

The cities were 
destroyed for 
man's sin. 

[Fol. IW.] 

Abram raised an 
altar between 
Bethel and Ai. 

Damascns was 
the third place 
where Abram 

Famine drote 
him to Egypt. 

To ssTe his life 
he said that Sarah 
was his sister. 

Sarai was fair 
and Egypt's folk 
were lecherous. 

Soon was Sarai 
taken firom 

** Abram, ^u fare ufof lond and kin 
To a lond ic ^e fal bringen bin." 
Sex ger and fiftene mo, 

740 Adde Abram on if elde ^o. 
Abram tok loth wi^ fairay, 
Hife agte, and erue he ledde him bi, 
For in to lond cananeam, 

744 And iit-to fichem, a burgt, he nam, 
And ^e^en he nam to mine dale ; 
fif burgef wer %or-inne bi tale, 
^er-fore it higte pentapolis, 

748 Of weledef » fulfum and of blii; 
Nov ill a water of lo^lic ble. 
Men calli^ it ^e dede fe ; 
lie ^ing deie^ ^or-inne if driuen ; 

762 Ne may no fif ^or-inne liuen ; 
for mannes finne ^us it if went, 
brent wi% brimfir, funken and ihent. 
God qt<ad to abraw, " al ^if lond 

756 fal cumen i» to if kinnef bond." 
^or god him taunede, made habram 
An alter, and fro %e^en he nam. 
An o^er alter abram feli 

760 Made bi-twen betel and ai. 
At damafke if ^e ^ridde ftede, 
Quer abram if bigging dede. 
And %eden for he, for hunger bond, 

764 feger ut in to egipte lond ; 
%or he feide %at iarrai 
waf hif filler, al for-^i 
for he dredde him to leten il lif 

768 If he wiilen ghe wore if wif ; 
for ghe waf fair witter-like. 
And %at folc luuede lecherlike. 
Quan abram was to egipte cumen, 

772 Sone him wai iarrai binumen ; 

[> veddes }] 


Sone him waf farraj bi-lagt^ 
And ^pharaon %e kinge bi-tagt ; 
God fente on him fekeneffe & care, 

776 And lettede al his lecher-fare. 
Sarraj liuede in clene lif, 
And %e king ^holede forges flrif 
Til he wifte al «at ftrif 

780 Cam him on for abrom wif ; 
^0 fente he after abram, 
And bi-tagte he him if leman. 
And gaf him lond, and agte, and fe, 

784 And leue, ^or qwiles his wille be, 
To wane egipte folc among, 
And fri^en him wel fro euerHc wrong, 
Bad him to god hif erdne beren, 

788 %at ywel him fulde nunmor deren. 

^or wunede abram in wel^e and in fri^, 
Egipte derkes woren him wi^, 
And hem lerede, witt^like, 

792 Ailronomige and arfmctikc ; 

He was hem lef, he woren him hold. 
God gaf him ^or filuer and gold, 
And hird, and orf, and frud, and fat, 

796 Vn-achteled wel^e he >5or bi-gat. 
Vt of egipte, riche man, 
Wente abram in to lond canaan ; 
And loth hife ncue and farray 

800 bileften bi-twen betel and ay, 
^or he qialum her wiflen wunen, 
Or he weren to egipte cumen. 
So wez here erue, and fo gan %en 

804 An twen here hirdef Ihiuing gan ben ; 
Loth him chef, hi leue of abram, 
Vat herVe hende %e flum iurdan ; 

Abnun, and 
brouirbt to klnff 

Ood plagued the 
king with aick- 

Pharaoh at laat 
became aware 
that all thia strife 
was on aooount 

to her hoaband. 

[Ptol. 18.] 

and gaTe Abram 

land and oattle. 

In Egjpt the pa- 
triarch abode in 

Egypt'a clerks 
held him in high 

Ood greatlj in- 
creased hia 

Out of Egypt 
Abram went to 
Canaan, and 
abode between 
Bethel and Ai. 

Strife aroae be- 
tween Abram 
and Lot's herds- 

Lot, by leare of 
his uncle, chose 
the pUlna of the 

^ uf in MS. But the w is jiut like p. 



Jordan for his 
dwelling pUoe. 

[Fol. 16fc.] 

Abram dwelt 
in Mamre-dale, 
towards Ebron. 

This city is called 
Kixjatbarba, u*. 
tour cities. 

Four lie buried 


There was laid 

Adam and Ere, 

Abram and 

Sarah, Jacob and 


Mamre, Eschol, 
and Aner were 
sworn brothers 
with Abram. 

Ood promised 
that Abram*s 
seed should pos- 
sess the land 
wherein he was 
a stranger. 

Then was pride 
widely spread, 
and desire of 

Nearly every city 
had its ruler. 

[Fol. 17.] 

The flte cities of 
Pentapolis, ruled 
over by their own 


In mine dale hil'e bigginge he ches, 
808 ^at he fi^en twie for-les. 

Abram let loth in wel^e and wale, 
And ferde a-wei to mambre dale ; 

^or wunede abram henden ebron, 
812 ^at burge an o^er man li^ on, 

It atte^ cariatharbe, 

On engle fpeche fowre cite ; 

fowre arbe cariatht am in, 
816 for ^at fowre biried ^or ben ; 

^or waf leid adam and eua, 

Abram fi^en and farra ; 

^or yfaac and rebecca, 
820 And iacob and hife wif lia. 

[Ambre, wi^ excel and anel, 
%or Inneden Abram ful wel ; 

He woren bre^ere of kinde boren, 
824 And abram woren ho bre^re fworen. 

Qttor abram wunede, ^or wex bi 

An ok' 'Sat waf of gibi, 

^er hot god abre ^at tagte lend 
828 Sal cnmen al in hif kinnef bond, 

And ell and weft, and fu^ and nor^ ; 

Al ^at god wile fal wel gon for^. 

Bo worsen waxen To wide and fpred, 
w^- pride and gifcinge of lou^-hed ; 

Neg ilc burge hadde ife lou^eding, 
Sum waf king, and fum kumeling ; 
Sum waf wi^ migte^ fo for^ gon, 
836 %at hadden he imder hem mani on. 

Fburges of pentapolif, 
Adama, bala, Scboyf, 
And fodoma wi^ gomorra, 
840 ^e kinges welten burges ^oa, 

^ The MS. ha« migt; but migte is at the bottom of p. 166 in the catchwortb— Sa 
waf wi'8 migte. 



On-kumen was cadalamor, 

king of elam, wi% feiding (lor ; 

.zij. ger he weren under if bond, 
844 And gouen him gouel of here lond ; 

.xiij. ger gan fo for% gon 

wnlde he giuen him gouel non ; 

%re kinges haucd he wi% him brogt, 
848 wi% here-gonge hife gouel fogt ; 

He ben cumen to mirie dole, 

An %ere he werken fcka^e and bale ; 

fowre on-feken and fifue weren, 
852 Oo ^e fowre ^e flue deren ; 

wundcd %or waf gret folc and Hagen, 

^e fifwe flen, ^e fowre ben fagen ; 

%e fifwe up to %e dunes flen, 
866 ^e fowre in to ^e tunef ten ; 

wifwes, and childre, and agto, and fmd, 

He ledden a-wei wi^ herte prud. 

Loth and if agte, childre and wif, 
860 ben led a-wei bunden wi^ flrif ; 

00 on of hem, ^e flogen a^wei 

Told it abram %at ilkc dcai. 

^re hundred men and .xiij. wigt, 
864 Alle ftalwur^i and witter of figt, 

wi% mambre, and excel, and ancl, 

Abram let him tunde wel ; 

%at bird he folgcd^ alf to >San, [i folgel in MS.] 
868 On heued-welle of flum iordan, 

%or he wenden ben iikcr on nigt ; 

Abram ho brogte wel newe figt. 

He woren drunken and flepi, 
872 Abram' folc made hem dredi ; 

fo beg, fo long, ne fpared hem nogt, 

Alle he ben ^or to gronde brogt, 

were eonaoered 
by CliedoriAo- 
mer, and paid 
him tribate. 
Twtlrt yan 
th«T wen ondar 

In the thirtMOth 
they rebelled. 

and other three 
kinfcn made war 
npon the cities. 

Mnoh aoirow 
they wrought. 
The four kinff 
eonqnered the 

The Are floe to 
the hilU, and tha 
four to the ten 

They led away 
with them Lot, 
hie goods, chil- 
dren, and wife. 

[Pol. 176.] 

Bat one eacaped 
and told Abram. 
who armed SIS 
Bued the enemy. 

Abram found 
them drunk and 

He brought them 
all to ground. 

> An if is inserted by a lattr hand. 



He punned them 
tinto Hoba, near 

Maeh spoil he 

AU this he did 
for lore of Lot. 

[Fol. 18.] 
The kinir of 
Sodom went ont 
to meet Abram. 

bronght him 
bread and wine. 

Abram ga^e him 
a tenth of the 

Melohisedek was 
both priest and 

None knew from 

what fiunily he 


Borne said that 

this king of Salem 


who lired until 
the birth of Isaac. 

The kingof 
Sodom oflDsred 
Abram the 

wi^-^uten ^o, ^e cuden flen ; 
876 get ne migten he fiker ben, 

for magnie of ^o woren ou^-taken, 

Abram cade hem to forwe maken. 

Henden damafk, til burgt oba^ 
880 Abram hem folwede and wrogte wda ; 

wifes, and childre, and frud, and fat, 

He brogte agen and mikel he bat ; 

And tol, and takel, and orf, he dede 
884 wenden horn to here ogen (lede, 

for lotef luue fel hem ^uf rigt, 

Borwen he ben wel of ^at figt. 

Sodomes king in kinge dale, 
888 Mette abram wi^ feres wale, 

In ^e weie ^e ligi^ to falem, 

^e fi^en if cald ierufalem. 

Melchifedech, falamef king, 
892 dede abr«m ^or mikel wur^ing ; 

He fro^er[ed]e him, after if fwinc, 

wi^ bredef fode and wines drinc ; 

Habram gaf him %e tig^e del 
896 Of alle if bigete, and dede ^or wel, 

And blifcede dor* godef migt, 

^at bargt abram wel of ^at figt ; 

for he waf bo^en king and prefl, 
900 of elde moft, of wit hegest ; 

wille no man of werl^e ^o, 

Quat kinde he waf kumen fro ; 

Oc fumme feiden %at it waf fem, 
904 %if pr^ and king of lalem, 

or or ^e flod waf long bi-fom 

of noe bi-geten, of ' if wif bom, 

And fro fo longe ^or bi-foren 
908 Liuede til yfaac waf boren. 

^odomes king bed dor' abram 
AI agte and erf, wi%-uten man. 

[» -Sor?] 


[> MS. of.j 





Alle hef hadde wi% migte bi-geten, 
912 wolde he nogt hiw hif fwinc for-geten, 
oc abrom dede %or me^elike wel, 
wid-held he ^or-of neu[^]e on del, 
oc al %at eu^re fel him to, 

916 Sac-les he let hin welden it fo. 
Ebmif feigen, wiine hem wez her 
To algen ilk fifbene ger, 
for loth waf fifti winter hold, 

920 Qnan abrom him bi-told. 

bel primicef firfl bi-gan, 
And decimas first abram ; 
Na ifi fo boden and fo bitagt, 

924 Quo-fo hif alt him bi agt. 

After ^if fpac god to abram : — 
'^ %in berg and tin werger ic ham. 
^in fwinc ^e fel ben gulden wel, 

928 wid michel wel^e in good fel." 

Quad he, " qwat fel me wel^es ware, 
Qwane ic child-lef of werlde fare ; 
Damak eliezeref fune, 

932 In al min wel^e fel he wunen ?" 
Qtmt god, '^ fo fal it nogt ben. 
Of «e felf fal ^in erward ten." 
Abram leuede ^if hot in fped, 

936 dat waf him to rigt-wifhed. 
^re der he toe, ilc ^re ger hold, 
And fecrede god on an wold ; 
of godef bode he nam god kep, 

940 A net, and a got, and a fep ; 
Eudrilc of ^efe he delte on two, 
And let hem lin on funder fo, 
Vndelt hef leide q«or-fo hef tok ; 

944 And %or a duue and a turtul ok. 
Sat up on-rum til heuene he tok. 
And of ^0 doles kep he nam 

goodf and oattl« 
taken Aram tta« 

MPol. IW.] 
The patrUreb 
would Moept of 

Then tint befan 
the cottom of 
keeping the 15th 
year holy. 

Abel first began 

Abram tithea. 

After this Ood 
■pake to Abram, 

"I am thT safety 
and thy defence, 
thy toQ shaU be 

Quoth Abram, 
**What atails 
wealth, seeing 
that I am child- 

and that Eliexer's 
son shall inherit 
my wealth." 

Qod said. "Of 
thyself shall 
thine heir come." 

Abram took 
three deer each 
three years old 
and offered ihem 
as a sacrifice. 
[Fol. 19.] 

An heifer, a goat, 
and a sheep he 
took, and divided 
them in two and 
set them apart. 

The doTc and the 
turtle he ditided 



Graedj fowls feU 
upon th« <mr« 

Abram drove 
them away. 
Then came on 
him fear and 
A great and 
glide down be- 
tween the pieces. 
In a dream God 
showed Abram 
the tatan con- 
dition of his de- 

Canaan is pn^ 
mised as his in-* 

Then knew 
Abram much 
to eome than ha 
erer knew before. 

Sarah behig bar- 
ren, gires aagar 
to Abram. 

[Fol. 196.) 

Bagar haTfng 
eonceiTed, d^ 
spised her mia> 

Sand afflicts her 

Hagar flees fhmi 
Sarai into the 

An angel com- 
mands her to 
return and be 
baxom to her 

He tells her of 
her child. 

Oredi foueles fellen ^ar-on, 

948 %at %ogte abram wel iwel don, 
kagte if wei, quan it waf nigt, 
%o cam on bim vgging and frigt ; 
A michel fier he fag, and an brigt, 

962 gliden ^or twen ^o doles rigt. 
God feide him %or a fo^e drem 
%e idminge of if beren-tem, 
And hu he fulde in pine ben, * 

966 And nten erdes forge fen ; 

fowre hundred ger fulden ben gon, 
Hor he fulden wel cumen a-gon, 
DC fi^en fulde in here bond, 

960 bi-cumen %at hotene lond. 

^0 wide abram wel michel mor 
Quat waf to cumen %an he wifle or. 

Si^en bi-fel ^at farrai, 
— for ghe waf longe untuderi, 

Ohe bitagte abre maiden agar ; 

Ghe wur^ wi^ childe and hem two bar ; 

for^ ii^en ghe bi abram flep, 
968 Of hire leuedi nam ghe no kep ; 

And farrai wuldet nogt ^olen 

^at agar wore ^uf to-bolen ; 

Ghe held hire hard in ^rallef wune, 
972 And dede hire forge and anger mune ; 

^0 fleg agar fro farray, 

wimman wi% childe, one and fori, 

In ^e diferd, wil and wen, 
976 And an angel cam %or hire bi, 

wifte hire drogen fori for ^riil. 

At a welle qu^mede hire lift, 

And bad hire fone wenden agen, 
980 And to hire leuedi buxum ben ; 

And feide ghe fulde funen wel 

And timen, and depen it fmael,^ 
^ A metrical licence for 'Mfmael." 



And he falde ben man migti, 
984 And of him knmen folc frigti ; 

Ohe wente agen, and bar %at child, 
And abram wur% wi% hire milde. 
Izzz. gere and fexe mo 
988 Hadde abrom on hif elde ^o, 
And .xiii. ger %or after told, 
ix. and nigneii ger he waf old, 
QiAianne him cam bode in funder run, 
992 fro gode of circumcicioun. 

HiB name ^o wur^ a lettre mor, 
Hif winef lefle ^an it wafer, 
for %o wnrd abram abraham, 
996 And iarray farra bi-cam ; 

And al ^at eu^re HSe lou^red bad, 

dede abraham redi and rad. 

He him felf wnr>5 ^anne circuwcif, 

1000 And yfmael hif fune iwif ; 

And of if bird eu^rilc wapman 
wur^ circnmcif, al-fo he it bi-gan, 
Qtmo ne bar %anne if merk him on 

1004 fro godes folc fulde he be don. 
Ji^en, in ^e dale of mambre, 
fag abraham figures %re, 
Sondes femlike kmnen fro gode ; 

1008 Abraham he broghten wel bli^e bode. 
Abraham he[m] ran wel fwi^e agon, 
And of ^e ^re he wur^ede ^e ton, 
^e god him dode in hcrte fen, 

1012 ^e waf wur^i warded to ben ; 
bred, kalnef fleif, and flures bred, 
And buttere, hem ^o sondes bed ; 
for ^at he bad wi^ herte fre, 

1016 He it nomeu in charite j 

So malt ^at mete in hem to nogt, 
So a watref drope in a fier brogt. 


Hanr retonu, 
and Ishnutel it 

Abram was then 
foarwore and tix 
yean old. 

When Abram 
was ninetj-nlne 
[Fol. 20.] 
years old God 

changed his name 
to Abraham. 

8arai*8 name is 
also changed to 

Circumcision is 

Whoso bore not 
this mark upon 
him was to be cut 
off from God's 

Afterwards in the 
dale of Manure 
Abraham saw 
figures three, 
seemly messen- 
gers from God. 

Abraham enter- 
tains the angels. 

He set before 
them calves flesh, 
bread and flour 
and butter. 
What he offered 
with a free heart 
his guests took 
in charity, 
FFol. 206.] 
though it was but 
as a drop of water 
in a Are. 



AtarthAin b pro- 

Bwmh hMTd the 
words of the 

She did not be- 
liere them. 

Ahnham, how- 
erer, trowed it 
foil welL 

Then the three 
went towards 

The destniotion 
of Sodom is re- 
Tealed to Abra- 

He is in great 
grief on acoonnt 
of Lot. 

He intercedes for 
the wicked dties. 

[Fol. 2L] 

Qod promises to 
spare the dties 
for the sake of 
flTt righteous. 

Abraham departs 
sore at heart. 

At §▼•& two SB- 

cals earns to 

Lot lat at tha 
dtf's cats, and 

Abraham flod and qt^amede hem wel, 
1020 Hif good wil was hem good mel. 

Qtmad ^if on, ** ^iC time o^er ger, 

Sal io me to %e taonen her ; 

Bi %an fal farra fel^e timen, 
1024 %at ge fal of a fane trimen." 

^anne herde farra fwilc tiding, 

And it hire %ogte a felli %hing, 

for ghe waf nigenti winter hold, 
1028 Abraham on wane of an hnndred told ; 

Ghe glente and ^hogte, migte it nogt ben, 

And ghe %at fulde her wi% childe be fen ; 

And Abraham trewid it ful wel, 
1032 And it wnr^ fo^ binnen fwilc fel. 

rmambre dale wente ^o ^re, 
to- ward fodome geden he ; 

Quad ^e lou^red, " wile ic nogt flelon, 
1036 Ne min dede abraham helen ; 

Ic cume to fen %at finne dwale 

^at if me told of mirief dale." 

^0 adde abram if herte for, 
1040 for loth hif newe wunede ^or. 

*' Lou^," qwad he, ** hu faltu don, 

If ^u fait nimen wreche ^or-on ; 

Salt ^u nogt ^e rigt-wife weren, 
1044 Or for hem ^e to'Sere me^ beren?" 

Qtiad god, '' find ic %or ten or mo, 

Io fal me^en ^e flede for ^o." 

Dorfle Abraham freinen nnnmor, 
1048 Oc wente agen wi% herte for ; 

And god at- wot in-to hife ligt, 

^0 to gon to fodome rigt. 

Sonne if wefl under er^ nomen, 
1052 Qimaiine he ben to fodome cnmen ; 

Get fat loth at >Se burges gate. 

After fum gefle fh>d him quake ;^ [i qoate ?1 



He rofy and lutte, and fcro% him wel, 

1056 And bead hem horn to ifoilel 
To herbergen wi% him ^at nigt, 
%o fwete angeles, faier and brigt ; 
And he fo deden alf he hem bead, 

1060 He wiflen him bergen fro %e dead ; 
And loth hem ferued faire and wel, 
And he him golden it eumlc del. 
Oc al *at burgt folc ^at helde waf on, 

1064 %e migte lecher crafte don, 

To lothes hnf he cumen ^at nigt 
And bi-fetten it redi to figt ; 
He boden him bringen ut o-non, 

1068 %o men %at woren %idir in-gon. 
Loth hem bead if dogtres two, 
for to fri^en hifo gefte fwo ; 
Oc he ne wulden hif dogtres nogt, 

1072 for wicke and feble waf here ^ogt. 
^at folc vn-feli, finne wod, 
^0 fori wrecches of yuel blod 
wnlden him ^or gret ftreng^e don, 

1076 Til wreche and letting cam hem on. 
^is angels two drogen loth in, 
And fhetten to %e dure-pin. 
Wil fi^en cam on eu^c on, 

1080 ^0 wrecches ^e wi^-vten gon, 
for al %at nigt he fogtcn %or 
^e dure, and fimdend neu^e mor. 
^0 feiden ^if angeles to loth wi^ fped, 

1084 If %n &end hauefl and wit^ don red. 
Bid him, or day, redi ben, 
And fwi^e ut ^if burgef flen, 
elles fulen he brennen and for-faren, 

1088 If he ne bi time he%e[n] waren. 

Two >Sor werren quam him ^ogte ear 
To wedden hif two dogtres XSear ;• 

h* InrlUd thm 
to hif hooM to 
■tay with him 
thftt night. 

Lot Mr?«d hif 
guests fkir and 


Tht wicked So- 
domitct hetet 
Lot's hoiue. 

They hade him 
hring ont the 

[FoL 216.] 

Lot offered them 

his daughters. 

The wioked folk 
sought to harm 

The angels drew 
Lot in. 

Blindness came 
upon the Sodom- 

and they sought 
the door in tsui. 

n wiU )1 Lot is oommand- 
L Wilt • J ed to leare the 
dty with his 
Mends before 

[> dett?] 



Lot warned his 
eoBB-in-Uw in 

The angels led 
Lot and his 
family out of 

[Fol. 22.] 
and bade them 
torn not back. 

Lot thought the 
way to ^e hilla 
hard and strong. 

he might dwell 
in degor. 

This city was safe 
while Lot abode 

when he left it, 
it was destroyed. 

Sodom was des- 
troyed by fire. 

for sin and "on- 
kind deeds.** 

Lot's wife tnmed 
back, and** went 
into a stone.*' 

Thus u this 
"merry dale" 
turned into a 
swarthy lake. 

Kothing may Uts 

Loth hem wamede, wiilike and wel, 
1092 Oc he ne troweden him neu^e a del. 

On morgen quan day cam hem to. 

Loth and hif dogtres two 

Ledden ^if angeles ut in fel, 
1096 And boden hem and tagten wel, 

%at here non wente agen, 

for non %hing he migte fen. 

Loth waf wanfum, and ^ugte long 
1100 vp to ^0 dunes ^e weie hard and ftrong; 
, " Loutfrd," qttat he, " gunde und^ dun, 

mot hie ben borgen in ^at tun ! ^ 

^0 angeles feiden, " we fulen it fren, 
1104 ^or quile ^u wilt ^or-inne ben ; 

Ai waf borgen bala-fegor 

^or q«ile ^at loth dwelledde ^or ; 

Oc ii^en loth wente ut of hine, 
1108 brende it thunder, fane it er^-dine. 

Sone fo loth ut of fodome cam, 

brend-fier-rein ^e burge bi-nam ; 

fiardere wreche ^or waf cumen 
1112 %an ear was vnder flode numcn ; 

for men %or iinne un-kinde deden, 

fo for-fanc and brente ^at fteden ; 

So bitter-like if it for-don, 
1116 Ne mai non dain waflcn ^or-on ; 

So for-fanc ^at folc iinful ^or, 

fwilc finful iinne wex ^er nunmor. 

©0 lotes wif wente hire a-gon, 
--^^ Sone ghe ftod, wente in to a fton; 

So ill nu forwent mirie dale 
In to dririhed and in to bale, 
^e fwarte flum, ^e dede fe, 
1124 Non fif, non fuel ^or-inne mai be. 
^at water if fo deades driuen, 
Non <ing ne mai H5or-inne liuen ; 



Men fei^ >Se treen ^at ^or henden beii 
1128 Waxen in time, and brimen, and *en, 

Oc quanc here apples ripe ben, 

fier-ifles man mai %or-inne fen ; 

%at erd if oton faltes dale, 
1132 Maniman %or-of holdet litcl tale. 

Loth wuned litel in fogor, 
for he dredde him for to forfarc %or ; 

Wi^ hife two dowtres ut he teg, 
1 136 And for dred to %o dunes he fleg ; 

And ^or he biggede in a caue[n], 

^e waf ^or in roche grauen. 

>So meidenes herden quHum feieu, 
1140 ^at fier fulde al ^is werld forfwe^en, 

And wenden wel ^at it were cumcn, 

And fieref wreche on world nunien, 

And >Sat man-kindc wore ul for-lon'u 
1144 but of hem ^re wore man boreu. 

^is maidenes redden fone* on-on 

[' M.S. 

Quat hem two wore beft to don, 

Hu he migten vnder-gon 
1 148 Here fader, ^at he ne' wore ^or gon ; [- MS 

Wi^ winef drinc he wenten if 'Shogt, 

So ^at he haue^ 'Se dede wrogt. 

And on ei^Ser here a kuaue bi-geten, 
1 152 >Sif ne mai nogt ben for-geten. 

^if maidenes deden it in god dhogt,* [» 6ugt.] 

^e fader oc drunken ne wide he it nogt. 

>Se firfle him bar moab %at fune, 
1156 Of him be^ folc, [in] moab it wune ; 

%e leiTe him bar a fuire amon, 

Amonit folces fader on. 

Fbi-oue^ uf to wenden a-gen, 
And of abraham fong under-gon. 

Abraham up on morgen flod, 
Wi^ reuli lote and frigti mod ; 

produce applet, 

which contain 
adhct only. 

Ix>t soon left 

For four hv flvA 
to the hillH, and 
dwi'lt in a cavr. 

I^t*H dauRhtcn> 
thoufcht all man- 
kind had |)criKb- 
ed, and that, iin- 
lemt thuy had 
children, the 
worhl would 
romv to an i-nd. 

fono 1 ^^*^y t:»»'*ultcd 
'■* M to what wa*i 
bc«t to be done. 

[Kol. 23.] 

henc] J^rr °»fde Jh''" 
-* father drunk ao 
that he wroutrhl 
the deed, and 
each betrot a 

Tbt first bore 
Moab, the other 

Now turn we tj 

On the morrow 
he looked toward 




and saw that the 
city had been 

For sorrow he left 
Maxnre'B dale, 

and went and 
abode in Gerar. 

There he said 
Sarah was his 

TFol. 2».] 
AbimGiech took 
her to wife. 

fen on 
him and on his 

The cause of this 
eril was made 
known to him in 
a dream. 

He sent back 

his wife and 
others bore chil- 

and the qninsr 
no more troubled 

gsTe to Sarah. 

The birth of 

To-ward fodome he fag ^e roke 
1 164 And %e brinfires ftinkcn^ fmoke, [i for ftink«iide?] 
And wcnte a-wei fro mambre dale, 
So fore him reu of ^at bale. 
Su^cn he wente & wunede in geraris, 
1168 bi-twen cade and vr, y-wis; 
^or he feide eft, for luue of lif, 
^at filler wore farra his wif. 
Qwiluw of er *pharraon hire toe, [» af ? • MS. w.] 
1172 Ku take^ abimalech hire oc; 

Sene it was ^at ghe waf fair wif, 
Quan ghe waf luued in fo long lif. 
Abimalech wur^ fek on-on, 
1 176 And o^er wreche if folc cam on ; 
Kogt wif-kinnes non bir^e ne nam, 
^or qtdles he ^or wi^-hel^ faram. 
On dreme him cam tiding for-qiiat 
1 180 He ^rowedo and ^olede un-timing ^at ; 
Al it waf for abraham-if wif, 
^at he hire held ^or wi^ ftrif ; 
^0 bi-^hogte him ful wel, 
1 1 84 And fente after abraham %at ilc fel, 
And bi-tagte him hif wif a-non. 
And hif yuel fort* waf ouer-gon. [* fort in MS.] 
His wif and o^cre bir^e beren, 
1 188 ^a ^e fwinacie gan him nunmor deren. 
Abimalech gaf abraham 
Gold, and filuer, and lend for-^an ; 
A ^hufant plates of filu^ god 
1192 Gaf he farra ^at faire blod, 

Bad hire ^or hir wi^ heuod ben hid, 
for fwilc timing was hire bi-tid. 

Bo wuldc god bi fowcn fo 
. . ^^ of olde abrahawi and o farra fo. 

Ghe wurd wi^ child, on elde wac, 
And trimedo and cleped it yfaao. 



%e egtende dai %at he waf boren, 
1200 Circumcifed he waf, a-buten fchoren ; 

%or-of holden %e ieuwes lay, 

Circumcifed on %e egtende day. 

Arabit folo of yfmael, 
1204 After him don he it al fwilk fel, 

Qttane he .ziii. ger ben old ; 

Of yfmael here time if told. 

Bre ger woren ylaac on, 
Quane he waf fro tcding don ; 
Michel geftninge made abraham 
Quane he %at fane to borde nam. 
Wintres for^ wexen on yfaac, 

1212 And yfmael waf him yn-fwac ; 
Of-ten it gan yfaac an-&amen. 
And yfmael plcido hard gamen ; 
Sarra waf >Sor-fore often wro^S, 

1216 Hir waf yfmaeles anger lo% ; 
Ghe bi-mente hire to abraham, 
And fumdel ligtlike he it nam 
Til god him bad if wiues tale 

1220 Liflen, and don a-wei %at dwale. 
Abraham rapedo him fone in fped 
for to f nlfillen godef reed ; 
He flemede agar and yfmael 

1224 In fomertid, In egefl fel; 

Bred, and a fetles wi^ water fild, 
Bar agar wi^ hire and wi^ ^o child ; 
Bi ^0 defert a-wei che nam, 

1228 In ard wcie and hete gram ; 

Wi^ fwinc and hete hem wexon ^rift, 
^ water fleckede ^e childef lift ; 
Tid-like hem gan %at wat^ laken, 

1232 %o gan agaref forwc waken ; 

Wantede ^it child faiemcfle and migt, 
Hif moder war% neg dead for Mgt. 

[Fol. 14.] 

He was cireom- 
eis<Kl OD the 
dghth day, 

which custom the 
Jews follow. 

vnien Isaac waa 
throG yean old 
Abraham made a 
great feast. 

Iithmaol often 
mocked Isaac, 

which caased 
Sarah to be Tcrj 

She complains to 

Abraham ban- 
ishes Ilagar and 
her ion. 

[Fol. 24b.] 

By the desert 
they took their 

They became 
vcr)' thirsty. 

The water in the 
bottle 1 



Uagar placed her 
child under a 

and sat as far as 
a bow-shot off. 

She thought it 
could not re- 

An angel showed 
her a well-spring, 

and she gare the 
lad drink and 

Forth they went 
and dwelt in 

Ishmael married 
an Egyptian 

[Fol. 25.] 
Twelve sons he 
had, of whom 
sprang great na- 

In Arabia they 

Kedar gave name 
to a kingdom. 

From Dumah 
came the king- 
dom of Dirima. 

Teman gets its 
name AromTema. 

Abimelech makes 
a covenant with 

Ghe leide ^e child under a tre, 
1236 far %e%en ghe gede, fo it gan be, 

%e child ne mai ghe for forge fen ; 

Bi al-fo fer fb a boge mai ten, 

%or fat hif moder in iik and for, 
1240 vende ghe it cou^ren neu^re mor. 

Goddef merci dede hire reed, 

An angel me^ede hire ^at ned, 

Tagte hire ^or a welle fpring, 
1244 ^at waf hire ^or feli timing ; 

%or ghe gan fremen yimael 

Wi^ watref drinc and bredef mel, 

filt hire fetelef, and nam fro %an 
1248 toT^ to ^e defert of *pharan ; [» w MS.] 

^or wunede yfmael and agar. 

Ghe chef him a wif ^e childre bar ; 

.xii. funef he auede bi hif wif, 
1252 Of him cam kinde mikil and rif. 

Nabachot waf hif firft fune, 

In arable hif kinde wune 

fro ^e riche flod eufrate, 
1256 Wid and fer to ^e rede fo ; 

Of hif o^er fune cedar, 

A ku[n]griche hif name bar; 

And of duma hif fcxte fune, 
1260 A ku[n]gdom dirima %u mune; 

Hif .ix. waf tema for-^an, 

If %or a ku[n]glond teman ; 

And .xii. of %e cedima, 
1264 Het a guglond' eflen fro %a. [* ? kunglond.] 

Femd waf agar and yfmael, 
and yfaac wex and ^ehg wol wel. 
Abimalcch fag abraham, 
1268 Hu wel^e him wex and migte cam, 
He bad him maken fiker pligt 
Of luue and trew^e in frendef rigt, 




%at ne falde him nogwcr dercn, 

1272 Oc him and hife hclpen and weren ; 
He gaf him a welle and a lond fre, 
Abraham it depede berfabe ; 
%or ben he bo^en fercn pligt, 

1276 ^at here nei^er fal don o^er un-rigt. 
Abraham gan %or longo ben, 
And tillede com and fettc treen, 
^og [it] waf nogt if kindo lond; 

1280 Eichere he it leet %an he it fond, 
[ff iofephuB ne lege% mo, 

%or qtdlcs he wunede in berfabe, 
fo waf yfaacef eld told 

1284 XX. and five winter old; 

^0 herde abrahaw fteuene fro gode, 
Newe tiding, and felku^ bodo : — 
** Tac ^in fune yfaac in bond, 

1288 And far wi^ him to li^hingcf lond, 
And %or %u fait him offrcn me 
On an hil ^or ic fal taunen ^c." 
fro berfabe iumef two 

1292 Waf 'iSat lond *at he bed him two ; 
And morie, men fei^, waf ^at hil, 
^at god him tawne[de] in his wil ; . 
Men fei^ ^at dune-if ii^en on 

1296 Was mad temple falamon. 

And ^e autcr mad on ^at ftede 
^br abraham he^ ofirande dcde, 
Abraham waf buxum o rigt, 

1 300 Hife weie he tok fono bi nigt ; 
^e ^ride day he fagt ^c ftcde 
^e god him witcn in herte dcde ; 
^an he cam dun to ^o dunef fot, 

1304 Non of hif men for^ere ne mot, 
But yfuac if dere childe. 
He bar ^e wude wi^ herte mild. 

and Rivet him 
the well of Beei^ 

[Fol. 256.] 

Abraham left the 
land much richer 
than he found it. 

When Isaac iraa 
twcnty-ftre yean 

Ood*s word came 
to Abraham,— 

"Take laaae thy 

and offer him on 
a hill that I shall 
■how thee." 

Moriah that hill 
was c died. 

Upon this hill 
was afterwards 
bnilt Solomon's 

[' «he.] 

Abraham was 
obedient to God's 

[Fol, 26.] 
He came to the 
hill and sent his 
servants away. 

Isaac bare the 



and Abraham the 
fire and the 

«« Where." qaotb 
Isaac, *'iti the of- 
fering that thou 
wilt make." 

Quoth Abraham, 
"God wiU pro- 
Tide the offer- 

In a wonderlU 
manner thoa 
earnest into the 
world, and so 
■halt thou depart 

m offering." 

God requires thee 

Isaac was ready 
to be sacrifloed. 

Isaac was placed 
upon the altar. 

Abraham drew 
out his sword to 
slay his son, but 
an angel forbad 
him to harm the 

[Fol. 26ft.] 

A ram is offered 
instead of Isaac. 

Ere Abraham de- 
parted God swore 
to him that his 
seed should in- 
herit the land. 



And abraham %e fier and %e fwerd bar ; 
1308 ^0 wnr^ ^e child wittw and war 

^at ^or fal offirende ben don, 

Oc ne wiilo he qwuat, ne qttor-on ; 

** fader," qu&^ he, "qwar fal ben taken 
1312 ^0 offirende ^at ^u wilt maken?" 

Qtiat abraham, " god fal bi-fen, 

Quor-of ^e ofrende fal ben ; 

Sellik ^u art on wer[l]de cnmen, 
Sellic ^u fait ben he^en numen ; 

Wi^-uten long throwing and figt, 

Gtod wile %e taken of werlde nigt, 

And of %e seluen holocanstam hauen, 
1320 ^anc it him ^at he it wnlde crauen." 

Yfaac waf redi mildelike, 

Quan ^at he it wide witt^like. 
Vc abraham it wulde wel 

qt«at-fo god bad, ^werted he it neu^ a del ; 

Yfaac waf leid ^at auter on, 

So men fulden holocaoH don ; 

And abraham ^at fwerd nt-drog, 
1328 And waf redi to flon him nuge,^ [> nog ?] 

Oc angel it him for-bed, 

And barg ^e child fro ^e dead ; 

^o wur^ abraham ftigti fagen, 
1332 for yfaac bi-leaf nn-flagen ; 

Bi-aften bak, af he nam kep, 

fade in ^omes he feg a fep, 

%at an angel %or-inne dede ; 
1336 It waf brent on yfaac ftede. 

And or abraham ^e^en for, 

God him^or bi him-feluen fwor 

%at he fal michil hif kinde maken, 
1340 And %at lond hem to honde taken ; 

Good fel^he fal him cnmen on, 

for he %if dede wulde don. 












He wente bli^e and fogen agcn. 
To bcrfabe ho gunnc teen, 
Sarra waf fagen in kindcs wnne, 
^at [hire] * bilcf ^at dero fune. 

Bor qMiles abraham wuncdc %or, 
Him cam good tiding of nachor, 
^at melca bar bim cgto funen ; 
Huf wof eldeft, if we rigt muuen. 
Rigt-wif iob cam of hif kin, 
Hub lond he waf riche wid-hin ;' 
Of buz, hif bro^eres kin, cam 
Bozites, Eliy, Balaam. 

Abraham, riche of wcl^e and wale, 
wente a-gen in to manbre dale ; 
Sarra %o Harf, an hundred gor old 
And fcuene and .xx. winter told. 

Abraham fente eliezcr 
to lond mefopotanie fur, 
To caram ^or il' fader lay, 
(Or he cam ^or waf manio day) 
To fechen yfaac hom a wif, 
Of hif kinde ^e ^or waf in lif. 
Ten kameles feme^* for^ ho nam, 
Wi^ michel fwinc he ^ider cam 
At a wello wi^-uten ^e tun ; 
^or he leide hife femes dun, 
%or he wulde him rcflen and ben. 
Sum good tiding heren or fen. 
"Loutfrd god," qwa^ he mildelike, 
*' min erdne ^u for^o fel^helike, 
%if dai me lene hire to fen, 
^at fal yfaaces Icman ben.'' 

He bad hife bede on good fel. 
Bebecca, bi-geten of batucl. 

Abraham want 
home JoyfUl and 

While at Beer- 
Bheba he heard 
good tidinga of 

IIuK wai Nahor*! 


Job came of hit 


[3 wi«-hin ?] 
P M, 

S. <'0b."lOf BoBcamethe 

fFol. 27.] 
Abraham went 
again to Mamre. 

Sarah died being 
127 years old. 

Abraham tent 
Eliezer to Meeo« 

to fetch a wife 
for Isaac. 

[* femes ?] Ten cameli he 
*■ •'took with him. 

Eliezer came to 
a well without 
the city. 

He there prayed 
to God to send 
him good speed. 

He offered his 
prayer in a good 

* MS. hire is written over in the later hand. 



Rebekah camo to 
that well, 

and she gave him 
and his camel 
water to drink. 

[Fol. 276.] 

Eliezer learned 
that she -was of 
the family of 

Thought he. thi* 
maiden will I 
have as a wife 
for Isaac. 

Ue gare her ear- 
rings and brace- 
lets of gold. 

Laban came to 
the well, invited 
him home, and 
entertained him 

Eliezer would not 
eat till he had 
told his errand ; 

how he had been 
sent by Abraham 
to seek a wife for 

[Fol. 28.] 

Laban and the 
mother were well 
pleased with the 

Of nachor bi-geten, of melca boren, 

Cam to ^at welle ^or him bi-foren, 

And him and ilc-on his kamel 
1380 Wi^ watres drinc ghe quemede wel. 

O^ere maidenes wi^ hire cumen, 

Ne wor nogt fo for^ ^euwe numen. 

Eliezer lerede ^or 
1384 ^at batuel cam of nachor ; 

Of batuel ^is maiden cam 

ghe waf for^ nifte of abraham ; 

^ogte he, ^if maiden wile ic hauen 
1388 And to min lou^rdes bofte bi-crauen; 

for kindes luue he waf hire hold, 

Wi^ beges and ringes bo^en of gold, 

Alkede here if ghe migte taken 
1392 Herberge for hire frendes lake[n]. 

Maiden rebecca ^anne ran, 
And kidd it* to hire broker laban, 

And laban cam to ^at welle ner, 
1306 faiger welcumede he ^er eliezer, 

And' fond good gri^ and good hostel, pAn«MS.] 

Him, and hife men, and hife kamel. 

Eliezer, or he wulde eten, 
1400 Wulde he nogt hife erdene for-geten ; 

Al he tolde hem fro qw^^en he cam, 

And for qwat erdene he ^ider nam ; 

Tolde hem tiding of abraham, 
1404 Quilc fel^e and wel^he him wel bi-cam, 

Sent he waf ^ider, for kinde wnne, 

After a wif to yfaac hif fune. 

feido he, ** rebecca wile ic hauen, 
1408 To yfac-if bi-offce wile ic crauen. 

Laban and hif moder wi^-^an 

fagnedcn wel ^if fondere man ; 

I kiddit MS. 












(Qoan god liaae^S it fo bi-fen, 

Alfe he fendet, alf it fal ben.) 

Wi^ gold, and filu^, and wi^ frud, 

%if fonde made %e mayden prad ; 

?Se broker and de^ moder oc 

Eiche giftef eliezer %e toe. 

Sone o-morwen he gan him garen. 

And cranede hif erdene, and wolde hom 

for ferity ne mede, ne wold he >Sor 

Oo^ on nigt drechen nunmor ; 

And %o gan %at moder and laban 

Bebecca freinen %or for-^an. 

And ghe it grantede mildelike, 

And he hire bi-tagten bli^Selike. 

Si^en men hauen holden fkil, 

firft to freinen %e wimmanef wil. 

Or or men hire to lou^rd giue, 

for wedding or for morgen-giwe. 

Eliezer if went hif wei 

And haae% hem boden godun dai. 

Or he wel homward cumen was, 

Yfaac waf cume to geraiis, 

And wimede ^or in ^ogt and care, 

for moderes dead and fondes fare. 

In a weie an time he cam, 

And to a welle, figande, he nam, 

^ohgteful he waf on feldo gon ; 

Eliezer him cam a-gon, 

E^^ede hif forge, brogt him a wif 

Of faiger waspene,' of clene lif. 

He fagnede birc wV6 milde mod, 

Here (ameni[n]g was clene and god ; 

He luuede hire on-like and wcl. 

And fge' ne bi-fpac him neu«^c a del. 

With gold and 
•ilver and rai- 
ment Eliejter 
made the maiden 

[' *e-] S?iitoalwheirave 
to the brother 
and mother. 

faren, No lonser than 
one night would 
he delay hia er- 

Rebekah't con- 
sent waa first 
asked and ob- 

For this reason 
men ash the wo- 
man's will before 
she is given in 

Eliezer takes his 
departure, wish- 
ing all a good 

[Fol. 2W.] 
Isaac mourned 
for the death of 
his mother. 

Eliezer brought 
him a wife by 
whom he was 

Isaac lored Re- 
bekah well, and 

n alio n "**® ^^"^^ ®o"- 

L sne (j tradicted him. 

' All error for wasteme. 



Men My that 
Abraham called 
Hagar Ketorah. 

She bore him 
seTen 'sons. 

Abraham died at 
the age of 175. 

Ishmael wai 187 
^eara old when 


[FoL 29.] 
Isaac was forty 

Sears old when 
e took Bebekah 
to wife. 

the Lord for his 
wife, who was 

Bebekah cod- 

The children 
straggled to- 
gether within 

£«aa was the 
first bom, and 
Jacob was horn 
soon after. 

Sixty years was 
Isaac at this 

Get men seyn^ %at abrahanii 

fi^en calde agar ceturam, 

And fge' bar him ii^en fex funen ; [> she ?] 

1448 Abraham dede hem ii^en fundri wunen ; 

fer eft fro cratonid^, 

Weren he fpred to ^e rede se. 

Yfaac he let al hif god, 
1452 for he waf bi-geten of kinde blod. 

An hundred ger hold and feuenti 
And .V. he waf leid farram bi. 
bo^en yfaac and yfmael 
1456 Him bi-ftoden wurlike and wel. 
On hundred ger and .xxxvij. 
Liuede yfmael and waf >Sor bi. 

Yfaac waf hold .xl. ger 
Quanne rebecca cam him ner ; 

Longe it waf or ghe him child bar, 

And he bad god, quanne he it wur^ war, 

^at he' fulde fillen ^at quede 
1464 %at he abraham quilum dede. 

^0 wur^ rebecca childre here, 

^at ghe felte ful time i» gere ; 

At on burdene ghe under-stod 
1468 two ^e weren hire fibbc-blod; 

Alfe ^hute hire day and nigt, 

Alfc he wrogtcn and* figt, [* »» ^ 

Que^er hero fulde bir^en bi-foren. 
1472 Oc efau waf firmeft boren, 

And iacob fone after, ic wot, 

for ^at he held im* bi ^e fot [« MS. hddim.] 

Sexti ger yfaac waf old, 
1476 Quan ^if tidi[n]g him waf told; 

Ghe** was abraham lines her, [• get ?] 

After ^if, fiftene ger. 

' tiyn is at the side in a later hand. 

' In a later hand at the side. 



11/ezen bo^en yfaac funes, 

1480 ▼ ^ And ^hogen, and adden fundri wunes ; 

Efau wildo man huntere, 

And lacob tame man tiliere. 

%e fader luuede efau wol, 
1484 for firme bir%e & fwcte mel ; 

%e moder, iacob for tamched, 

And for %e all gaflcf red. 

Jacob An time him fe% a mete 
1488 %at man callen lentil gete, 

And efau fro feldo cam. 

Sag %iB pulment, hunger him nam. 

** Broker iacob," qwat efau, 
1492 ** Of %if warme mete %u gif me nu, 

for ic ham mattilike weri." 

Iacob wur^ war he waf gredi ; 

" Broker," qwad he, " fel me >So wunes, 
1496 %e qtM^en ben %e firme funes, 

%at ic %in firme bir^ehe gete, 


Quad efau, "ful bli^elike," 
1500 And gafo it him wel iikerlike. 

firme bir^e waf wur^i wune 

%e fader dcde %e firme fune ; 

%e firme fune at ofirendo fel 
1504 Waf wune ben fcrid femeUke and wel, 

And fulde auen %e blifcing 

Or or ^e fader dede hif ending ; 

And at heg tide and at gefhiing, 
1508 %e gungcre^ fune geuen %e blifcing, 

And hauen mete %an at if mcl, 

More or %e gungere twinne del ; 

And qtfanne %e fader were grauen, 
1512 two doles of ereward riche auen. 

ap uid had dif- 
ferent occapa- 


Esau WEI a 
hunter, and 

Isaac lored Eaaa 
for that ho waa 
the eldest. 

[Fol. 29ft.] 
Kcbckah lored 
Jacob becauao of 
hia peaceful dia- 

Jacob Bod pot- 

Eaau came flrom 
tha field hongrj. 

*• Brother/' aald 
ha. **giTo me of 
thii warm meat, 
for I am weary." 

Jacob aald, «< Sail 
me thy birth- 
right, and I wUl 
fill thee with 

Eaan consented 
fuU blithely. 

The eldest son 
waa highly hon- 

At hia father's 
death ha had the 

At meat he had 
a double portion. 

[Fol. SO.] 
Ills inheritance 
was twice aa 
much as the 
younger's share. 

^ An error for eldert . 



A famine btniih- 
ed Isaac to Genu*. 

For hia father's 
sake he was 
highly esteemed. 

eiiTied Isaac, so 
he left them and 
went to Beer- 

Ahimelech made 
a corenant with 

Isaac became old 
and sightless. 

He sends Esaa 
for renison, 

and promises him 
his blessing. 

Bebehah in- 
structs Jacob 
how to obtain 
the blessing. 

[Fol. sob.] 

She made him 
rough like Esau. 

Jacob obtained 
the blessing fh>m 
his father. 

An time dede hunger yfaac flen, 
And he wulde to egipte then,' [» ten ?] 

Oc god him fente reed in wis 
1516 ^at he bi-lef in gerafis ; 

^or he was for hif fadref luue[n] 

Holden wnr^elike a wel a-buuen. 

An hundred fo mikel wex hif tile, 
1520 So may god fri^e ^or he wile. 

Ni^ede ^at folk him fel wel 

And deden him flitten hife oftel. 

At berfabe he wunede heft, 
1524 And ^or wur^ wi^ him trew^e feft 

Abimalech, and luue fworen. 

So he waf or if fader bi-foren. 

And helde gede on yfaac, 
1528 Wur'Kede fightelef and elde fwac ;» [t eldes wtc ?] 

He bad efau, hif firme fune, 

fechin him fode, af he waf wune ; 

If he toke him %at he wulde eten, 
1532 Hif feli blifcing fulde he bi-geten. 
^or qtiiles efau fogte and ran, 
Eebecca iacob reden gan ; 

Two kides he fette and brogt es' hire, 
1536 And ghe knew wel ^e faderes kire,* 

And made fwi^e on fele ^at mete, 

fwilc ghe wifte he wulde eten ; 

Sridde ghe iacob and made him ru 
1540 ^or he was bare(.) nu lik efau ; 

And he feruede hif fader wel 

Wi^ wines drinc and feles mel. 

Yfaac wende it were efau, 
1544 for he grapte him and fond him ru ; 

%anne he wiile him on gode fel. 

He him blifcede holdolike and wel ; 


brogtes MS. 

* GloMed wune in later hand. 



''Heuene dew, and cr^ef fetthed, 
1548 Of win and olie Mfum-hed," 

And bad him of hif kindes lou^rd ben. 

In wel^e and migt wnr^Singe %en. 

Wei bli^e and fagen was iacob ^o, 
1552 for blifced he wentc hif fader fro. 

Quan yfaac it under-nam 

%at e(au to late cam, 

And ^at if bro^Ser, af-ter boren, 
1556 Waf kumen and hadde ifblifcing bi-foren, 

Wei felku^Slike ho wur^ for-dred ; 

And in %at dred hif %ogt waf led 

In to ligtneile for to fen, 
1560 Quow god wnldo it fulde ben. 

%o feide yfaac to efau, 

**^in broker iacob waf her nu, 

And toe %in blifcing li%er-like, 
1564 And he wur^ blifced witterlike." 

Quad efau, "rigt if hif name 

hoten iacob, to min un-frame ; 

Or he min firme bir^e toe, 
1568 Nu haued* he ftolen min blifcing oc ; [» haue« ?] 

^og, fader dere, bidde ic ^e," 

%at fum blifcing gif >Sa me." 

^o gan efau >Sengen' and fen [« «enken ?] 

1572 Quilc ifblifcing migte ben ; 

In hcuene deu, and er^es fmere, 

Gatte him blifcing %at him waf gere ; 

for ydumea, %at fulfum lend, 
1576 Of lewfe god, was in hifo bond. 

Quad efeu, " grot fal bi-cumen. 

And wreche of iacob fal binunven." 

Oc rebecca wifte ^at ^hogt, 
^at hate waf in hife herte brogt, 

for-^i ghe iacob women gan. 

And fente him to hif broker laban ; 

The dew of 
heaTcn, the fat- 
neae of the eurth, 
plenty of com 
and wine, and the 
lordship orer hia 

When Isaac un- 
derstood that 
Esau came too 
late he was seised 
with great fear. 

In his dread he 
saw how Ood 
would that it 
should BO be. 

To Esau thus he 

"Thy brother 
was ncre Just 
[Fol. 81.] 
now, and has 
taken thy bless- 
ingy and ne shall 
be blessed." 

Esau intreats for 
one blessing. 

Isaac promises 
him that his 
dwelling shall be 
of the fatness of 
the earth and of 
the dew of 

Idumea became 
Esau's inherit- 

Esau threatens 

Rebekah warns 
Jacob of his bro- 
ther's intentions. 



Bebekah com- 
pUini to Isaac of 
£8aa'8 marriage 
and connection 
with the Canaan* 

[FoL 816.] 

Isaac blesses 


and sends him to 


Jacob went a 
long way about, 

in order to aToid 
the houses of the 

all night. 

In a dream he 
saw a ladder 
reaching from 
earth to hearen, 

angels ascending 
and descending, 
and the Lord 
stood above it. 

"I am," He said. 
** the God of 
Abraham and of 

thU land wiU I 

Sre thee, and in 
7 seed shall 
all mankind be 

[Fol. 82.] 

** be ^u ^er," quat ghe, "til efau 
1584 E^e mo^ed [be], ^e wre^ed nu, 

And >Su fait ^e betre fped, 

If it be^ bi ^in faderes red.*' 

Quad rebecca to hire were, 
1588 "Efau wifuedeuftodere 

Quan be iuHed & be^ fo mat. 

Toe of kin %e canaan bi-gat, 

For-^i he maked him lU^ & ibrong, 
1592 For he be% mengt %at kin among; 

If iacob took her alfo a wif, 

Ne bode ic no lengere werldef lif, 

Yfaac bad iacob him garen, 
1596 And for% fwi^e to laban faren ; 

Iacob liflenede ^o frendes red, 

Fro berlabe he ferde wi^ fped ; 

Long weie he gan to- ward aram, 
1600 bi cananeam for% he nam. 

And wolde nogt %at folc bi-twen 

Herberged in here hufes ben. 

He lay bi luzan ut on nigt, 
1604 A flon under hife heued rigt, 

And flep and fag, an fo^e drem, 

fix) ^e er^e up til heuene hem, 

A leddre ftonden, and ^or-on 
1608 Angeles dun-cumen and up-gon. 

And ^e lou^d ^or uppe a-buuen 

Lened' ^or-on; and [Jacob] wur^ ut-fuuen, 

Herde ^at he quad, " god ic am, 
1612 ^e luued yfaac and abraham; 

And ^is lend ic fal giuen ^in fed, 

And in ^is weige don ^e red ; 

And i fal bringen %e a-gen, 
1616 And of «in kinde blifced ^u (alt ben." 

* l«iied? remiined. 



lacob abraid, & feide fHgtilikc : — 
** God in ^is llede if wittirlike, 
Her, dredful fiede, her, godef hus, 

1620 Her, heuenegate amongof us; 
Lon^, if io mote a-gen cumcn, 
Of %i8 flede ic fal i» herte munen ; " 
(Sette he up %at (Ion for muniging, 

1624 And get on olige for tok-ning) 
'' He fal eu^re min lou^rd bon, 
%at dede me her ^is iigt fen, 
Her ic fal of&endes here don 

1628 And tig^es wel gelden her-up-on ; 
And wel fal loz warded ben, 
for ic gan her ^is fig^he fen." 
lacob caldo %at flede betel ; 

1632 Qtior-fore he it dede, he wifle wel. 
Longe weie he fi^en ou^-cam, 
And longe time or he fag tharam. 
Qtiane he cam ner, fond he %or-on 

1636 A welle wel helid under a flon, 
And %re flockes of fep dor-bi/ 
^at ^or abiden al for-^i ; 
%or waf nogt wune on & on, 

1640 \5at orf ^or to water gon, 

Oc at fet time he fulden fumen, 
^or hem-felf & here orf framen. 
lacob %C8 hirdes freinen gan, 

1644 Hu fer ifl he^en to laban ; 
Wel he feiden and fwi^e wel, 
** loc ! her hif dogter rachel." 
Sep he driuen ^if wcUe ner, 

1648 for ghe hem wulde wattro ^er. 
lacob wi% hire wcnte ^at fton. 
And let hire fop to wat^ gon ; 
And kidde ho was hire mouics fune, 

1652 And kifie hire aftare kindes wune ; 

Jacob awoke. 
"Surely," he 
■aid, "here if 
God'f house. 

If I may come 
again to my fa- 
ther*! house, 

the lord shall be 
my God, 

here I shall brake 
offorinn, and 
yield Ulhes.'* 

Jacob called the 
place BetheL 

Jacob pursues his 

He finds a well 
at Haran ; three 

[»«or-bl?J were lying by it. 

The catUe did 
not go to water 
one by one, but 
were all collect- 
ed together at 
one time. 
[Fol. 32».] 

Jacob asks the 
herdsmen the 
way to Laban*s 

They answered, 
" Here is Rachel 
his daughter." 
She came to bring 
the sheep to the 

Jacob rolled the 
stone (Voro the 
well's mouth. 

He made known 
his relationship 
to Rachel. 



Laban welcomes 
hit nephew and 
brings nim to his 

He entertains 
him weU. 

Jacob abode with 
Labtui for one 

after which time 
Laban said to 

[Fol. S8.] 
««TeU me what 
shall thy wages 

Jacob corenant- 
ed for BaoheL 

ScTen years pass- 
ed away and 
Laban made a 

When even came 
Jacob was de- 
cdred with Leah. 

Laban says that 
it was not the 
custom to marry 
the younger be- 
fore the first- 

Jacob agrees to 
serve other seren 
years for Rachel. 

Rachel was bli^e and for% ghe nam, 

And kidd it^ to hire fader laban. [^ kiddit MS.] 

Laban fagnede hijn in Sondes wune, 
1656 feren fwunken yfaaces fonen. 

lacob tolde him for qu&t he fwanc 

So fer, and laban herte ranc ; 

He cu^e him ^er-of wel gret ^hanc, 
1660 And dede him eten and to him dranc, 

And feide to him, << bi min blod, 

%in come if me leflike and good." 

Laban bi-tagte him, fi^en to fen, 
1664 Hif hirdeneife %at it wel ben. 

And qtrnnne a mone% was ou^-meten, 

** lacob,'* wa^ he, **qttat wiltu bi-geten? 

Quat-fo *[^u] wilt for hire crauen, 
1668 Aflte it wi^ ikil and ^u fait hauen.'^ 

Qtiat iacob, '' ic fal, for rachel. 

Semen ^e feuene winter wel." 

Luue wel michil it agte a- wold, 
1672 Swilc feruife and fo longe told. 

for% geden feuene ger bi tale. 

And laban made him hif bridale ; 

Iacob wiir% dronken, and euen cam, 
1676 Laban bi nigt tog him liam ; 

And a maiden waf hire bi-tagt, 

Zel£ei bi name, %at ilke nagt. 

Iacob gan hire under-fon, 
1680 morgen %ugte it Idm mif-don. 

Quot laban, ^' long wune if her driuen, 

firmcfl on elde, £rfl ben giuen : 

And lo^ me waf fenden rachel 
1684 So fer, for ic luuede her wel ; 

Oc ferf me feuene o^er ger. 

If ^u fait rachel feruen her ; 

> At bottom of Fol. 82^ is the catchword—*' qwat fo ^vl wilt.* 



Seue nigt fi^eu for^ ben numcn 
1688 Or rachel be% to iacob cumen, 
And laban made a feile oc 
Quanne iacob wid^ rachel toe ; 
And for gbo %anne cam him ner, 
1692 feruede he him fi^en feuene ger. 
Bachel adde, after londes kire,' 
maiden balaam to fcmen hire. 

Lla moder of fowro was, 
-w^w Ruben, fymeon, leui, iudas; 

for rachel non bir^e ne nam, 

Sge' bi-tagte iacob balaam ; 

bala two childre bar bi him, 
1700 Bachel cald es* dan(.) neptalim ; I 

And zelfa two funes him ber, 

Lia calde if(.) Gad(.) and afler ; 

Lia li^en two funes bar, 
1704 Zabulon(0 la(l(.) or yfakar ; 

Lia bar lafl dowter dinam, 

Sichem, ii^en, hire ille bi-nam. 

Last of rachel iosep was boren, 
1708 Bell of alle ^e o^ero bi-foren. 

Longe haued^ nu iacob ben her, 
wi^ laban fuUe .xiii. ger ; 
Leue aikede hem hom to faren, 
1712 Wi^ wiues and childre ^o^en charen, 
But-if laban him %elde bet 
Hife feruife, and wi^-holde hiw get ; 
ferae he fcri^ed ^at .vij. ger, 
1716 %at he bi-leue and feme him her ; 
Wei he fei% him %at he fal hauen 
for hire, quat-fo he wile crauen. 
forward if mad of alle fep, 
1720 Of onef bles*' iacob nim kep, 
And if of ^0 fpotted cumen, 

* Glossed wune in a later baud. 

n %^>IC i1 JMOD I 

Jacob marries 

[Fol. 83*.] 

Leah was the 
mother of four 


Rachel was 


Bilhah, her con- 
cubine, bare Dan 


Zilpah bare Gad 
ana Aiher. 

L«ih afterwards 
bare Zebulon, 
Issachar, and 

At last Joseph 
was bom of 


Jacob desires 
leave of Laban to 

Laban would not 
let him depart. 

He promises him 
to give him for 
hire whatever he 
shall ask. 
[Fol. W.] 


Jacob is to have 
all the speoktod 



aadspotted cattle 
for his hire. 

The flocks pro- 
duced nuuij 
speckled and 
Labon was 
greatly dis- 

He changed Ja- 
cob's hire. 

Ten times with- 
in six years he 
shifted thecattle. 

Jacob saw that 

fkiendly towards 


so he determined 

to leaTe Fadan- 


Laban had left 
Haran to shear 
his sheep. 

Jacob came to 
mount Oaleed. 

[Fol. 84».] 

and drew to- 
wards Canaan. 

Rachel had stolen 

Laban, hearing 
of Jacob's flight, 
pursues him. 

God. in adream, 
forbids Laban to 

harm Jacob. 

Laban orertakes 
Jacob on the 
serenth day. 

%o fulen him ben for hire numen ; 

Sep or got, hafwed, arled, or grei, 
1724 Ben don fro iacob fer a-wei ; 

%og bim boren ^es onef blea 

Yn-like manige and likeles. 

%o fag laban %at iacob bi-gat 
1728 Michil, and him miflikede %at; 

bi-tagte him ^o ^e fonder bias, 

And it him boren ones bles. 

Ten fi^es %iis binnen M. ger, 
1732 Shiftede iacob hirdeneife her, 

And ai was labanef herte for, 

for hif agte wex mor & mor. 

Bo fag iacob laban wur^ wro^, 
Vnder him ben leng if him loHS, 
And wi^ if wiues he take^ red, 
And grei^et him de^enward* wi^ fped. 

Laban ferde to nimen kep, 
In clipping time to hife fep, 

fro caram in-to vten ftede, 
%or quiles iacob %if dede dede ; 
Wi^ wiues, and childre, & orf he nam, 
1744 And to %e munt galaad he bi-cam ; 
%anne fleg he to mefopotaniam, 
And drog to- ward cananeam. 

nd Eachel adde hid and for-olen 
Hire faderes godes of gold, & ftolen. 
Laban it wifle on %e %ridde dai 
^at iacob waf *ns flogen a-wei ; 
He toe, and wente, and folwede on, 
1752 And %hogt in mod iacob to Oon, 
Oc god in fweuene fpac him to, 
%at he fulde iacob non yuel do. 
yij. nigt for%-geden and dais oo, 
1756 Or laban iacob oner-toe ; 
1 '6cf8enward^ 





So waf he firig[t]ed ear in drem, 

%ii8 me^elike fpao %if em : 

" Qui wore %u fro me for-holen, 
1760 And qtii af %a min godes Aolen? 

Min mog, min neue, and felage, 

Me ne agtes ^u don fwilc [vn-]lage." 

" [I]c was for-dred ^e migte timen^ 
1764 fro me %ine doutres bi-nimen, 

fro here childre %hogt hem for, 

mor for me bi-leuen %or ; 

flal^e ic for-fake, %at if min red, 
1768 wi% q«am %u if findes, %at he be dead." 

Of al %at laban haued ^ if fogt, [i hau^ ?] 

So woren it hid, ne fond he is nogt. 

Bo [q]wa^ iacob, **yuel ill bi-togen, 
Min fwinc a-buten %in hol^e drogen ; 

9n me ranfakes alf an %ef, 

And me was %in wnr^ing lef." 

%o quat laban, '^ firend fule wit ben, 
1776 And trew\5e pligt' nn unc bi-twen, [» wKgt MS.] 

And make we it her an hil of flon, 

Name of witneffe be ^er-on; 

%or-on he eten bli^e and gla^,' [> glad ?] 

1780 %at hil if hoten galaa^ ; 

Laban hem blifcede, & on nigt 

wente a-gen-ward, pr it waf ligt ; 

And iacob waf of weie rad, 
1784 Ra^e he was fer fro laban fad. 

Alf he cam ner cananeam, 

Engel wir^ a-gen him cam, 

Als it were wopnede here, 
1788 Bedi to iilden him fro were ; 

%at Aede he calde manaim, 

%or %is wird of engeles metten him. 

%or he bi-lef, and fente %eden ^ [« HeiSea ?] 

1792 Sondere men to fireinen and qu^^en 

He eompUint of 
the wrong done 
to him. 

Jacob denies that 
he has been 
gnUty of theft 

Laban searched 
for his idols, but 
found them not. 

[FoL 85.] 

Then said Jaeob, 
"What is my sin 
that thou ran- 
sackost me as a 

Quoth Laban, 
*• Friends wiU we 
be and plight 
troth between 

This oorenant 
was made at Oa- 

Laban departed 
bdbre daylight. 

As Jacob drew 
near to Canaan, 
he was met by the 
angels of Ood. 

That place he 
called Mahanain 

Jacob sends mes- 
sengers to Esau. 



Word came to 
him that Esaa 
was on his way 
to meet him. 

[Fol. 356.] 
Jacob sends a 
rich present to 

He wrestles with 
an angel. 

and the ainew 
shrank Aram the 

Jacob would not 
let the angel go, 

until he had 
blessed him. 

Jacob prevailed, 
and his name was 
called Israel. 

This plaoe was 
called Penuel. 

[Fol. 86.] 

The meeting of 
Jacob and Esau. 

The brothers be- 
come reconciled 
to each other. 


If efau wTiIde him ogt deren, 

^og wifte wel god fulde him weren ; 

^or him cam bode him for to fen, 

1796 %at efau him cam a-gcn; 

nd iacob fente fer bi-foren 
him riche loac, and^ fondri boren, 
And iordan he dode ouer waden, 

1800 Orf & men, wi^ wel^e laden ; 
And he bi-lef ^or on ^e nigt 
to bidden helpe of godef migt. 

And ^or wreftelede an engel wi^, 
*x,x, * Senwe fprungen fro ^e li^ ; 

(wnlde he non fenwe fi^en eten, 
Self his kinde nile ^at wnne forgeten.) 
Oet held he wi% %is angel fad, 
1808 Til ^e daning np ellen* it brail ; 
%o feide %e engel, " let me get ben, 
^e daining her nu men mai sen.'' 
Quad iacob, ** ^e ne leate io nogt, 
1812 Til ^in blifcing on me be^ wrogt." 
^0 quad %e angel, '^ fal tu nnnmor 
ben cald iacob, fo ^u wore or, 
Oc ^u fal ben hoten ifrotfl, 
1816 for ^u ^e weries fwi^e wel ; 

Qtfan %u %e migt wi% angel weren, 
Hn fal ani man %e mugen deren ? 
^ax iacob and nn ifrael." 

^at fte[de] was cald phanuel, 
for he nam oa^ phannel ; 
And it wnr% ligt and he fag wel 
Qttor efau a-gen him cam, 
1824 And bi-foren a-gen him nam; 

And feue li^es he fell him bi-foren, 
And wnr^e him fo finneft boren ; 
And efan %o ran him to, 
1828 And kiifede, and wept, %o rew him fo. 

















"Browser," quad he, ** ^u and ^in trume 

ben here in %if place to me welcume ; 

Hane and bruo wel al %in pr^fent, 

%at %a to me bringcfl and hanefl fenf 

lacob was wo ^at he if for-foc, 

And fcro^ him fo(.) ^at fum he ^or tok. 

Here luue ^o wur^ hoi and fchir, 

And efau ferde for^ ^eden* to feyr ; [» tJefSen ?] 

^at newe bnrg waf him to frame, 

Mad and cald of if owen name. 

lacob fro \5e^en wente, ic wot, 

tgelt on a flede, and cald it' fochot ; [> caldit MS.] 

fro fochot fi^en to lichem. 

And wnne \5or inne falem, 

%or him folde an lend kinge emor. 

And he drog ^ider and wunede ^or ; 

wi^ newe alter wnr^ed he wel 

^e ftrong god of yfrael. 

Hif dowter dina ^or mif-dede, 
ghe nam leueles fro %at flede, 
To fen de werld ^hugte hire god, 
^at made hire fi^en feri mod, 
for-liftede hire owen red ; 
Sichem tok hire maiden-hed ; 
Emor his fader, fi^en for-^i, 
And hif burge-folc fellen in wi ; 
Symeon and leni it bi-fpeken, 
And hauen here lifter ^or i-wreken ; 
folc of falem ^or-foro waf ilagen, 
wiwes, and childre, and agte np-dragen ; 
Oo iacob ne wifte it nogt, 
Til ^at wreche to bale was wrogt, 
Oc michil he frigtede for-^i, 
bo^en fymeon and leui. 

Henden lichem ne durften he wnnen, 
%at folkes-kin god bad him fonen, 

Esau welcomes 

accepts his pre- 

and departs onto 

From tbenee Ja- 
cob went to Sue- 

and afterwards to 

where he bought 
a piece of land 
from Uamor. 

Here his daufrh- 
ter Dinah " mis- 

[Fol. 86ft.] 

She went out to 

see the world. 

Sbechem took 
her maidenhead. 

Simeon and Lerl 
ulcw the She- 
chemites and 
spoiled the city. 

Jacob reproved 
Simoon and Levi 
for their cruelty. 

Thev durst not 
dwell longer at 
Shechem, but 
went to Bethel. 



Their trndean 
goods ther bore 
not with them. 

Their idols and 
ffold rings they 
buried under an 

[FoL 87.] 
Long they re- 
mained buried, 
until Solomon 
found Uiem and 
decked his tem- 
ple with them. 

God sent a fear 
npon the folk 
round about, so 
they did no hurt 
to the sous of 

Jacob makes an 
altar at Bethel. 

Benjamin isbom. 

At Edar Beuben 
with his ftither^s 

Jacob arrives at 
Hebron, and 
finds his mother 
gone flrom the 

Isaac dies at the 
age of nine score 

Esau dwells in 

And ^eden * faren to betel, [» Wien ?] 

And he folgede if red on fel ; 

Agte onclene ne wulde he bcren, 
1868 for he dredde him it fulde him deren ; 

Godes %at rachel hadde flolen, 

And ay til ^an wi^ him for-holen, 

And o^re ydeles brogt fro iichem, 
1872 Gol prenes and ringef wi^ hem, 

Diep he if dalf under an ooc, 

Made him non gifcing in herte wooc» 

Longe it weren ^or for-hid ; 
1876 Men fei^ for-^i waf fo bi-tid, . 

for fidamon findin if fal, 

And hif temple fri^en wi^-al. 

lacob wente fro ^eden' in fped, [» fteSen >] 

1880 God fente on «at erdfolc fwilc dred, 

^an' here non iacob fca^e ne dede ; p «at ?] 

Quane he wente a-wei fro %at flede. 

He made an alter at betel, 
1 884 Alf he god bi-het, ^or he geld wel. 

Si^en'\5o beniamin was boren, 

Eachel adde ^e life for-loren ; 

Iacob dalf hire and merke dede, 
1888 %at if get fene on %at flede. 

^or qttiles he wunede at tnr ader, 

Buben mifdede wid* bala ^er. [* wi* ?] 

Si^en cam iacob to ebron, 
1 892 And fond his moder of werlde gon ; 

Starf ysaac qtmn he waf hold 

.ix. fcore ger and fine told, 

And was doluen on %at flede, 
1896 %or man adam and eue dede. 

So riche were growen hife ftmen, 

\5at he ne migte to-gider wunen ; 

Oc efau, feyr [and] edon 
1900 Lend ydumeam wunede on ; 




Of edon fo it higte %a, 
for it was hoten ear bozra. 
([ear haued^ moyfes OTwr-gon, 

FoL 87ft.] 

which WM before 
called Bosnu 

I hau^ ?] 

1904 J-L ^or-fore he wended eft a-gon. 
zii. ger or yfaac waf dead 
lacobes funes deden un-red ; 

rfextene ger iofeph was old, 
Qtfane he was in to egipte fold ; 

He was iacobes gonkefle fane, 

Brictefi of wafpene,' and of witt^ wune, 

If he fag hife bre^ere mif-faren, 
1912 Hif fader he it gan yn-hillen & baren ; 

He wulde %at he fulde hem ten 

^at he wel ^ewed fulde ben ; 

for-^i wexem wi^ gret ni^ 
1916 And hate, for it in ille [herte] li«. 

^0 wex her hertes ni^ful & bold 

Qimnne he hem adde if dremef told, 

%at hif handful flod rigt up foren, 
1920 And here it leigen alle hem bi-foren ; 

And funne, & mono, & flerres .xi*.' 

wnr^eden him wi^ frigti luue ; 

^0 feide.hif fader, "hu mai ^is fen 
1924 «at ^u fait ^uf wur\5ed ben, 

%at %ine bre^ere, and ic, and ihe 

^at ^e bar, fulen luten ^e ?" 

%uf he chidden hem bi-twen, 
1928 %oge ^hogte iacob ii^e it fulde ben. 

Hife bre^ere kepten at iichem 

Hirdneffe, & iacob to fen hem 

fente iofeph to dalen ebron ; 
1932 And he was redi his wil to don. 

In fichem feld ne fonde hem nogt. 

In dotayin he fond hem fogt ; 

He knewen him fro feren kumen, 

* was teme } * For endlaae ? 

Jacob's eona did 

Joieph waa aix- 
teen when aold 
into Egypt. 

Joieph informed 
hie father of his 
brethren's mia- 

His brethren en- 
Tied him on ac- 
count of hia 

The Tiaion of the 
Bun, moon, and 
eleren stars. 

Jacob reproached 
hia son, yet he 
be so. 

fFoU 88.] 

The sons of Ja- 
cob kept flocks 
at Shecnem. 

Joeeph was sent 
to see how they 

His brethren 
knew him ttam 



and took counsel 
to Blay him. 

Keaben advised 
them to throw 
and deep pit. 

Reuben left his 
brethren to seek 
better pasture for 
his cattle. 

Jndah gave them 
bad advice, 

[Fol. 886.] 

and Joseph was 
sold for thirty 
pieces of silver. 

Benben came 
thither again and 
found Joseph 

Great was his 
outcry, which 
did not cease 
until he was as- 
sured that Joseph 

Joseph's coat was 
dipt in kid's 

1936 Hate hem on ros, in herte nnmen ; 

Swilc ni^ & hate rof hem on, 

He redden alle him for to flon. 

** Nai," qwad ruben, *' flo we him nogt, 
1940 O^er iinne may ben wrogt, 

Quat-fo him drempte %or qtnles he flep, 

In ^if ^iflemefle,* old and dep, [• ourterneffe ?] 

Get wnr^e' worpen naked and cold, 
1944 Qwat-fo hif dremef owen a-wold." 

^if dede waf don wid* herte for, 

Ne wulde ruben nogt drechen ^or ; 

He gede and fogte an o^cr ftede, 
1948 Hif erne in bettre lewfe he dede; 

Ydas dor* qwiles gaf hem red, 

^at was fulfilt of derne fped ; 

fro galaad men wi% chafare 
1952 Sag he ^or knmen wid fpicea ware ; 

To-warde egipte he gunne ten. 

ludas tagte hn it fulde ben, 

loseph folde ^e bre^ere ten, 
1956 for .XXX. plates to ^e chapmen ; 

Get waft bettre he ^uf waf fold, 

dan* he \5or ftorue in here wold. 

[> wi« ?] 



T\an rwben cam ^ider a-gen. 


to ^at cift^mcffe* he ran to fen ; 

He miffed loseph and ^hogte fwem, 

wende him (lagen, fet up an rem ; 

Nile he blinnen, fwilc forwe he diued, 
1964 Til him he fweren ^at he lined. 

^0 nomen he ^e childes fnid, 

^e iacob hadde mad im^ in prud ; [' madim in MS.] 

In kides blod he wenten it, 
1968 ^0 waf ^or-on an rewli lit. 

Sondere men he it leiden on. 

^ hiVi inBerted in the later hand. 

• MS. cift^mefle. 




And fenten it iacob in-to ebron, 

And ihewed it him, and boden him fen 
1972 If hif childes wede it migte ben ; 

Senten him bode he funden it. 

^0 iacob fag dat* fori writ, 

He gret, and faide %at '^ wilde der 
1976 Hauen min fane fwolgen her." 

Hif clones rent, in haigre frid, 

Long grot and forgo is him bi-tid. 

His funes comen him to fen, 
1980 And hertedin him if it migte ben ; 

" l^ai I nai ! '* quat he, " helped it nogt, 

Mai non herting on me ben wrogt ; 

ic fal ligten til helle dale, 
1984 And groten ^or min funes bale." 

(^or was in helle a fundri flede, 

wor ^e feli folc refle dede ; 

%or he flunden til helpe cam, 
1988 Til ih^«u crist fro ^eden* he nam.) 

%e chapmen (kiuden here fare, 

In-to egipte ledden ^at ware ; 

wi^ pntifar ^e kinges ftiward, 
1992 He maden fwi^e bigetel forward. 

So michel fe ^or if hem told. 

He hauen him bogt, he hauen fold. 

Putifar waf wol riche man, 
And he bogte iofeph al for^an 
He wulde don if lechur-hed 
wi^ ioseph, for hife faire-hed, 
Oc he wur^ ^o fo kinde cold, 
2000 To don fwilc dede addo he no wold ; 
fwilc fel^e cam him fro a-buuen, 
God dede it al for iofeph luue[n]. 
BifTop in eliopoli* 
2004 Men fei% he was ii^en for-^i, 

> In [H]Eliopolis ; the words are nin together. 

and tent to Jacob 
at Hebron. 

swallowed my 

Long was hia 
lamentation and 

[Fol. 80.] 

Jacob wonld not 
be comforted for 
the loss of Jo- 

In hell was a 
separate abode 
where the right- 
eous rested, 


tiU Christ took 
them from 

The merchants 
took their ware 
to Egypt. 

Potiphar bought 

He entertained 
impure desires 
towards him, 

but Joseph ^ 






Fotipbar loTed 
Joseph welL 

His wealth pitM- 
pered tinder Jo* 
■eph'i care. 

His wife sought 
to lead Joseph 

For gold nor for 
wealth of any 
kind would* he 
"forget his chas* 

Neither threato 
nor intreaties 

Wherefore she 
sought to be re« 
yenged upon Jo- 

[Fol. 40.] 
Sheaooosed him 
falsely to Poti- 

who, beliering 
his wife's tale, 

threw Joseph in- 

%og had he %o wif(.) and bi-foren 
Childre of him bi-geten and of hire boren, 
Oc afber ^is it fo bi-cam, 
2008 loseph if dowter to wine nam. 

Putifar Innede iofeph wel, 
bi-tagte him hif hof etitfrile del, 

And he wur^ede riche man an heg, 
2012 vnder iofeph hif wel^e ^eg. 

Hif wif wur% wilde, and nam i» %ogt 

vn-rigt-wif luue, and fwanc for nogt. 

One and Aille %ogt hire gamen 
2016 wi% iofeph fpeken and plaigen famen ; 

Ghe bed him gold, and agte, and fe. 

To maken him riche man and fire, 

wi^-^han \5at he wi^ here wile ; 
2020 Oc him mialikede %at ghe wile ; 

for fcri%, ne %ret, no mai ghe bi-geten 

for to don him ohaflhed for-|;eten ; 

Often ghe ^rette, often ghe fcro^, 
2024 Oc al it was him o-like lo^. 

An time he was at hire tgeld, 

%o ghe him his mentel for-held ; 

for he wi% hire ne wnlde fpeken, 
2028 Ghe %henke% on him for to ben wreken ; 

Sone ghe mai hire lou^' fen^ [^ MS. lonurd.] 

Ghe god him bitt^like a-gen. 

And fei^ iofeph hire wulde don, 
2032 %at ghe ne migte him bringen on ; 

** ^if mentel ic wi^-held for-\5i. 

To tawnen [^e] ^e fo^e her-bi. 

^e wite if hife(.) ^e right if hire, 
2036 God al-migtin %e fo%e ihire." 

Pvtifar trewi^ hife wiwes tale. 
And haued' dempt iofep to bale ; [* haucrB.] 
He bad [him] ben fperd fail dun, 
2040 And holden harde in prifan. 












An litel (hind, quile he waf %er, 

So gan him luuen %e prtfiiner, 

And him de* chartre haue% bi-tagt, [* iSe ?] 

wi^ \5o pnfunes to liuen in hagt. 

Or for mifdede, or for on-fagen, 

^or woren to ^at prifun dragen, 

On ^at ^e kingef kuppe bed, 

And on %e made %e kingef bred ; 

Hem diempte dremes bo^en onigt, 

And he wnr^en fwi^e fore o-frigt ; 

lofeph hem feruede %or on fel, 

At here drink and at here mel. 

He herde hem mMmen(.) he hem freinde for-qtiat ; 

Harde dremes ogen awold %at. 

^o feide he to ^e butuler, 

" Tel me ^in drem, mi broker her. 

Qwe^er-fo it wur^e fofte or ftrong, 

^e reching ynr^ on god bi-long." 

^^ 1\T® drempte, ic flod at a win-tre, 

Jj^ ^at adde waxen buges ^re, 
Orefl it blomede, and fi^Sen bar 
^e beries ripe, wur^ ic war ; 
^e kinges [kuppe] ic hadde on hond, 
^e beries ^or-inne me ^hugte ic wrong. 
And bar it drinken to pharaon, 
Me drempte, alf ic waf wune to don." 
^^ p\ ood is,'* qtta^ lofeph, *' to dremen of win, 

^ heilneiTe an blifle if ^er-in ; 
*re daies ben get for to cumen, 
^u fait ben ut of prifun numen. 
And on ^in offiz fet agon ; 
Of me ^u ^henke ^an it fal ben, 
Bed min herdne to pharaon, 
^a[t] ic ut of prisun wur^e don, 
for ic am flolen of kinde lond, 
and her wrigteleflike holden in bond." 

Joseph loTed the 

In this priKm, 
either for mis- 
deed or bad 

were placed the 
ehief butler and 

Both dreamt 
dreams in one 

which caused 
them to become 
Tery sorrowfoL 

Joseph inquired 
the reason of 
their grief. 
[Fol. 40fr.] 

The butler's 


A Tine with three 


bore grapes; 

the Juice the but- 
ler squeesed into 
Pharaoh's cup, 
and gare him to 
drink as he was 

"Good It is,»» 
sa:d Joseph, " to 
dream of wine. 

In three days 
thou Shalt be re- 
stored to thy 

then think of me 
and bear my er- 
rand to Pharaoh, 

for I am here 
wrongftiUy held 
in prison.'' 



The "bread- 
wright'8*' dream. 

Fowls lit on the 
baskets of bread 
intended for the 

[Fol. 41.] 

and he oonld not 
keep the meat 
from them. 

"In three days,»» 
said Joseph. 
*'thou Shalt be 
lianged, and 
fowls shall tear 
thy flesh in 

The butler soon 
forgat Joseph. 

After two jeara. 

Pharaoh dreamt 
a dream. 

Ho stood by the 
river, and there 
came seven 
**neat'* fat and 
great, and seren 
lean after, 

which ate np the 
fat ones. 

Seven Ml ears of 
com sprang up 
"on a rank 
bush,'* and then 
came seven with- 
ered ears, 

[Fol. 416.] 

which smote the 
others to the 



^ua'S ^ifl bred-wrigte, ** li^e^ nu me, 
me drempte ic bar bread-lepes HSre, 
And ^or-in bread and o^er meten, 
2080 Qtdlke ben wune %e kinges to eten ; 
And fugeles hauen ^or-on lagt, 
^or-fore ic am in forge and hagt, 
for ic ne migte me nogt weren, 
2084 Ne ^at mete fro hem beren.*' 

[e wore lenere," qwad lofeph, 
* Of eddi dremes rechen fwep ; 
^u fait, after ^e ^ridde dei, 
2088 ben do on rode, weila-wei ! 

And fugeles folen %i fleis to-teren, 
^at fal non agte mngen ^e weren." 
So^ wnr^ fo iofeph feide ^at, 
2092 ^is bnteler Iofeph fone for-gat. 
Two ger fi^en was lofeph fperd 
^or in prtfun wi^ uten erd^ 

Bo drempte pharaon king a drem, 
^ ^at he flod bi ^e flodes ftrem, 

And ^eden* nt-comen .vii. neet, [»t5e<5on?] 

Eumlc wel fwi^e fet and gret, 

And .vii. lene after ^o, 
2100 ^e deden ^e .vii. fette wo, 

^e lene hauen ^e fette freten ; 

%if drem ne mai %e king for-geten. 

An o^er drem cam hiw bi-foren, 
2104 .vii. eares wexen fette of ooren. 

On an busk ranc and wel tidi, 

And .vii. lene rigt ^or-bi, 

welkede, and fmale, and drugte numen, 
2108 ^e ranc he hauen ^o ouw-cumen, 

To-famen it fmiten and, on a fhmd, 

^e fette ^rill hem to ^o grund. 

%e king abraid and woe in %hogt, 
2112 %ef dremes fwep ne wot he nogt, 












Ne was non fo wis man ijt al hif loud, 
%e knde vn-don "Sis dremes bond ; 
^o him bi-^hogte ^at buteler 
Of ^at him drempte in pnfun ^er, 
And of iofeph in %e prifun, 
And he it tolde %e king pharann. 
Iofeph waf fone in prifun %o hogt. 
And ihauen, & clad, & to him brogt ; 
%e king him bad ben hardi & bold. 
If he can rechen ^is dremef wold ; 
He told him quai him drempte o nigt, 
And iofep rechede his drem wel rigt. 
** ^is two dremes bo^en ben on, 
God wile ^e tawnen, king pharaon ; 
^0 .vij. ger ben get to cumen, 
In al folfum-hed fulen it ben numen, 
And .yij. o^ere fulen after ben, 
Son and ne<U^ men fulen if fen ; 
Al %at %ife firft .vii. maken, 
Sulen ^if o^ere vii. rofpen & raken ; 
Ic rede ^e king, nu her bi-foren, 
To maken la^es and gaderen coren, 
\5at ^in folo ne wur^ vnder-numen, 
Qtfan %o hungri gere ben for^-cumen. 
King pharaon liflnede hife red, 
^at wur^ him fi^en feli fped. 
He bi-tagte iofep hif ring, 
And his bege of gold for wur'Sing, 
And bad him al hif lond bi-fen. 
And under him hegefl for to ben, 
And bad him welden in hif bond 
His folo, and agte, & al his lond ; 
^0 waf vnder him ^anne putifar, 
And hif wif ^at hem fo to-bar. 
Iofep to wiue his dowter nam, 
O^er is nu q«an ear bi^'Cam ; 

None were found 
able to interpret 
the dreams. 

The butler be- 
thought of Jo- 

Joseph is taken 
fk-om prison. 

and brought be- 
fore Pharaoh, 

who related to 
him his dreams. 

"The two 
dreams,*' an- 
swered Joseph, 
" are one. 

" Seven yearn of 

shall be followed 
by seven years 
of famine. 

I advise the king 
to make bams 
and Btore up 
com, that thy 
folk perish not.^' 
[Pol. 42.] 

Pharaoh gave 
Joseph his ring, 

and bad him rule 
the whole land. 

Then were Poti- 
phar and his wife 
under him. 



Before the fiuniiw 

were bom to Jo« 

The yean of 
plenty peee 

The fiuntne waa 
felt in Canaan. 

Jacob aent hia 
ten aona to Egypt 
to buy com. 

[FoL 42d.] 

Though they 
honoured Jo- 

yet he pretended 
not to know 

He acouaed them 
of being apiea. 

They declared 
that they were 
true men, the 
aona of one 

"Only ] _ 
ao many aona.** 


And ghe %er him two childer bar, 

Or men wur% of ^at hunger war, 

first manafien and effra jm ; 
2152 He luneden god, he geld it hem. 

^e .vii. fulfum geres faren, 

lofep cu^e him bi-foren waren ; 

^an coren wantede in o^er lond, 
2166 ^o ynug [was] vnder his bond, 
[vnger wez in lond chanaan, 
And his .z. funes iacob for-^an 

Sente in to egipt to bringen coren ; 
2160 He bilef at hom %e was ganged boren. 

%e .X. comen, for nede fogt, 

To lofep, and he ne knewen him nogt, 

And %og he lutten him frigtilike, 
2164 An% feiden to him mildelike, 

" We ben fondes for nede driuen 

To bigen coren ^or-bi to liuen." 

(lofep hem knew al in his %hogt 
2168 Alf he let he knew hem nogt.) 

'' It femet wel %at ge fpies ben, 

And in to %if lond cumen to fen, 

And came ge for non o^er %ing, 
2172 but for to fpien nr lord ^e king.^* 

" Nai," he feiden eu^rilc on, 

" Spies were we neu^r non, 

Oc alle we ben on faderes funen, 
2176 For hunger do% es^ hider comen." [^ dtft^ MS.] 

** Oc nu ic wot ge fpief ben, 

for bi gore bering men mai it fen ; 

Hu fulde oni man' poure for-geten, 
2180 fwilke and fo manige funes bigeten ? 

for feldum bi-tid felf ani king 

fwilc men to fen of hife offpring." 

* MS. Ha said Bolde oninan. * 

Joseph's habshnbss to his brbthben. 


^^ A loTurd, merci ! get if ^or on, 

2184 -^ migt he nogt fro his fSader gon ; 
He if ganged, hoten beniamin, 
for we ben alle of ebrifle kin." 
** Nu, bi ^e fei^ ic og to king pharaon, 

2188 fole ge nogt alle e%en gon, 
Til ge me biingen beniamin, 
%a gongefte broker of pore^ kin." 
For ^0 waf lofep fore for-dred 

2192 %at he wore oc %harg hem for-red ; 
He dede hem binden, and leden don, 
And fperen fade in his prifun ; 
%e %ridde dai he let hem gon, 

2196 Al but %e ton broker fjmeon ; 
%if fjmeon bi-lef %or in bond, 
To wedde under lofepes bond, 
^es o^ere bre^ere, fone on-on, 

2200 Token lene and wenten hom ; 

And fone he weren %eden' went, 
Wei fore he hanen hem bi-ment, 
And feiden hem %an %or bi-twen, 

2204 " Wrigtfnl we, in forwe ben, 
for we finigeden quilum or 
On hnre broker michil mor, 
for we wemeden him merci, 

2208 Nn drege we forge al for-%i. 
Wende here non it on hif mod, 
Oc lofep al it nnder-dod. 

Iofepes men %or qtdles deden 
^ Al-fo lofep hem adde beden ; 

%o bre^ere feckes haUen he filt. 
And in eumlc %e filu^ pilt 
%at %or was paid for %e coren, 
2216 And bnnden %e mn^es %or bi-foren ; 
Oc %e bre^ere ne wiAen it nogt 
Hn %iB dede wnr^ wrogt ; 


"One,»» the 
bnUmn Mddt 

••WM At ' 


[FoL 4S.] 
Quoth Joaeph, 
hence go, until 

He kept them in 
prison, and on 
the third daj let 
them all go ex- 
cept Simeon. 

[* tSetSen ?] The othen be- 
moaned their 111- 

They thonght of 
their lin towarda 

meanwhile, aa 
they were eom- 

[Fol. 48&.1 
thera' aacks, 
and placed in 
them the money 
paid for the com. 



Unopened they 
brought them to 
Jacob and told 
him how they 
had sped. 

Great was their 
fear when they 
saw the money 
in the sack's 

"Much sorrow," 
says Jacob, "is 
oome upon me, 

since my two 
children are 
taken from me. 

Bex^amin shall 
remain with me." 

The com is soon 
oonstuned, and 
Jacob bids them 
go to Egypt for 

[Fol. 44.] 

Jacob is per- 
suaded to send 

He sends 
the silver. 


and other corn- 

together with a 
present of firoit 
and spioes for 

The brethren 
oome again to 

Joseph treats 
them kindly, 

Oc alle lie weren ou^r-^ogt, 
2220 And hauen it fo to iacob brogt, 

And tolden him fo of here fped, 

And ol he it liflnede in frigtihed ; 

And qtian men %o feckes %or un^bond, 
2224 And in %e coren %o agtes fond, 

Alle he woren %anno^ fori ofrigt. [^ 'Sanne ?] 

Iacob ^us him bi-mene^ o-rigt, 

** Wei michel forge is me bi-cumen, 
2228 %at min two childre aren me for-nnmef* ; 

Of lofep wot ic ending non, 

And bondes ben leid on fymeon ; 

If ge beniamin fro me don, 
2232 Bead and forge me fege% on ; 

Ai fal beniamin wi^ me bl-lewen 

^or qwiles ic fal on werlde liuen." 

^0 qwa^ iudas, " us fal ben hard, 
2236 If we no' holden him non forward. [» ne?] 

Tex derke.' ^is coren if gon, p dei^e ?] 

Iacob ell* bit hem faren agon, [* eft ?] 

Oc he ne duren %e weie cumen in, 
2240 " but ge wi^ uf fenden beniamin ; " 

^0 qwa^ he, " qimn it if ned, 

And ne can no bettre red, 

Bere^ dat* filutfr hoi agon, [ » «at ?] 

2244 ^at hem ^or-of ne wante non, 

And o^er filuer ^or bi-foren, 

for to bigen wi^ o^er coren ; 

firuit and fpices of dere prif, 
2248 Bere^ ^at man ^at if fo wif ; 

God hunne him e^i-modes ben. 

And fende me min childre agen. 

^0 nomen he for^ weie rigt, 
2252 Til he ben cumen iw-to egypte ligt ; 

And qtianne lofcp hem alle fag, 

Kinde ^ogt i» his herte was [^agj. 




He bad hif ftiward gerkon ii xneton, 

2256 He feide he fulden wi^ him alle eten ; 
He ledde hem alle to lofepes biri, 
Her non hadden ^o loten miri. 
**Lou^," he feiden ^o eu^rilc on, 

2260 " Gur filuer if gu brogt a-gon, 
It was in ure feckes don, 
Ne wifle ur non gilt ^or-on." 
" Be^ nu ftille," quad fHward, 

2264 "for ic nu haue min forward." 
^or cam ^at broker fymeon 
And kifte if bre^ere on and on ; 
Wei fagen he was of here come, 

2268 for he was numen ^or to nome. 
It was vndren time or more, 
Om cam ^nt riche lou^rd ^ore ; 
A^d al ^0 bri^ere, of frigti mod, 

2272 fellen bi-forn «at lou<?rd-if fot, 
And bedden him riche pr<?fent 
^at here fader hi[m] adde fent ; 
And ho lenelike it nnder-ftod, 

2276 for alle he wcren of kinde blod. 

<< T Iue«," quod he, " ^at fader get, 

-" ^at ^us manige funes bi-gat ?" 
" lou^rd," he feiden," get he liue^, 

2280 "Wot io ^or non ^at he ne biue^ j 
And ^if if gunge beniamin, 
Hider brogt after bode- word ^in. 
^0 losep fag him ^or bi-foren, 

2284 Bi fader & modcr broker boren. 
Him ouer-wente his herte on-on, 
Kinde luue gan hi^n ou^r-gon ; 
Sone he gede ut and flQlc he gret, 

2288 ^at al his wlite wur^ teres wet. 
After ^at grot, he weif if wliten. 
And cam %an in and bad hem eten ; 

and bld« hb 
dteward prepare 
a feast for them. 

They tell Joaepn 
that they bare 
brougrht back the 
bilvcr which they 
found in their 

[Fol. 446.] 
Simeon was 
brought out onto 

Joseph oame 
home about 

and the brethren 
offered him their 

He enquires after 
his father. 

They answer that 
Jacob is well. 

and that Benja- 
min stands before 


He went out and 
wept secretly. 

After a while he 
returned to them 
and bade them 



[Fol. 45.1 
He made hii 
brethren sit be- 
fore him accord- 
mg to their age. 

Of meat and 
wine, the best he 
gaye to Benja- 

Joieph gare 

them good 


and advised them 
to act trathfally. 

On the morrow 
they depart. 

Joseph's enp it 
hid hi Bei^ 

ger OTertakcs 

of theft. 

[Fol. 456.} 

The brethren as- 
sert their inno- 

They wre ran- 
sacked one and 



He dede hem waifen and him bi-foren. 
And fette hem af he weren boren ; 
Get he %hogte of hif faderes wunes 
Hu he fette at %e mete hife funes ; 
Of eumlc fonde, of euerHc win, 
mod and bed he gaf beniamin. 
In fulfum-hed he wur^en gla^e,^ [> = glade.] 

lofep ne ^oht ^or-of no fca^e, 
Oc it him likede fwi^e wel, 
2300' And hem lerede and tagte wel, 
And hu he fulden hem bed leden, 
Qt^^e he comen in ynkinde %eden ;' [> deden ?] 
^' And al %6 bettre fule ge fpeden, 
K ge wilen gu wi^ trewei^e leden.'* 
Eft on morwen quan it waf dai, 
Or or ^e bre^ere ferden a-wei, 
Here ieckes woren alle filt wi% core% 
And ^e filn^ ^or-in bi-foren ; 
And %e feck %at agte beniamin 
lofepes cnppe hid was ^or-in ; 
And qunan he weren nt tune went, 
lofep haue% hem after fent. 
%i8 fonde hem onMake^ ra^e, 
And bi-ealle% of harme and fca^e ; 
" Vn-feli men, qwat haue ge don ? 
Gret vn-fel^ehe if gu cumen on, 
for if it nogt min lord for-holen, 
^a[t] gure on hane^ if cuppe dolen. 
^[o] feiden ^e bre^ere fikerlike, 
" Vp qtMim ^u it findes witterlike. 
He ilagen and we agen driuen 
In-to ^raldom, euermor to liuen." 
He gan hem raniaken on and on. 
And fond it %or fone a-non. 
And nam %o bre^ere eu#rilk on, 
And ledde hem forM a-gon, 









And brogte hem bi-for iofep 
3328 Wid reweli lote, and forwe, and wep. 

%o qu&t iofep, <^ne wide ge nogt 

^at ic am wol witter ^ogt ? 

Mai nogt longe me ben for-bolen 
2382 Qtiat-fo^u^re on londe wur% dolen/' 

" Loo^ !" quad ludas, '* do wi^ me 

Qtiat-fo %i wille on werlde be, 

Wi^-^an-^at ^u fri^e beniamin ; 
2336 ic ledde [him] ut on trewthe min, 

%at he fnlde ef ^ cumen a-gen [i eft ?] 

to hife fader, and wi% him ben." 

^0 cam iofep fwilo rew^e up-on, 
2340 he dede halle at %e to^ere gon, 

And fpao nn-e^es, fo e gret, 

^at alle hife wlite wur^ teref wet. 

" Ic am iofep, drede^ gu nogt, 
2344 for gore hel^e or hider brogt ; 

Two ger ben nn ^at dorke' if cnmen, p derSo ?] 

G^t ftden .v. folle ben numen, 

%at men ne fulen fowen ne fheren, 
2348 So ial dnigte %e feldos deren. 

Eape% gu to min foder a-gen, 

And fei% him qtdlke min bliiles ben, 

And do% him to me cumen hider, 
2352 And ge and gore orf al to-gider ; 

Of lewfe god in lend gerfen 

fulen ge fundri riche ben." 

Eumlc he kifle, on ilc he gret, 
2356 He here was of if teres wet. 

Sone it was king pharaon kid 
Hu >5i8 newe tiding wur^ bi-tid ; 
And he was bli^e, in herte fagen, 
2360 %at Iofep wulde him %ider dragon, 
for luue of Iofep migte he timen. 
He bad cartes and waines nimen, 

and Imraght b«« 
foro Joteph, 

who reproaohM 
them for their 

Jndah tells Jo- 


ih of his pro- 
tohls father. 

Joseph oom- 
his hrethren to 
lea^e him, and 
makes himself 
known to them. 

[Fol. 46.] 

Tells them to 
hasten to his 

and return with 
their cattle to 


Soon did Pharaoh 
learn the new 

He had them 
take carts and 



waiiu and fetch 
their wiTea and 

changes of rai- 

[FoL 466.] 

He bad them 
take presents for 

and hasten home- 

When they came 
home, Jacob 
scarcely recog- 
nized tnem. 

"Lord Israel," 
they said, 
•* Joseph liveth 
and greeteth thee 

Jacob beUerfed 
not till he saw the 

Then he said, *' I 
shall go to my son 
ere I turn from 
the world." 

Jacob and his fa- 
mily left Canaan. 

[Fol. 47.] 

Pharaoh gires 
them the land ot 
Goshen to live in. 
Jacob is brought 
before Pharaoh, 

And fechen wiues, and childre, and men, 
2364 And gaf hem ^or al lend gerfen, 

And het hem ^at he fulden hanen 

More and bet %an he kude crauen. 

lofep gaf ilc here twinne frud, 
2368 Beniamin mod he* made prud ; [» MS. be.] 

fif weden beft bar beniamin, 

^re hundred plateB of filurr fin, 

Al-fo fele o^re %or-til, 
2372 He bad ben in is faderes wil, 

And .X affes wi^ femes feft ; 

Of alle egiptes wel^he beft 

Gaf he if bre^ere, wi^ herte bli^e, 
2876 And bad hem rapen hem homward fwi^e ; 

And he fo deden wi^ herte fagen. 

Toward here fader he gunen dragen, 

And qt^ane he comen him bi-foren, 
2380 Ne wifte he nogt qwat he woren. 

" Loutfrd," he feiden, " ifrael, 

lofep ^in fune grete^ ^e wel, 

And fended ^e bode ^at he liue^, 
2384 Al egipte in hif wil clinch." 

lacob a-braid, and trewcd it nogt, 

Til he fag al ^at wel^e brogt. 

"Wei me," qua^ he, "wel if me wel, 
2388 ^at ic ane abiden ^uf fwil[c] fel ! 

And ic fal to min fune fare 

And fen, or ic of werlde chare." 

Acob wente ut of lond chanaan,., 
2892 And of if kinde wel manie a man ; 

lofep wel faire him vnder-ftod, 

And pharaon ^ogte it fill good ; 

for ^at he weren hirde-men, 
2396 He bad hem ben in lond gerfen. 

lacob waf brogt bi-foren ^e king 

for to geuen him hif blifcing. 



** fader derer," qi«a% phaiaon, 
2400 "hu fele ger be ^e on?" 

" An hundred ger and .xxx. mo 

Haue ic her drogen in werlde wo, 

^og ^inke^ me ^or-offen fo, 
2404 %og ic if haue drogen in wo, 

fi^en ic gan on werlde ben, 

Her vten erd, man-kin bi-twen ; 

So linked* eu^rilc wif man, [i •Sinke'S ?] 

2408 ^e wot qwor-of man-kin bi-gan. 

And %e of adames gilte mime%, 

^at he her uten herdes wune^." 

Pharaon bad him worsen wel 
.in fofto refle and feli mel ; 

He and hife fanes in refle dede 

In lond gerfen, on fundri llede ; 

Si^en %or waf mad on fcite, 
2416 ^e waf y-oten Ramefe. 

lacob on line wunede ^or 

In reile fulle .xiiij. ger; 

And god him let bi-foren fen 
2420 Qtfilc time hife ending fulde ben ; 

He bad iofep hife leue fune. 

On ^hing ^at' ofTe wel mune, 

%at quan it wur^ mid him don, 
2424 He folde him binen in ebron ; 

And witterlike he it aue^ him feid, 

^e ftede ^or abraham was leid ; 

So was him lif ' to wur^en leid, p lef ?] 

2428 Qtfuor ali gast flille hadde feid 

Him and hife eldere(.) fer ear bi-foren, 

Qtnior iefu crid wnlde ben boren, 

And qunor ben dead, and quuor ben grauen ; 
2432 He ^ogt wi^ hem relle to hauen. 

Iofep fwor him al-fo he bad, 

And he ^or-of wur^ bli^e & glad. 

and telli him of 

of his numy Bor- 

and how all :;uf- 
fer for the sin of 

Pharaoh bod him 

Jacob Ured one 
hundred and 
forty-four years. 

Ood showed him 
the time of his 

[Fol. 476.] 
Jacob bad Joseph 
P iSai ?] promise 

to bury him in 

where Abraham 
was laid. 

and hb elders be- 
fore him. 

Joseph swore to 
do as hb father 



Before he died 
Jacob called hia 
aona before him, 
and "said what 
of them should 

Joseph caused his 
father's body to 
be embalmed. 

Egypt's folk "be- 
waked" Jacob 
for forty nights 
and forty days. 

[Fol. 48.] 
The first nine 
nights they 
bathe, anoint, 
etc., the body. 

The Hebrews had 
a different cus- 

they wash the 


and keep It un* 

anointed for 

seren nighta. 

Christian folks 
are anointed with 
ehrism and oil in 
their life-time. 

For the dead they 
perform alms* 
gift and mast- 

Jacob's sons kept 
a "wake'* of 
thirty days. 

Or ^an he wifte off werlde faren, 
2436 He bade hife kinde to him charen, 

And feide qu&t of hem folde ben| 

Hall gafl dede it him feen ; 

In dene ending and ali lif, 
2440 So he for-let ^is werldes ftrif. 

Ofep dede hife lich faire geren, 

Waflen, and riche-like lineren, 

And fpice-like fwete linaken ; 
2444 And egipte folc him bi-waken 

xl. nigtes and .xl. daiges, 

fwilc woren egipte higes. 

first .ix. nigt ^e lichee be^en, 
2448 And fmeren, and winden, and bi-qiM^Sen, 

And waken if fi%en .xl. nigt ; 

^0 men fo deden %e adden migt. 

And ebriife folc adden an kire, 
2462 Nogt fone deluen it wi^ yre, 

Oc wafTen it and kepen it rigt, 

Wi^-vten fineries, feuene nigt, 

And fiden^ fmered .xxz. daiges. 
2456 Cridene folc haae% o^er laiges, 

He ben fmered %or qtiiles he linen, 

Wi^ crifme and olie, in trew^e genen ; 

for trew^e and gode dedes mide, 
2460 %on' ben %an al %at wech-dede ; 

Snm on. fum. %re. sum .vii. nigt, 

8um .XXX., fum .xii. rnone^ rigt; 

And fum eu^c wur^en ger, 
2464 Vor qtdles Vat he wnnen her, 

don for %e dede chirche*gong, 

elmeffe-gifte, and mefle-fong, 

And Vat if on Ve weches ftede ; 
2468 Wei him mai ben dat' wel it dede ! 

Egipte folc aueV him waked 

xl. nigty and fede maked, 

[» fiUen ?] 






And Life funes .xxx. daiges, 
2472 In dene lif and all daiges ;^ [^ Uiges ?] 

So woren for^ .x. wukes gon, 

get adde lacob birigeles non. 

And pharaon king cam bode bi-foren, 
2476 %at lofep haae% his fader fworen ; 

And he it him gatte %or he wel dede » 

And bad hi«i nimen him feres mide, 

Wel wopnede men and wif of here[n], 
2480 dat' noman hem bi weie deren ; [> tSat ?] 

^at here if led, ^if folc if rad, 

he foren a-bnten bi adad ; 

fill feuene nigt he %er abiden, 
2484 And bi-meniiig for iacob deden ; 

So longe he hauen ^e^en numen. 

To flnm inrdon %at he ben cumen, 

And ou^ pharan til ebron ; 
2488 %or if %at liche in biriele don. 

And lofep in to cgipte went, 

Wid* al if folc ut wi^ him [sjent [» iri« ?] 

Hife bre^ere comen him %anne to, 
•..^. And gunnen him bi-&ken alle fo; 

<< Yre fader," he feiden, '* or he was dead, 

Ys he %if bodewurd feigen bead, 

Eure finne %u him for-giue, 
2496 Wi^-^anne-^at we vnder ^e liuen." 

AUe he fellen him %or to fot, 

To be^en me%e and bedden oo ; 

And he it for-gaf ^ hem mildelike, 
2500 And luuede hem alle kinde-like. 

Ofep an hundred ger waf hold, 

And hif kin wexen manige-fold ; 

He bad fibbe cumen him bi-foren, 
2504 Or he waf ut of werlde boren ; 

Fol. 4M.] 

tea weeks 
DMsed Awar and 
Jacob had no 

Pharaoh beard of 
Joseph's oath u 

and ga^e him 
leare to burr hk 
father, and to 
take with him 

Ther crossed the 
Jordan, and laid 
the bodT in a 
tomb, and Joseph 
returned to 

came to him to 
seek forgiveness, 

end fel 
there before his 
feet, and he for- 
gave and loTed 
them kindly. 
[Fol. 49.] 

Joseph waxed 

he bad his rela- 
tions come before 
him ere he died, 

« At bottom of fol. 483 is the catchword— << And he it for-gaff." 



and told them of 
Qod'8 promiBe to 
their elders. 

He auks them to 
bear his bones 
with them, when 
thejloaTe Egypt. 

The death of Jo- 

Here endeth the 
book called Gene- 
sis, written by 
Moses, through 
God's counsel. 

[Fol. 49ft.] 
God shield his 
soul from hell- 
bale, who trans- 
Uted it hito 
English I 
May God help 
and protect him 
from hell -pain, 
oold and hot ! 

And all men who 
will hear it, God 
grant that they 
may dwell in bliss 
among angels for 

"It fal," qwa^ he, *' ben fo^, bi-foren 
^at god ha^ ure eldere fworen ; 
He fal gu leden in hif bond 
2608 He^en to ^at hotene lond ; 
for godef luue get bid ic gu, 
Leded it %anne, hote% it nu, 
^at mine bene no be for-loren, 
2512 wi^ gu ben mine bones boren.*' 

He it him gatten and wur% he dead, 
God do ^e foule feli red ! 
Hife liche waf fpice-like maked, 
2516 And longe egipte-like waked, 
And ^0 biried hem bi-foren. 
And fi^en late of londe boren. 
Hife o^re bre^ere, on and on, 
2520 Woren ybiried at ebron. 

An her endede to fill, in wif, 
^e boc ^e if hoten genelis, 
^e moyfes, ^urg godes red, 
2524 Wrot for lefful foules ned. 

God fchilde hife fowle fro helle bale, 
%e made it %us on engel tale ! 
And he ^at ^ife lettres wrot, 
2528 God him helpe weli mot. 

And berge if fowle fro forge & grot 
Of helle pine, cold & hot ! 

And alle men, ^e it heren wilen,* p MS. welin.] 
2532 God leue hem in hif bliffe fpilen 
Among engeles & feli men, 
Wi^uten ende in refte ben. 
And luue & pais uf bi-twen, 
2536 And god fo graunte, amen, ameN ! 




[Odes blifcing be wi^ ts, 

Her nu bi-ginned^ exodus. [^ bi-giimet$ ?] 

Pharao kinges rigte name 
2540 Yepbres, he dede %e ebrif frame ; 

And bi o^ere feuene kinges fel, 

Wexen he ^ore & ^ogen wel. 

^e egtenede king amonaphis, 
2544 Agenes ^is folo batel is ; 

And egipte folc adden ni^, 

for ebrif adden feli li^. 

Qttua^ ^is ging' wi^ Ijem ftille in red, [« king ?] 
2548 '' ^is ebris waxen micbil fped, 

Bute if we erafliko' henf*for-don, [» craftlike ?] 

Ne fulen be non eige fen uf on." 

Bo fette fundri hem to waken 
His tigel and lim, and walles maken, . 

burges feten ; and ramefen 

%urge here fwinc it walled ben ; 

Summe he deden in vn-^ewed fwinc, 
2556 for it was fugel and ful o ilinc, 

Muc and fen ut of burgef beren, 

9uf bitterlike he gun hem deren ; 

^e ^ridde fwinc was eui and (lron[g], 
2560 He deden hem crepen dikes long, 

And wide a-buten burges gon, 

And cumen %er ear waf non ; 

And if ^at folc hem wulde deren, 
2564 ^e dikef comb hem fulde weren. 

for al ^at fwinc heui & for. 

Ay wex ^at kinde, mor & mor, 

And ^hogen, & fpredden in londe ^or, 
2568 ^at made ^e kinges herte ful for. 
^0 bad monophis pharaun 

wimmen ben fet in eu^ilc tun, 

And ^at he weren redi bi-foren, 
2572 Quan ebru child fuld be boren, 

Hen beginneth 

Under Phanob, 
and the seren 
kings who tac- 
ceeded him, 

the Ifraelitet in< 
creased and pros- 

The eighth king 
treated them 

and the Egyp- 
tians became 
Jealoos of them. 

[Fol. 50.1 

Ther made Blares 
of them, and set 
them to build 

Some they made 
to do foul work. 

to carry "mack 
and fen out of 
the city," 


and to creep 
along dikes. 

The comb of the 
dike serves them 
as protection 
against their 

For all that la- 
bour, the folk 
increased and 

Then bad Pha- 

that erery He- 
brew male child 
should be put to 
death as soon as 
it was bom. 



[FqI. 506.] 
The mid wives 
Bared the ohil- 
dren't Ures, 

and lied to the 
king, saying, 

that the children 
were bom ere 

Pharaoh then 
bad that STerr 
«* Imare child'* 
should be drown- 

Bt that time was 

His mother hid 
bim for three 

Then she nuule 
an ark, 

E laced the child 

and set it on the 

Miriam was sent 
to watch what 
[FoL 61.] 

The king*s 
daughter came 
and saw the child 
on the water. 

She wist it wu of 
Hebrew kia, 

And 9e knapes to deade giueiiy 
And leten ¥e mayden childre linen. 
Oc he it leten fro godef dred ; 

2576 Get ^o cluldre wexen in fped. 
And qt^ane be komen to %e king, 
He wereden hem wi^ lefing ; 
He feiden ^e childre weren boren 

2580 Or he migten ben hem bi-foren. 
God it geald defe^ wifes wel, 
On horn, on hagte, eddi fel I 
T\o bad ^is kiiy^ al opelike, 
-L/ In alle burges modiUkei 
Enmlc knape child of %at kin 
ben a-non don ^e flod wi^-in. 



"OI ^at time waf mo3rfe8 bcn'en, 

So bet abrahrom dor' bi-foren ; 
And his moder bet lacabe^, 
Ghe was for him dreful and ble%, 
wel is hire of bird' bi-tid. 

2592 %re mone% haue^ ghe him hid, 

durde ghe non lengere him for-helen, 
Ne ghe ne cu^e ^e wateres flelen ; 
In an fetles, of rigeffes wrogt, 

2596 Terred, %at water dered it nogt, 
^if child wnnden ghe wnlde don, 
And fetten it fo ^e water on ; 
Ghe adde or hire dowter fent, 

2600 To loken qwtder it fulde ben went ; 
liaria dowter fol feren flod. 
And ghe nam kep to- ward ^if flod. 

Teremuth kinkes* dowter ^or cam, 
^or %is child on %e water nam ; 

Ghe bad it ben to hire brogt, 
And fag 'Sis child wol fair[e] wrogt, 
Ghe wifle it was of ebrins kin, 
2608 And ^og cam hire rewde* wi^-in ; 



p bir» ?] 














Ck)d haned' fwilc fair-hed him geaen, [& hautfS }] 

%at felf %e fon it leten liuen. 

Egipte wimmen comen ner, 

And boden ^e childe letten %er, 

Oc he wente it awei wi% rem. 

Of here bode nam he no gem. 

BO quad maiia to teremnth, 
** wilt ^XL, lenediy ic go fear out, 
And take fujii wimman of %at kin 
%or he waf H-gote & fofhred in ?" 
Teremnth fo bad, & fche for^-ran. 
And brogt hire a foflre wimman. 
On waf tette he fone ane% lagt, 
And teremnth haae% hire him bi-tagt 
lakabe^ wente bli^e agen, 
^at ghe %e gildef ' foflre mnfle ben ; p eildef ?] 
Ghe kepte it wel in foftre wune, 
Ghe knew it for hire owen fune ; 
And quane it fulde fundred ben, 
Ghe bar it toremuth for to fen ; 
Teremnth toe it on fanes ilede, 
And fedde it wel and cloven dede ; 
And ghe it clepit moyfen, 
Ghe wifte of water it boren ben. 

An time after %at %if was don, 
Ghe brogte him bi-foren pharaon, 
And ^if king wnr^ him in herte mild, 
So fwide' faiger was ^if child ; p fwtBe ?] 

And he toe him on fnnes flede. 
And hif comne on his heued he dede, 
And let it flonden ayne Ihind ; 
%e child it warp don to de grand. 
Hamonel^ likenef was %or-on ; [« Hamonef ?] 

^is cmne is broken, %if if mifdon. 

BifTop Eliopoleos 
iag %if, timing, & up he rof ; 

its beauty. 

wanted her to 
deetroj the 

MirUm, at Tere- 
mnth*! Uddinff, 

woman*' for the 

Teremnth eon- 
•igned Moeee to 
Jochabed, who 

[Fol. 516.] 
when old 
enough, the child 
was adopted by 
Teremnth, who 
eaUed it Moses. 

She bronght him 
before Pharaoh, 
who placed the 
royal crown on 
his head. 

The child soon 
threw it to the 

Hamons' likeness 
was thereon. 

The Bishop of 
Heliopolis saw 
this and said, 



« If this child be 
allowed to tlirire, 
he shall become 
Egypt's bale." 

[Fol. 52.1 
The king offerea 
the chUd two 
burning coals (to 
eat), and he put 
them in nis 
moathf and burnt 
the end of his 
tongue there- 
with, and spake 

So fair was he to 
look upon, that 
none might be 
angry with him. 

By the time that 
he became re- 
nowned for 
beauty and 
strength, the 
Ethiopians inva- 
ded Egypt, and 
burnt and slew 
as far as the Bed 

The Egyptians 
ask counsel of 
their gods, who 
tell them that a 
Hebrew shall de- 
liver them. 

Moses is per- 
mitted by Tere- 

[Fol. i2b,] 

** If «if child," quad he, ** mote ^en, 

He fal egyptes bale ben." 

If ^or ne woi*e helpe twen lopen, 

2648 ^if child adde ^an fone be dropen ; 
^e king wi^-ftod & an wif man. 
He feide, ** ^e child do^ alf he can ; 
We fulen nu witen for it dede 

2652 ^if witterlike, or in child-hede ;" 
He bad %is child brennen to colen 
And he toe is hu migt he it ^olen, 
And in hife muth fo depe he if dede 

2656 Hife tunges ende if brent %or-mide ; 
^or-fore feide de* ebru witt^rlike, 
%at he fpac fi%en miferlike ; 
Oc fo faiger he waf on to fen, 

2660 %at migte non man modi ben. 

%or quiles he feweden him up-on, 
Mani dede b[ijleph un-don 
In ^at burg folc bi-twen, 

2664 So waf hem lef on him to fen. 
Bi dat' time ^at he was gu^, 
Wi^ faigered and ftrengthe ku^, 
folc ethiopienes on egipte cam, 

2668 And brende, & (lug, & wreche nam, 
Al to memphin dat' riche cite. 
And a-non to ^e reade fe ; 
^o was egipte folc in dred, 

2672 And afkeden here godes red ; 
And hem feiden wi^ anfweren, 
^at on ebru cude hem wel weren ; 
Teremuth un-e^es migte timen 

2676 ^at moyfes fal wi^ hire for^-nimen, 
Or haue he hire pligt & fworen, 
^at him fal fei^ wur^ful ben boren. 
Moyfes was lou^red of ^at here, 

2680 ^or he wur^ ^ane egyptes were ; 






Bi a lond weige he wente rigt, 

And brogte vn-warnede on hem figt ; 

He hadden don egipte wrong, 
2684 He bi-loo hem & fmette a-mong, 

And Hug %or manige ; oc fumme flen, 

Into faba to borgen ben. 

Moyfes bi-fette al ^at bnrg, 
2688 Oc it was riche & ftrong ut-^hurg ; 

Ethiopienes kinges dowt^ tarbis, 

Eiche maiden of michel prif, 

Gaf ^if riche burg moyfi ; 
2692 Luue-bonde hire ghe it dede for-^i. 

^or ife fon he leide in bonde, 

And he wur^ al-migt-M in ^at lond ; 

He bi-lef ^or(.) tarbis him fero^, 
2696 ^og was him ^at furgerun ful lo^ ; 

Hai he no leue at hire taken 

but-if he it mai wi^ crafte maken : 

He waf of an flrong migt wif, 
2700 He carf in two gummes of prif 

Two likeneffes, fo grauen & meten, 

^if do^ Menken, & ^o^* forgeten ; [» «o'5#r?] 

He feft is in two ringes of gold, 
2704 Gaf hire ^e ton, he was hire hold ; 

Ghe it bered* and ^if luue if for-geten, [« here*?] 

Moyfes ^us haued' him leue bi-geten ; p haue« ?] 

Sone it migte wi^ lone ben, 
2708 Into egypte e* wente a-gen. [* MS. ewente.] 

AN time he for to lond gerfen, 
to fpeken wi% hife kinnes men ; 
And fone ho cam in-to ^at lond, 
2712 A modi ftiward he ^or fond, 

Betende a man wid* hife wond ; [» wiU ?] 

^at ^hugte moyfes michel fond. 
And hente ^e cherl wi^ hife wond, 
2716 And he fel dun in dedes bond ; 

Uant against 
their c 

He smote and 
slew them. 
Many fled to 

The kinff of Ethi- 
opia's daughter, 
for lore, 

to Moses, 

who waxed 
mighty in the 

His sojonm there 
was distasteful to 

but bT craft he 
brought it to an 

He carred upon 
two gems two 

the one caused 
the other forget- 

Moees gare her 
the one which 
[Fol. 53.] 
caused her to for- 
get her lore. 

and so he came 
again to Egjrpt. 
On a time he 
went to Ooshen, 
and found a 
"moody stew- 
ard" beating a 

He seised the 
churl, slew him. 
and buried him 
in the sand. 



He thought that 
none had wist it. 

On the 

day he saw two 
Hebrews ohiding, 
and repioTed 

The wrong-doer 
thus answered 
'*Moees, who 


[Fol. Mb.] 
We Imow well 
how yeeterdax 
one was slain and 

Boon shall thy 
prida ML down.'* 

Then Motes fled 

w&ere dwelt 

who had seten 

These maidens 
took care of 

Pride was not i 
great thffa i 

Moses helped the 
maidens to water 
the flooks. 

And moyfes drag him to ^e fbrond. 

And ftille^ be dalf hiw [in] H5e fond ; 

wende he H5at non egipcien 
2720 %at hadde it wifl, ne fulde a fen ; 

Til after ^if on o^er day, 

He lag chiden in ^e wey 

two cgypcienis, modi & ftrong, 
2724 ^if on wulde don ^e to^er wrong ; 

And moyfes nam ^er-of kep, 

And to hemward fwide* he lep, [» fwi«e ?] 

And yndemam him %at it agte awold. 
2728 And he him anfwerede modi & bold ; 

" Meifter(.) moyfes, qwo baue^ ^e mad? 

%a art of dede and o word to rad. 

we witen wel q«at if bi-tid, 
2732 Qunow gifler-dai waf flagen and hid ; 

¥e bode if cumen to pharann,' [> MS. pharaam.] 

Get fal %in pride fallen dnn." 


©o bi«thowte him moyfes, 

And his weige ^e^en ches ; 
^urg ^e deferd a-wei he nam. 
And to bnrge madian he cam. 
And fette hi[m] ^or vten ^e town, 
2740 Bi a welle %o fprong ¥or don. 
Baguel letro %at riche man, 
Was wnniende in madian. 
He hadde fenene dowtref bi-geten ; 
2744 ^or he comen water to feten. 
And for to wattren hero fep ; 
(Wimmen H5o nomen of here erf kep, 
Pride ne cu^e bi ^at dai 
2748 Nogt fo michel fo it nn mai). 

firdes wnldcn ^e maidenes deren, 
Oc moyfes %or hem gan weren, 
And wattrede here erue eutfrilo'on, 
2752 And dede hem tidelike to time gon ; 
1 MS. ftalle, corrected to (lille. 




And ben fone horn numen ; 

And b[i]foren here fader cnmen, 

And gonen bim %ore tellen, 
2756 Hu a gimge man, at te welle[n], 

%ewe and wnrfipe bem dede ; 

And ietaro geld it bim in efldede, 

8ente after bim, freinede bif kin, 
2760 Helde bim wur^elike if buf wi^-in ; 

Of ali kinde be wide bim boren, 

And bad bim ^or wimen bim bi-foren, 

Oaf bim if dowter fepboram ; 
2764 To wife in lage be biie nam, 

And bi-gat two fanes on bire %er, 

firfl gerlon, fiden^ eliezer. [> fit^en }] 

Egipte king to late waf dead, 
2768 %e %e cbildre fo drinkelen bead. 

And moyfes waf numen an fel 

In %e deierd depe fumdel, 

for te loken birdneiTe fare ; 
2772 Eicbe men ¥o kepten fwilc ware. 

^0 fag moyfes, at munt fynay, 

An. fwi^e ferli figt ^or-bi, 

fier brennen on %e grene leaf, 
2776 And ^og grene and bol bi-leaf ; 

for% be nam to fen witterlike. 

Ha %at fier brende milde-like ; 

Vt of ^at bnfk, ^e brende and ^beg, 
2780 €K)d fente an flenene, brigt and beg; 

" Moyfes, moyfes, do of ^in fon, 

%a fiondes feli flede up-on ; 

Hie am god %e in min geming nam 
2784 lacob, yfaac, and abrabam ; 

ic bane min folkes pine fogen, 

%at be nu longe haaen drogen ; 

Nu am io ligt to fren bem HSeden,' [> t$et$ezi?] 
2788 And milcbe and bonige lend bem qtui^eu ; 

Thc7 told thak 

[Fol. 64.] 
how a young man 
at the well had 
orotected them. 
Jethro sent after 
him and kept him 
inhia hooae. 

and nre him hia 
daughter to wife, 
who bora him 
two aona. 

On a time Hoaea 
went into the 
deaert with hia 
flockf, for rich 
men then kept 

By Mount Sinai 
he aeea a won- 
droua Bight, 

a buah burning, 
and neyertheleaa 
green and whole. 

Out of that buah 

God*a toice waa 

heard, drar and 


** Moses, Moses, 

take off thv 

ahoea, for tnon 

Btandest on holy 


[Fol. 546.] 

1 am the Ood of 

Jacob, Isaac, and 


I hare seen the 

affliction of my 


and have come 
down to deliver 



mod tobrinf them 
into the limd of 
aertsk Ungdomt. 

Come, tboQ thalt 

«nd bid Pharaoh 
release my peo- 

If he reftaae, I 
shall work great 

and cause my 
people freely to 
oat fro. 

As a sigrn, throw 
down thy wand. 
The wand then 
became an ngly 

Ood bade Mo»es 
Uke it by the 
tail, and anon it 
became a wand.*' 
[Fol. 65.1 
He pnt his hand 
into his bosom 
and it became 

He took it out 
again whole and 

"If thcybeUcre 
not these tokens, 
pour out the 
water of the flood 
on the earth, and 
it shall become 

"Lord! I am not 
eloquent, and 
may not speak 
weU," said M<^ 

Quoth God, *< who 
made the dumb, 
the speaking, the 
blind, and the 

An .vii. kinge-riches lond 

Ic fal hem bringen al on bond. 

Cum, ^u fait ben min fondere man, 
2792 Ic fal ^e tecbcn wel to ^an ; 

^u fait min folc bringen a-gen. 

And her ^u fait min migte fen ,* 

And %u fait feien to faraon, 
2796 ^at he lete min folc ut-gon ; 

If he it werne and be H5or-gen, 

Ic fal ^e techen hu it fal ben ; 

for ic fal werken forlike ftrong, 
2800 And maken min folc frelike ut-gong ; 

Ge folen cumen wi^ feteles & frud, 

And reuen egipte ^at if nu prud. 

Wcrp nu to token dun ^at wond." 
2804 And it warp vt of hife bond, 

And war% fone an uglike fnake, 

And moyfes fleg for drcdes fake ; 

God him bad, hi ^o tail he it nam, 
2808 And it, a-non, a wond it bi-cam, 

And in hife bofum he dede his bond, 

Qmt and al unfcr he it fond ; 

And fone he dede it eft agcn, 
2812 Al hoi and fer he wifte it fen. 

"If he for ^ife tokenes two 

Nc lifte^e ne trowel to, 

Go, get ^e water of de* flod 
2816 On ^e er^e, and it fal wur^en blod." 

** Lou^d, ic am wanmol, vn-reken 

Of wurdes, and may ic luel fpeken. 

Nu if for^ gon ^e ^ridde dai, 
2820 Sende an o^er ; bcttre he mai." 

*' Qwo made dowme, and quo fpecande? 

Qtto'made bisne, and qwo lockende ? 

Qwo but ic, ^at haue al wrogt ? 
2824 Of me fal fultum ben ^e brogt.'* 




**Loiwrd, fent him ^at if to cuinen, 
Ygging and dred me haucd' numcn." 
" Aaron ^in broker can wel fpckcn, 
2828 %a fait him metcn and ynfleken 
TTim bodeword min, and ic fal red 
Gunc bo^cn bringcn read and fpcd." 

[» haue« ?] 


TIToyfes, frigti, ^o fundcn gan 

to fpeken wi^ ictro ^at richc man, 
And afkede him Icuc to farcn and fen, 
If hifo bre^ere of Hues bon ; 
^og drcchedo ho til god ef [t] bad, 
2886 And brogto him bode %e made him glad, 
^at pharaun, ^e wuldc liim f[l]en, 
Waf dead and hadde if werkcs len. 


TITOyfes and hifo wif fephoram. 

Aaron thy bro- 
ther can vpeak 
well, then shalt 
meet him, and 
make known to 
him my words.** 

MoHfs a«kt leare 
of Jethro U) ritit 
his brethren. 

PFol. bib.) 
MoKOH delayed 
until Ciod*» mes- 
sa^ again came 
to him. 

Then he departed 
with hi« wife and 

And hife childro wi^ him nam ; 

And ^at on waf vncircu;wcif 

He nam fo for^, fo^ it is ; 

An angel, wi^ an dragcn fwerd, 
2844 In ^e weie made him offcnl, 

for ^at he ledden feren fwike, 

^e fulden him deren witt^rlike ; 

Sephora toe ^if gunge knaue, 
2848 And dede circuwcifo haue, 

And grot, and wentc frigti a-gcn, 

And let moyfes for^ one ten. 

He bar hife gerdc for^ in if bond, 
2852 And nam a weie' bi deferd lond ; 

To mount fynai for^ he nam, 

Aaron hiie broker a-gen him cam ; 

Ey^er ere was of o^er fagen ; 
2856 Moyfes him haue^ if hor^e' vt-dragcn, p herte?] 

And he ben in-to egypte numen, 

And a-mong folc ebriflc ben cumcn ; 

Moyfes tolde hem ^at bli^c bode, 
2860 And let hem fen tockenes fro godo ; litreth ttiem. 


One child was 
and the ani^ol in 
the wav sought 
to slay him. 

Zipporah circum- 
ciseth her s<>n. 

Hoses pursues 
his way alone. 

[« MS. aweie.] 

At Mount Binai 
he meets with 

They Mme into 

The people be- 



[Fol. 56.] 

Moset and Aaron 
come before Plia- 

and delirer their 

[» wi« ?] 

Moaea aaya that 
he ia well known 
to the EgTptiana, 

haring delivered 
them firom the 

and that he 
bringa Ood'a 
meaaage fh>m 
Mount Sinai. 

Pharaoh chideth 

and declarea that 
the laraelitea 
ahaU Buffer atill 
greftter woe. 

[Ful. 566.] 

More labour waa 
. ^d upon the la- 

Moaea eomplaina 

He redden famen he fuldcn gon 

wid* wife men to pharaon. 

" God/' he feiden, " of i{rasl 
2864 ^e bode fente, and greteHS wel, 

^at, bi ^i leue, hife folc yt-fare, 

^re daiges gon and ben ^or gare, 

In ^e deferd an ftede up-on, 
2868 Hif leue facrifife to don." 

Quad pharann, ''knowe ic' him nogt, [> MS. i« hie] 

Bi qwafe read hauo ge ^if fowt ?" 

Seide moyfes, '4c am fonder man, 
2872 Egipto folo me knowen can, 

for ic am %at ilc moyfes, 

^e egypte folc of forge lea, 

H5an cthiops woren her cnmen ; 
2876 ic ware al ^at ^u was binnmen, 

And fwanc and michil forwe dreg, 

Get ift vnfene hu ic it bi-teg ? 

Ic haue ben li^en at munt fyna, 
2880 Godes bode-wurd bringe ic ^or-fra." 
^va^ pharaun, " ^u art min ^ral, 
^at hidel-like min lend vt-ftal ; 

Sum fwike-dom do^ it nu ben, 
2884 ^at ^u beft cumen nu eft agen ; 

^if folc, ^at ^u wilt me Ifeden fro, 

fal ben luken in more wo." 



T\e king it bad, and [it] wnr^ don ;* 

More fwinc ^o was hem leid on. 
Hem-feluen he fetchden H5e chaf 
^e men ^or hem to gode gaf. 
And ^og holden ^e tigeles tale, 
2892 And elten and eilden,' grete & fmale. [> childron }] 
^0 flog ^if folc wi^ moyfen, 

And [he] to god made hife bimen. 
** Louw^, qui waf ic hider fent? 
2896 ^in folc if more in forwe went." 





j^od qus^^, " ic fid hem lefen fix), 
And here fon weren wi^ wo ; 
Abraham, yfac, and hife funcn 
2900 Voren to min ^hun^g wunen, 
%og ne tagte ic hem nogt for-%i 
Min mig[t]ful name adonay ; 
Min milche witt^ name eley 
2904 He knewen wel, and ely ; 
^at ic ^e haue hoten wel, 
Ic it fal leflen eu^rilc del." 
Moyfes told hem %if tidding ; 
2908 ^og woren he get in (Irong murni[n]g. 
li^en fpao god to moyfen, 

and tagte him ha it fulde ben. 
fowre fcore ger he waf hold, 
2912 And aaron %re more told,^ 

Qtmnne he dat' bodewurd fpoken, 
And deden %e firme token. 

AAron ^or warp vt of hif bond 
Moyfeses migtful wond, 

And it wur^ bi-foren pharaon 

An Iglic ihake fone on-on ; 

^e king fente after wiches kire, 
2920 Wapmen ^e weren in fowles lire, 

^e ferden al hi fendes red, 

fendef hem gonen Unfnl fped ; 

And worpen he %or woiides dun, 
2924 firo euerilc ^or crep a dragun ; 

Oc moyfes wirm hem alle fmot. 

And here aldre heuedes he of hot ; 

^og deden wichef ^o men to fen 
2928 On o^ere wife or fo^e ben ; 

for ^0 fendes or he[m] bi-foren 

Hadden %o neddres %ider boren ; 

God's renews hk 
promise by hi* 
name Adooai, 

which was on- 
known to Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and 

Moses told the 
Hebrews these 
tidings, and yet 
were they in 
great anguish. 

Hoses was now 
fourscore years 

[Fol. 57.] 

Aaron cast down 
his rod before 

It became an 
ugly snake. 

The sorcerers, by 
the devirs help, 
did the like. 

Each of their rods 
became a dragon. 

Moses's . serpent 
bitofftheir heads. 

* At the bottom of this page in the catchword— **Qua«iie he "Bat bodewurd.*' 
' ^at ; see the catchword. 



Fluraoh woold 
not let th« Is- 
raditM go. 

Moms and Aaron 
again came be- 
fore Pharaoh. 

[FoL 67ft.] 

Aaron smote on 
the flood with hia 

•oon anon it be- 
came blood, 
and the fish in it 

pool blood waa 

except in Ooahen. 

leren mghta. 

Pharaoh then 
promiied that 
the Hebrew* 
ahuald depart. 

When the plague 
waa rcrooTed he 
would notrelease 

Mad witches mil- 
led the king. 


[Pol. 68.] 

And pharaon llirte up a-non, 
2932 And for-bed ^if folc to gon. 
^0 feide moyfes to araon, 

* Q?/at redef tu, broder, fule wit don ? 

^if king him his wel wi^er-ward 
2936 Agen ^is folc, and hcrte hard ; 

Go we and fpeken wi^ him get, 

And fonden wi^ ^if token bet." 

And fo deden [he] fone a-non, 
2940 And comen bi-foren pharaon, 

Quad aaron, ** nu faltu fen 

Qtfilc godes migtful fbeng^es ben." 

He fmot on ^at flod wi^ ^at wond, 
2944 Sone anon blod men al it fond ; 

And %e Mes, in al %at blod read, 

floten a-buuen and wur^eden dead ; 

In eutfrilc welle, in eu^rilc trike, 
2948 men funden blod al wittcrlike, 

But-if it were in ^c lond gerfen, 

^or-inne woree* ^e ebriffe men. [» woren ?] 

^is wreche, in al egypte rigt, 
2952 Leflede fulle feucne nigt ; 

^0 waf ^if king fumdel for-dred, 

And het hem he fulden vt ben led ; 

And moyfes ^if pine vn-dode, 
2956 And water wur^ on blodef ftede. 

^an pharaon wur^ war ^is hot, 

^if folc of londe funden ne mot ; 

lannes and mambrcs, wichef wod, 
2960 Him ^hugte he maden water blod; 

It waf on fendes wife wrogt, 

for to bi-to^men' ^o kingef ^ogt. [* bitou^ren MS.] 

Moyfes lerede god, fpac him mide, 
Al ^at if broker aaron dede. 
Eft he comen to pharaon, 
And he wemede ^if folc ut-gon. 



And aaron held up his hond, 
2968 to ^e water and ^e more lond ; 

^0 cam ^or up fwilc frofkes here 

^e ^ede^ al folc egipte dere ; 

Summe woren wilde, and fumme tame, 
2972 And %o hem dcdcn de' mofle fame ; 

In hufe, in drinc, in metes, in hed, 

It oropen and maden hem for-dred ; 

Summe floruen and gouen (line, 
2976 And vn-hileden mote and drinc ; 

Polheuedes, and froikes, & podes fpile 

Bond harde egipte folc in file. 

^if king had moyfes and aaron, 
2980 %at he fulden god bono don ; 

And fone fo moyfes bad if bede, 

^if wirmes floruen in ^o flede ; 

And quane %e king wur% war %is dead, 
2984 Anon ^is folc fore he for-bead. 

©e ^ridde wreche dede aaron 
Bi-foren ^e king pharaon ; 

He fmot wi^ ^at gerde on ^e lond, 
2988 And gnattes bird ^or ^ick© up-wond, 

fmale to fen, and farp on bite, 

In al egypte fleg %if fmite. 

And %o dede men and herf wo, 
2992 Anger and tene, forge and wo. 

QKO^en ^0 wiches clerke8(.) "^if 

fortoken godef gafles is." 

Her hem wantedo migt and fped, 
2996 to fwilc ^ing cu^en he non red ; 

^if toknes dede aaron. 

God fente fi^en hem o^ere on, 

for euere eld ^if king on-on, 
3000 And wemede ^if folc vt to gon- 

Bo feide god to moyfen, 
'' Go %u gund pharaon agen ; 

Aaron held up 
his hand towards 
the water, and 
np camo a host 
or frogs. 


ere wild 
and some tame. 

Some crept into 
hooaes, imnk, 
meat and bed. 

Some died and 

Tadpoles, frogs, 
and toads afflict- 
ed Egypt's folk. 

The frogs died. 

but the king for- 
bad the departure 
of the Hebrews. 

The third plague, 
of gnats, small 
to look at, but 
sharp biting. 

[Fol. 58*.] 

The witches said, 
*'ThiB is token 
of God's ghost,*' 

for they lacked 
might to do this. 

Pharaoh remains 



and U panished 
br « pUgae of 

Then gare he 
them leaTO to 

and the flight of 
fliea is removed. 

Message comes to 
Pharaoh of a 
great plague. 

[FoU 59.] 

The murrain 
among the cattle. 

The plague of 
boils and blains. 

The witches hid 
themselves, and 
would not come 
before Pharaoh, 

so loathsome 
were they to look 

Ood*s message to 

Sei liim, if min folc no mote gon, 
3004 fleges kin fal hin ou^-gon, 

And al hif lond to forge ten ; 

Oc in lond gerfen ne fal non ben." 

And duf * it was, and al ^if for [» -JJuf ?] 

3008 Sag pharann, and dredde him %or. 

He gaf hem leue ^o vt to faren 

wi^-^anne-^at he to londe ef[t] charen ; 

And moyfes bad me%e here on, 
3012 And ^if fleges fligt vt if don ; 

And pharaon wro^' herte on hard, p worK ?] 

And vn-dede hem dat" forward. [» Uat ?] 

Moyfes fpac fi^en wi^ gode, 
^w « w And he brogte pharann %if bode ; 

*' To-morgen, bute he mngen vt-pharen, 
Egyptes erf fal al for-faren." 
He wid-held*hem and,al-fohe itb[e]ad, pwitJ-held?] 
8020 Al ^e erf of egipt wur^ dead ; 
And get ne migte ^if folc vt-gon, 
fwilc har[d]nefre if on pharaon. 
A fter ^if time, it fo bi-cam, 
3024 ^ ^at moyfes afkes up-nam, 

And warp es* vt til heuene-ward ; [» MS. wupes.] 
^0 wex vn-fel^e on hem wel hard, 
dole, for, and blein on erne and man ; 
3028 ^e wicches hidden hem for-^an, 
Bi-foren pharaun nolden he ben, 
So woren he lodelike on to fen ; 
At laft, qwan it waf ouw-gon, 
3032 Hadde moyfes ^o leue non. 
li^en fente ^e lou^rd gode, 
hi moyfes, to ^if king bode ; 
** for-^i lete ic ^e king her ben, 
3036 Men fal, ^urg ^e, min migte fen, 

And knowen fal ben, %e to un-frame, 
In eumlc lond min migte name. 




fwilc bail was her or neucre nomen 

3040 So fal ^if fel to-morgen cumen ; 
Do men and erue in hufe ben, 
If ^u wilt more bem lines fen." 
^0 men, ^e weren in eige and drcd, 

3044 ben borwen, and erue, ^urg ^if red. 
morgen, al fwilc time al fir, 
^Sbunder, and hail, and leuenes fir. 
Cam wel vngbere ; al ^at it fond 

3048 Bergles, it iloge in %at lond ; 

Treef it for-brac, and grcf, and com, 
^at waf up-fprungen ^or bi-foren ; 
Oc ^e ebrins in lond gerfen 

3052 ne derede it, corcn, ne erf, no men ; 
^0 feide ^e folc to pharaon, 
'* Ku ic wot we bane mif-don ; 
Moyfes, do ^if weder cbarcn, 

3056 And gu (al [ic] leten nt-faren." 
Moyfes gede vt, beldo np if bond, 
And al dif * vnweder ^or atwond. 
And wur^ ^if weder fone al flille. 

3060 And al after %e kingcs willc. 

^if weder if fofte. And ^if king bard. 
And breke^ him eft ^at forward. 


IITOyfes fi^en, and aaron. 

He threatenetb 
the king with 

[Fol. 596.] 

On the morrow 
came thunder, 
hail, and light- 

It slew many 
men, broke down 
trees, grass, and 

The Egyptians 
beseech Moses to 
remoTe this 

[I «i8 ?] 

The storm 

but though the 
weather was soft, 
the king's heart 
was hard. 

Seiden bi-foren pharaon, 
" To-morgen fulen greffeoppes cumen. 
And %at ail %a bileaf, fal al ben nnmcn ; 
So fal ^in bardnefle ben wreken, 
3068 ^at men fulen longe ^or-after fpeken." 
" Go^ vt," qwa^ be, " red ic fal taken. 
And gu fi^en i fal anfwer maken.'' 

Qva^ ^if folc, " heter ifl laten hem vt-pbaren, 
Al fal egipte elles for-faren." 
He calde hem in ; qwad pharaon, 
" Quilc ben ^o ^e fulen vt-gon ?" 


Then said Motes, 

"To-morrow shall 
the grasshoppers 
come into the 

[Fol. 60.] 

The Egyptians 
advise the king 
to let the Israel- 
ites go. 

Pharaoh is at 
first inclined to 
let them go. 



but would only 
grant permission 
to the men. 

Moses held up 
his band, and a 
southern wind 

which brought 
the locusts. 

Then was the 
king fbll of woe, 

and besought 
Moees to turn 
from them the 

[Fol. 606.1 
A western wind 
took awaj the 

Pharaoh broke 
his corenant. 

The plague of 
thick darknns. 

Manj died fh>m 

The Israelites 
had light. 

The king tells 
them to go, and 

Qwa^ moyfes, " but alle wapmen, 
3076 wi^ erf, and childre, and wimmen." 

** Hu ! haue go wrong," quad pharaon, 

" Gu wapmen giue Ic Icue to gon ; 

Of erf and wimmen leue ic nogt, 
3080 Ear one of wapmen waf bi-fogt." 

Ef[t] ^if andfwere, ben vt-gon 

moyfes for^ and aaron ; 


II rOyfes held up hif bond. 

A fu^en wind if flig[t] up-wond, 

And blew ^at day and al ^at nigt 

And brogte egipte an newe figt ; 

^if wind hem brogte ^e fkipperes, 
3088 He deden on gref and coren deres. 

^at lond was ful, and ^if king wo. 

He fente after ^e brc^ere ^o. 

Quad pharaon, ** ic haue mif-numen, 
3092 Wreche if on vs wi^ rigte cumen ; 

Bi-fek get god, ^is one fi^e, 

^at he vs of ^if pine fri^e." 

And fo [he] dede, and on wind cam 
3096 fro weften, and ^o opperes nam, 

And warp es* ou^ in- to ^e fe ; [» MS. warp«t.] 

%o pharaun fag if lond al fire, 

Hif herte ^o wur^ ^wert and hard, 
3100 And al he brae hem [^at] forward, 
["Oyfes fi^en held up if bond, 

And ^hikke ^berkneile cam on \$at lond, 

^at migte non egipcien 
3104 Abuten him for mirknefle fen ; 

Maoigo ^or forge on liuc bead, 

And manige weren rewlike dead ; 

Quor-fo ^e folc waf of yfrael, 
3108 He adden ligt and fowen wel. 

^0 quad pharaon to moyfen, 

** Led vt al ^at if boren of man, 













And let her ben boden erf & fep, 

ic wile ^or-on * nimen kep." [} MS. dor-on.] 

Quad moyfes, '' la ! god it wot, 

lal ^e[r]-of bi-leuen non fot, 

Al we fnlen if wi^ vs hauen ; 

'Wold/ quad god, *wile ^or-of crauen.' " 

Qiia% pharaon to moyfon, 

** Nu ic rede ^at ge flon ; 

for fe ic gu more-orwr nu, 

dead lal me" wreken ou^r gu." , [• be ?] 

MOyfes fleg to lond gerfcn, 
^or wuneden hif kinnes men. 
Qua% god, '< get ic fal pharaon. 
Or ge gon vt, don an wreche on ; 
Nu fal ic in-to egipte gon,* [Qon ?] 

Swilc wreche waf ear neu^e non ; 
Deigen %or fal ilc firmc bigeten 
Of men and erf, non forgeten ; 
Oc among gu, drede% gu nogt, 
to gu ne fal non iuel ben fogt, 
Ne fal ic gu nog[t] loten 
Of %at ic haue gu bi-hoten." 

Si^en qfia% god to moyfen, 
"^if fal gure firmcfl moned* ben, [* moneS ?] 
%oo gime men %e mono fen 
In april Reke-fille ben." 
\$anne he lereden hem newe wunen ; 
« Eumlc ger, more to muncn, 
Eumlc huf-folc %e mai it %auen 
On ger fep o^er on kide hauen ; 
%e tende dai it fulde ben lagt, 
And ho[l]den in %e tende nagt. 
And [slagen] on ^e fowrtende dai ; 
So mikil hird fo it noten mai, 
Ben at euen folc fum to famen, 
And ilc folc if to fode framen. 

to leare their 
flocks and herdt 

Moms will not 
consent to this 

Moses and Aaron 
are driven out 
from the presence 
of Pharaoh. 

[Fol. 61.] 

Ood tells Mones 
of his final ren- 
geance upon the 

Each first-born 
shall be destroy- 

The year 

when in April the 
new moon is 

The institution 
of the Paasorer. 

A lamb or kid of 
the first year is 
to be taken and 
alain by each 
household on the 
fourteenth day of 
the month. 

and to be roMted 



[Fol. 616.] 

None of it ifl to 
be taken out of 
the house. 

To be roasted 


and eaten with 

bitter herbs. 

and unlearened 

The remainder to 
be burnt, and 
the blood to be 
sprinkled upon 
the door-posu. 

Vengeance eame 
upon the Egyp- 

The flrst-bom of 
man and beast 
were slain. 

Pharaoh con- 
sented to let Is- 
rael go. 

The Egyptians 
nre the He- 
brews whaterer 
they asked. 

[Fd. 62.] 

The Israelites 
600,000 men. 

Moses thought of 
Che oath sworn to 

Joseph's graTe 
could not be 

And etcn it bred, and non bon breken, 
3148 And nogt ^or-of vt hufe wreken, 

Oc fod and girt, flondende, and flaf on bond, 

lie man after his owen fond, 

Heued and fet, and in rew mete[n], 
3152 lefen fro %c bones and etcn, 

Wid* wri^el and vn-lif bread ; " [» wi« ?] 

^e bi-leuen brennen he bead. 

**^e dure-trcn and ^e uuarilagen, 
3166 wi^ yfope ^e blod ben dragen; 

^at nigt fill ben fcft pafche," 

for^-for, on engle tunge, it be. 

OK midel fel, dat' ilc nigt, [« «at?] 
So cam wreche on egipte rigt ; 

Ilc firme bigeten, of erf and man, 

was ftorucn on morwcn and dead for^an ; 

^0 Waf non biging of al egipte 
3164 lich-lef, fo manige dead %or kipte. 

^0 wur^ phara[o]n node driuen 

And haued* hem ^ane leue giuen ; p hauerS ?] 

And egipte folc bad hem faren, 
3168 And fwi^e a-weiward hem garen. 

Qttat-fo he boden, fru^* or fat, [* frud ?] 

Egipte folc hem lenen ^at ; 

Waf hem nogt wemed ^at he crauen, 
3172 for here fwinc-hire he nu hanen ; 

Gold and (ilutfr he hauen vt-brogt, 

^etabemacledor-'wi^wurd* wrogt; [»'5or? •wuiU?] 

He woren fexe hundred ^hufent men, 
3176 wi^-vten childre and wimmen ; 

Al erf-kin hauen he ut-led, 

Egipte folc hem hauen ut-fped. 

Almost redi waf here fare, 
moyfes bi-^ogt him ful gare 
Of ^at ^e if kin hauc^ fworen, 
lofepes bones fulea ben boren ; 




Oo ^e ail haued' fo wide fpiled, [» haue* ?] 

31 84 \Sat bif graue if HSor-vnder hiled, 

On an gold gad %e name god 

If granen, and laid up-on ¥e flod ; 

Moyfes it folwede ^ider it flet, 
3188 And ilod %or %e grane nnder let ; 

%or he doluen, and hanen fogt. 

And funden, and hanen up-brogt 

^e bones nt of ^e er^e wroken, 
3192 Snmme hole, & fumme broken ; 

He dede if binden & faire loken 

Alle %e bones %e he %or token. 

Qtiane he geden egipte &o, 
3196 It wnr^e er%e-dine, and fellen ^o 

fele chirches and ideles mide, 

Miracle it was %at god %or dede. 

Gon woren .vii. fcore ger 
3200 Siden'iofep wafdoluender;' pSi«en> •«»?] 

And .zxiii. fcore fro %an 

^at god it fpac wid* abrahram. [* wi« ?] 

fro Eamefe to fokoht ftede 
3204 Non man on hem letting dede, 

Por fwinc and mtiruing hem was on, 

fro ^e liohes in-to H5e er^e don ; 

And manige of ^o greten for^i 
3208 %at he adden ben hard hem bi. 

To burg ethan fer fro fokoth, 

And %e%en he ten to pharaofh ; 

^or he (bmden for to fen 
3212 qtdlc pharaon wi% hem fal ben. 

Pharaon banndde yt hif here, 
Krael he ^hogte to don dere ; 
Sex hnndred carto-hird i-WTOgt* [»hiidiwrogtMS.] 
3216 yt of egipte he haued brogt ; 
On horfe fifiti ^husent men, 
X fcore ^hnsent of fote ren ; 

A golden rod 
with the name 
of God upon it 
wee laid apo& 
the flood. 
Mosee followed 
its coarse, and 
thus disoorered 
the grave. 

were whole and 
some broken. 

When Israel left 
Egypt there was 
an earthquake. 

Manv temples 


[Pol. 626.] 
SeTen score years 
were gone siuoe 
Joseph was 

The Israelites 
Journey fhnnRa- 

From Snoooth 

Pharaoh called 
out his army. 

Six hundred cha- 
riots he brought 
out of Egypt, 
fifty thousand 
horsemen, and 
ten score thou* 
sand men of foot. 



When the Israel- 
ites saw the 
Egyptian host 
they became sore 

[Fol. 68.] 

for they were 



They chided 

Moses promises 
them Qod's as« 

God instructs 
Moses to stretch 
oat his rod orer 

Moses did so. 

A wind blew the 
sea from the sand. 

and twelre 
were made for 
the i>eople. 

The water stood 
up as a wall on 
both sides. 

[Fol. 686.] 
Moses went first, 
and then the men 
of Jodah. 


Alle he ledde hem vt for^i 

3220 ^at folc ebni to werchen wi. 

^if godes folc waf und^-numen, 
Quan he fegen ^ifhird al cumen. 
Sore he gunen for-dredde ben, 

3224 for ne cu^en ne gate flen, 
And if he ^ore ben bi-fet, 
Hie he fulen ben hunger gret ; 
He ne mogen figten a-gen, 

3228 for [he] wi^-vten wopen ben ; 
%anne he ^uf woren alle in died. 
On moyfen he fetten a gred. 
** Be^ nu flille," qua?6 moyfes, 

3232 " ^or god wile(.) if non helpeles ; 
Ge fulen fen %if ilke dai 
Qwat godes migt for gu mai." 
He bad ^if folc dregen wi^ (kil, 

8236 And he bi-fogte godes wil. 

^va^ god, " qMor-at calles ^u me ? 
Hold up ^in gerde to ^e fe 
And del it fo on fundri del, 

3240 ^at gu ben garknede weigef wel." 
^0 moyfes helde up hif bond, 
A wind blew ^e fe fro ^e fond ; 
On twel doles delt ifl ^e fe, 

3244 xii. weiges ^er-in ben fiaiger and fre, 
^at eumlc kinde of ifrael 
Mai ^or hif weige finden wel. 
^e water up-ftod, ^urg godes migt, 

3248 On twinne half, alfo a wal up-rigt ; 
Moyfes bad hem, alfo he ben boren, 
^e eldeft kindes gon bi-foren j 
Oc moyfes gede in bi-foren, 

3252 And %o %e kinde of iuda boren. 
On and on kin, alf herte hem cam, 
%at folc ilc in his weige nam ; 




Bi-foren hem fleg an (kige brigt 
8256 ^at nigt hew made ^e weigo ligt ; 

Egiptes folc gunnen %if fen, 

And wenden %at he wode ben. 

Dis bode herd^ king pbaraon 
3260 And him ^uhte fellic ^er-on, 

Oarkede his bird & after nam, 

And to %e fe bi nigte he cam ; 

In ferde ^if bird after ^if king, 
3264 And %o fprong %e daiening. 

thunder, and leuene, and rein %or-mong 

God fente on %at bird, fli% and flrong ; 

^0 quo^en he, " wendo we a-gen, 
3268 An ifrael folc lete we ben." 

^or quiles ben ^o kinges* cumen [» kindes ?] 

Oner, and hauen %e londes numen ; 

Egipcienes woren in twired wen 
que^er he fulden folgen or flen ; 

And moyfes flod up -on %e fond, 

God him bad helden up hif bond 

to- ward ^if water, in a morgen qtole 
8276 ^e fe luked, fo god it wile,* 

And on and on, fwi%e litel flund, 

Egypcienes fellen to ^e gnin^ ;' p grand ?] 

Of hem alle, bi-leaf non fot 
3280 Vn-drincled in ^at falte fpot.* [* MS. fwot] 

Bvs if ifrael of hem wrcken. 
And here wel^e if to londe weken, 
"Wepen, and frud, filuer, and gold ; 
3284 wel hem mai ben ^e god be^ hold ! 
Moyfes %or made a ncwe long, 
And tag[t]e it al %at folc a-mong ; 
And ilke dai ^at feuen nigt, 
3288 Ones he ^or it fungen rigt ; 

A dond went be* 
fore tbem. 

PhAraoh pnrraed 
the Iiraelitee, 

«nd to the Red 
Sea he came. 
In went this hoat 
after the king. 

Some were 
going back. 


The Iiraelitea 
reached the land. 

and God bade 
MoMfl stretch hia 
rod over the aea. 

[Pol. 64.] 

The aea covered 

the Egyptians, 

and not one 
remained un- 
drowned in that 
salt spot. 

Moses made a 

new song, and 

Uught it to the 


Each day for a 

week was it sung 


> At the bottom of this page is the catchword — <* And on and on." 



Thereof in Easter 
are we wont to 
come seven timet 
to the font. 

The fifth Bojonm 
was in the wil- 
derness of Shor, 

three days the 
people were with- 
out water. 

At Marah the 
waters were 

A tree rendered 
them sweet. 

TFol. 646.] 
The sixth sojoam 
wasat Elim, 

and from thence 
to Sin. 

Bread failed 

They mnrmor 
agmrnst Moses. 

God sends them 
a flight of fowla, 



^or-of in efleme be we wunon 
Scuene fi%cs to font cmnen. 

©or qwiles he wcren in ^e defort, 
God tagtc hern weie, wis and pert ; 
A fair pilar fon hem on o nigt, 
And a fkie^ eu^ro on daiges ligt. [> MS. ailde.] 

Be fiftc furiuren ^at he deden, 
In %e defert fur, on diie Hede ; 
%re dages weren he %ider gon, 
%at he ne ^nden water non ; 
A welle he funde at marath, 
3300 ^e water was bit^r and al wlath ; 
A funden trcw ^or-inne dede 
Moyfes, and it wur^ fwet on ^e flede. 

Be fexte furiuren at elim, 
zij welle-fpringes wcren on him. 

An then* and fexti palme tren [* ten ?] 

bi ^o Welles men migto fen ; 

He maden fi%en, fro elim, 
8808 Mani furiuren in %e defert fin. 
^i-twen elim and finay, 

bred wantede, hem was wo foi%i ; 

^at was on ^e ^rittide dai, 
8312 ^at here wei fro egypte lay, 

%or he woren hungur for-dred ; 

'* Hie," he feiden, " haue we fped, 

Bet uf were in egiptc ben, 
8816 Bred and fles der' we muwen fen." [* iJer ?] 

Moyfes wur^ war ^e folc was wro^, 

And here gruching %o god was lo%. 

"flille," qwa^ he, "and on-dreg, 
8820 Godef fulfum-hed if gu ful neg." 

At euen cam a fugel-fligt, 

fro-ward arable to hem rigt ; 

%or migte eumlc man fugeles taken, 
3324 So fele so he wulden raken ; 













On morgen ferhem a dew a-gein. 

firft he wenden it were a rein, 

kneweu he nogt HSif dewes coft ; 

It lai ^or, qidt als a rim* froll, [i MS. rin.] 

He ^e it logon,' fciden, " man hn," [« fogen ?] 

Manna for-%i men clcpo% it nu. 

Quad moyfes, '* loc ! her nu [if] bread, 

Ille gruching if gu for-bcad." 

A met %or was, it het Gomor, 

He man if he bead, and nnnmor, 

Hi»i gaderen or ^e fiinne-fine, 

Elles he falden mifTen hine. 

for it malt at ^e funne-fine, 

Oo o^er fir for-hadede hinc. 

To dud he it grundcn and maden bread, 

^at huni and olies ^ef he bead ; 

Qtio-fo nome up forbone mor, 

it wirmede, bredde, and rotedo ^or. 

Moyfen dede ful ^e gomor. 

In a gold pot, for muning ^or. 

Held it fundri in clene llede, 

And in ^e tabernacle he it dede. 

Wi^ ^if mete weren he fed, 

fowerti winter vten le^,' p let ?] 

Til he to lend canaan ^ 

Comen(.) ^at god hem giuen gan. 

Tlor^ nam ^if folc, fo god tagte liiin, 

and on the mor- 
row a dew, 

like rime flrost ; 

** Man-ho,*' Raid 
tbey, wherefore 
they called it 
[Fol. 65.] 

Each man gather* 
ed an oroer of it 
before the son 

for it melted at 
the sunshine. 

When gronnd 
and made into 
bread, it Usted 
like wafers made 
with honey. 

Moses filled an 
omer of the 

and placed it in 
the tabeinaole. 

to ^e defert of rafaclim ;* 
Tidlike hem waf ^at wat^ wane, 
^or he grucheden for ^rifl haue ;• 
Harde he bi-haluen ^er moyfes, 
And to god he made is bi-men. 
" Loured," q«ad he, ** qt^at fal ic don ? 
He fulen me werpen ftones on." 
Qua% god, " go ^u to erebif fton. 
And finit wi^ ^in gerde ^or-on." 

[* rafadim ?] 

Forth: came this 
folk, and came to 

where they mor- 
mercd for thirst, 
P hane ?1 and did chide 
•• '' with Moses. 

[Fol. 656. J 

God sent him for 
water to a rock 
in Horeb, 



Moeet imot* the 

and th« people 
had enough to 
drink without 
toiling for it. 

This place was 
called Tempta- 

Aiualek cornea to 
war against Is- 

Moses sends 
Joshua with the 
army to fight 
with Amalek. 

Iioees, ao< 
nied by Aaron 
and Hur, goes up 
to the top of a 
hill, and prays 
for the folk of 

[Fol. 66.] 

Amalek is orer- 
oome by the hold- 
ing up of Moses* 

Thus Moses 
fought best of all. 

The ftiture de- 
struction of 

It was a flede henden ^or-bi, 
, On a fyde of nnint fynay ; 

And he finot wi% his wond ^or-on, 
8364 And water gan ^or-vten gon ; 

Anog adden he %anne drino, 

Redi fanden wi^ litel fwinc ; 

%at flede waf cald temptatio, 
3368 for he %o god fondeden so. 

Amalec, yfinaeles fune, 
Was %or hende rafaclim^ wune, {} ra&dini?] 

He welte ^or flone and iaboch, 
3372 ^at herdos folc him lou^ toch ; 

Wopened he ben a-gen ifrael. 

Moyfes ear it wifle wel, 

And fente agen hem king ih^tftim, 
3376 wi^ folc ifrael wopened fum ; 

He let bi-aften de' more del, p «e ?] 

To kepen here ^ing al wel. 

He, and aaron, and hur ben gon, 
3380 Heg up to a dune Tone o-non ; 

Moyfes bad [for] folc yfrael. 

And hife benes hem holpen wel ; 

Ai qwiles he up if hondes bead, 
3384 Amalechkes folc fledde for agte of dead, 

And quane he leth' if hondes ni^er, [> let }] 

Amalech folc fagt hard and wi^er ; 

Qwane it wur^ war vt* and aaron, [* ur ?] 

3388 He if under-leiden wi^ an fton, 

Til funne him feilede in ^e weft ; 

^U8 fagt Moyfes ^or al^er-beft. 

Amalech fleg, and ifrael 
8392 Hadde hegere hond, and timede wel. 

^0 fente god to moyfen, 

wi% %is timing to muning ben, 

" Get fal ^e kinde of amalech 
3396 Ben al fled don in deades wrech." 


Moyfes made %or alter on, 
**Miii blif" if name HSor-one don. 

BO cam ietro to moysen, 
w.w^ To fpeken him and %o kinnes-meD, 

And fephora, moyfes wif. 

And hire two funes of faiger lif ; 

Ietro liflnede moyfes tale, 
3404 Of him and pharaon %e dwalo, 

And %ahankede it almigten wel, 

^at waf bi-tid for iirael ; 

And at wi% moyfen fellelike, 
8408 And tagte him ii^en witt^rlike 

Vnder him helpcs o%ere don, 

'6at folc llering to ftreng[t]hen on. 

Al bi ^hufenz ^if folc was told, 
3412 lie ^hufent adde a meifler wold ; 

And vnder %if tgen^ fleres ben, 

He here on hundred to bi-fen ; 

Vnder ^is ilc two fteres wunen, 
3416 And vnder hem fif o%ere numcn ; 

Ilc of ^e .V. lleres-men 

Vnder hem welden in flere tgen. 

If ymong .x. wnr^ ogt mif-don, 
3420 Here ftere rigten [fulde] ^or-on, 

And if he ne mai it rigten wel, 

Tannet if meifler eufnlo del ; 

And if he rigten it ne can, 
3424 He taune it al hif ouer-man, 

Ai fo for^ fro man to man, 

Til he it here, %e rigten can ; 

If it ne mai or rigted ben, 
3428 fo £al it cumen to moysen. 

He bad him chefen deref-men 

Migti, ^e gode-frigti ben, 

^e fo^faftneffe lef ben, 
3432 And %e nixing [and] gifoing flen. 

Moms niiiM 

Jethro Tiiita 

bringing with 
himZipponh and 
her two tont. 

Motet relatet to 
taim the dettrne- 
tion of Phanoh. 

[Fol. 666.] 

Jethro coonteLi 
Motet to appoint 
ralert of the 

rulert of thou- 


rulert of lluii- 

ralert of llftiet, 
and ralert of 

An appeal to be 
made f^om the 
ruler of tent. 

to the ruler of 

and thence to the 
tuperior ruler. 

The final appeal 
to bo maoe to 

Thete rulert were 
to be able men, 
loTert of truth, 
and hatera of 



[Fol. 67.3 
Moees accepts the 

In the third 
month of the vear 
Exodoia, and in 
the fortr-seventh 
day after they 
left Egypt, 

the people come 
to the desert of 

God's message by 
Moses unto the 
people out of the 

The people are to 
be prepared 
against tne third 

The monntain 
must not be 

[Fol. 676.] 

On the third day 
there were thun. 
ders and liffbt- 
ning and a thick 
cloud upon the 

Smoke up recked 
and the mount 

Alfred ^hugte moyfes fal god, 
And leuelike it under-ftod. 
letro wente in-to his lond a-gcn ; 
3436 Al[r] he reddc, al-fo gan it ben. 

Be ^lidde mone^ in if cumen, 
To fynay ^if folc if numen ; 

^c feucne and forwerti dai 
3440 ^at he nomen fro egipte awei, 

Ynder ^if munt he funden fteden, 

And here teldes ^or he deden. 

On o^er daiges morgen qwilc, 
3444 God tanned moyli qwat he wile. 

'* Sei ^if folc ^at nu ^olen, 

for if here ^hogt nogt me for-holen ; 

* If ye liflen lefful to me, 
3448 Ic wile min folc owen be.'" 

And moyfes tolde ^if ifrael, 

And him heten eu^rilc del, 

^at hem bide^, fulen he don. 
3452 God dede moyfes ^if bodeword on, 

"Clenfe ^if folc wel ^if to daiges. 

And bidde hem leden clene la[i]ge8 ; 

Abutc ^if munt ^u merke make,* [> MS. made.] 
3456 If erf or man ^or-ono take. 

It dead ^olen, wi^ ftones flagen, 

Or to dead wi^ goren dragen ; 

^if frig[t]ful [folc] ^us a-biden, 
3460 Qwiles «if daiges for[^] ben gliden." 

Be ^ridde daiges merge qwile, 
Sunder and Icucno made fpile. 
On ^if munt ftod, and fkies caft, 
3464 And dinedc an migtful homes blast ; 
Smoke up-reked and munt quaked, 
Slep ^or non ^e' ^anc up- waked ; [» MS. de.] 
Ai was mofes one in ^is dine, 
3468 ^iffolcwcndehauenfor-lorenhine;' pMS.himine.] 



Oc lie cam fuiger and for him to, 
And gan wi^ hem fpeken jb ; 
"He gure wel in hcrte munc, 

3472 Ne ill nogt moyles, amramo lunc, 
^e ge fulen to dai hero fpeken ; 
Oc he ^e flog, gu for to wreken, 
Egypte, an weige made in ^e se, 

3476 And let adam fonden ^c tre 
%e noe barg, and abraham 
Ledde vt in-to lend canaim ; 
Of olde abraham and of farra bigeten 

3480 Dede yfaac, of olde totcn ; 

^e gaf yfaac so manige funen, 
^e lofep dede fo riche wunen ; 
His word gu wur^e digero al-fo lif, 

8484 Bigere or ei^or child or wif. 

Gurnet her for^, and be^ alle rekcn, 
And lere^ wel q?mt he fal fpeken." 
He ledde hem to ^e muntes fot, 

3488 Non but non for^ere ne mot, 
And on if broker aaron ; 
God bad hem ^at merkc ou^r-gon ; 
^0 fo Ipac god fo brigt-like, 

3492 ^at alle he it herden witt^»rlike. 

LOke %at %M god o%er ne make, 
Ne o^er ^an me ^at ^u ne take, 
for ic am god, gelus and ftrong, 
3496 Min wreche if hard, min ^ole if long, 
lac ^u nogt i» idel min namc[n], 
Ne fwer it les to fole in gamen, 
Ne let ^u nogt min wur^fulhod 
3500 for-faren in ^e fondcs red. 

^yin hali dai ^u halge wel, 

An do ^in dede on o^er fil. 



Moncfl addreMfa 
the people. 

Ilr rcniindit tbeni 
of their deliver- 
aiiee rn)m the 


and of God*H 
kiudnc5M to thi'ir 
ance^tors, to 
Ahrahaui, to 
iKtiac, and Jo* 


Wur^ ^in fader and modcr fo, 
HSat ^u hem drede and helpe do. 

[Fol. 68.] 

Moses leudcth 
the people to the 
foot of toe mount. 

The Ten Com- 
Finit Command- 

Third Command- 

Fourth Com- 

Fifth Command* 



Sixth Command- 

Serenth Com- 

[Fol. 68*.] 
Eighth Com- 

Ninth Command- 


The Israelitea at 
the foot of the 
mount are in 
at dread and 


They bitreat 
Moaea to stand 
between them 
and God. 

God gvre to 
Moaea many com- 
mandmenta and 

instructed him 
eoncerning the 
making of the 

and gare him 
two tables of 
stone upon 
which were 
written the Ten 
Commandmen ts. 
[Fol. 69.3 



Ne flo HSu nogt wi^ bond ne wil, 
Ne rend, ne beat nogt wi^ vn-fkil ; 
Help de nedful, %at he ne be dead 
for truke of %in helpe an read, 
c boredom ^at ^u ne do, 

Ne wend no lecberie to. 
oke ^e wel ^at ^u ne ftele, 
Ne reflac, ne ^efte, for-bele.* 
Te witnefle dat' ^u ne bere, 
Ne wi^ ^e lefe non maLn] ' ne dere. 


VTe gifce ^u nog[t] ^in neftes ^ing, 



Huf, ne agte, ne wif, in ^in gifcing ; 
^or if ^u it gemes and giffe, 
^u tines vn-ended blifce." 

©if for-frigted folc figeren Hod, 
dredful, and ble^, and fori mod ; 

Herden %at dredful beames blail, 

Sogcn %at figer, dred held hem faft. 

^0 feiden he to moyfen, 
3524 ** Be ^u nu god and us bi-twen. 

Her nu qwat god fal more qt^^en, 

And tellet uf fi^en her bi-ne^en."." 

And moyfes fteg up a-non, 
3523 God hem bad bodes manige on 

And lages ; and hu ho fnlen maken 

^e tabernacle, and wor-of taken 

%e gold, and filuer, and %e bras, 
3532 ^e fy^n don dor^-on* was, [* '5or-<m ?] 

And nemeld it befeel. 

And two o^ere to maken it wel ; 

And gaf to* tabeles of Hon, [• two ?] 

3536 And .x. bodeword writen ^or-on. 

^or qt^iles moyfes was up wi^ gode, 
And liflenede al %at leue bode, 


^ MS. for for hele. 

s MS. ma. 












The people, in 
the absence of 
Moses, said onto 

"Make as gods 
to go before us," 

Swilc wod-hed >$if folc' cam on, 

Vat he feiden to aaraon, 

" Mac VB godcs foren us to gon, 

of moyfes hane we helpe non.*' 

Aaron and vr floden a-gen, 

And boden hem fwilc ^howtos leten ; 

^at wod folc ^or ur of dage 

Brogten, and dedcn aaron in age ; 

Here faigere ringes he boden taken, 

And don in fier, and goten, and maken 

An calf of gold, and [an] alter 

Made %at folc, and lutten it %er, 

And ^at calf ofrcndes deden. 

And made gret feft in ^at ftede[n]. 

Bo feide god to moyfcn, 
" Gro ^u nu dun ^in folc to fen, 
He hauen fineged and mifdon, 
Let me taken wrechc ^er-on." 
^^T Oru^rd, merci!" q?md moyfes, 

J-^ ** get ne let hem nogt helpe-les , 
If he nu her wwr^en flagen, 
Egipte folc fal %or-of ben fagen, 
And feyen ^at he ben bi-fwiken, 
In \Se defert wel lidcrlike ; 

And ^enk, lou^r^,' qwat ben bi-foren [* loiwrd?] [FoI. 696.] 
Abram, and ylaac, and iacob fworen." 
God liflnede wel al ^is anfwere ; 
^at he ^is folc al ^er' ne dere. [' 

And moyfes gan neHSer-tcn, 
And lofu cam him a-gen, 
Alf he was ilc dai wuno to don, 
qtdl moyfes %at munt was on. 
Qtmt lofae to moy(i, 
" Ic wene he iigten dun her-bi," 

and eompelled 
him to make a 
molten call; 

which they wor- 

God is angered 

Moses intreateth 
for them. 

God listeneth to 
Moees, and ii ap- 
MS. al«er.] P<»»«i- 

Moses camedown 
with the tables, 

> MS. has "t$if folc" twice over. 



und sednff the 
idolatry of the 
people, be brake 
them in pieces. 

The calf he burnt 
and fH'ound to 
powder, and mix- 
ed it with the 
water they drank. 

Mose8 caused the 
idolators to be 
put to death. 

[Fol. 70.] 

The number flain 
were about SOOO. 

On the morrow. 
Mooes reminded 
the people of 
their sin. 

He returned to 
Mount Shiai to 
seek God's 

Ood promines to 
send his angel 
before the people. 

'* Nai, for gode," quad moyfes, 

" It if a fong wikke and redles/' 

Moyfes cam ner and fag ^if plages,* [" MS. wlages.] 
3576 And dif» calf, and ^if illo lages ; [» ^is ?] 

So wnr^ he wro^, o mode farp, 

Hif tables broken dun he if warp, 

And dede ^at calf melton in fir, 
3580 And ftired it al to dufl fir, 

And mengde in wat^r and for^ it of, 

And gaf ^at folc drinken ^at drof. 

^0 wifte he wel qwilc hauen it don, 
3584 Sene it was here berdes on. 

^0 gredde he lude, " go^ me to, 

Alle ^e god luuen so." 

Frend ne broker ne fpared he nogt 
3588 On of hem ^at haued ^if wunder wrogt ; 

Of ^0 ^e weren to ^if red, 

.XXX. hundred to %e dead 

woren ^ane don fone a-non, 
3592 ^urg ftreng^e of moyfes and aaron ; 

On o^er llede men writen fen, 

xxiii. ^husent ^at ^or ben ; 

Bo woren on Hue fumdel les. 
On o^er dai quad moyfes, 
" Michel (inne haue ^e' don, [» ge ?] 

Ic fal gon feken bote her on." 
Eft he fteg up to munt fynay, 
3600 for to bi-feken god merci. 

" Lou^rd," quad he, ** ^in me^e if god, 
Merci get for ^in milde mod ! 
Or ^u ^if folc wi^ milche mo^,* [4 mod ?] 

3604 Or do min name ut of ^in hoc." 
[od anfwerede, ** of fal ic don 

Hem, ^e am nogt to ben ^or-on ; 
Go, led ^if folc, min engel on 
3608 Sal ic don ^e bi-foren gon." 




Ebros feigcn it waf michacl 
Engcl ^e fi^en leddo hem wel. 
Moyfes fuflcde fi^en to pligt 

3612 zl. daiges and xl. nigt ; 

O^ere tables he brogte eft(.) writou, 
And funnc-bcm brigt fon if wliton 
%at folc on him nc migte fen 

8616 But a veil wore hem bi-twen. 
¥o waf ^if folc frigti and rad 
To don al ^at moyfes hcwj bad ; 
OflFreden him filuer and golde, 

8620 And o^er metal fwilc he woldc ; 
Ho it bi-tagtc befleleol, 
And eliab, he maden wel 
^e tabernacle alf hem was tagt, 

8624 Gotcn and grauen wi^ witt/r dragt ; 
.vii. mone^ ^or-buton he ben, 
And here fwinc wel he bi-ten ; 
for fwilc huf was car neur re wrogt, 

3628 Ne fwilc faftc her on werlde brogt ; 
God it tagtc al ear moyfcn 
Wiflike hu it wrogt fulde ben, 
Qtnlc frad, qwat of Fronde, q?<il* lage, 

8632 And quat for luue, and qiiat for ago. 
Aaron biflbp, o^ere of ^at kin, 
Sette he hew* for to fcruen ^or-in. 
Bokes ho wrot of lore wal, 

3636 Hu ^if folc hem rigt Icdcn fal, 
Bettcn mif-dedes, and clone lif 
Ledcn, wi^-utcn ate and ftrif. 

Twelf mone^ for^ ben alle cumen, 
w>, .w Or he fro fynay ben for^ numen ; 

On ^at o^er twentide dai, 
of ^e o^e[r] moned' tagte he wei ; 
. ^at brigte fkie bi-foren hem flogt,' 
3644 And ^if folc ^or after t<?ff. 

Mnnefl received 
other tablet. 

[Fol. 706.] 

The IfiraeliteH 
otfcr Moacfl gold 
antlhilverfor the 

lUvulool and 
Ahojiub are up- 
jHiinti'd for the 
Wiirk of the 

S«'vcn nionthK 
they were about 

the fashion of it. 

[• qwilc f] 

Aaron and others 
of hih kin were 
appointed to 
Borve in the 

Twelve month* 
poHijed ere the 
people departed 
from Sinai. 
fFol. 71.1 
(>n the twentieth 
r« mone'S ^1 ****y ^^ ^^^ i^econd 
•■ ' -• month (in the 

[S (leg ?] second year), 

the IitraolitcM de- 
parted fh>m Sinai, 



and oame into the 
wildemeM of 

For their com- 

the fire of the 
Lord consumed 

but is quenched 
b/ the prayers of 

The people luftt 
for flesh and 
loathe manna. 

Moses complains 
of his charge. 

Ood con 
him to choose 
serentj wise 
men to help him 
[Fol. 716.] 
in the Rorem- 
ment of the 

The appointment 
of seventy elders. 

Qnails are sent in 
wrath at Kibroth. 

For two days the 
fowls came. 










%re dages and nigtes faren it gan 
And wi^-ftod in ^e deferd pharan ; 
^if folc if after fofte togen, 
And hauen fwinc in weige drogen ; 
for ^at fwinc lie gmcheden ^or, 
^or-fore hem cam on more for. 
fier if on hem bi-fiden ligt, 
fele it brende and made o-frigt, 
Moyfes it bleff[ed]e wi^ his bede, 
And brenninge he calde %at dede. 

Here hine-folc ^e waf hem mid^; 
And fumme of hem %or ille dede. 
He gerneden after o^er mete[n], 
Of manna he ben for-hirked to eten ; 
He greten np-on moylen, 
And he to god made his bi-men. 
" Loru(?rd ! *' quad he, " «if folc if «in, 
And al ^is forge nu if min ; 
But ic haue an oder* read, [> otJer ?] 

Du fait me ra^e ^on' ^olen dead." [* don.>] 

QuM god, " ches ^e nn her feuenti 
Wife men to flonden ^e hi, 
And ic fal hem genen witt^-hed, 
And he HSe {vd^n don helpe at ned ; 
And %in folc fal to-morgen bi-geten 
ynog fles(.) into a moned* for to eten." p mone*? i 

Moyfes was bli^e an gla^* of ^is, [* glad? | 

And ches ^o men [^e] god made wif ; 
waf here non of herte dim, 
prophetis he weren and holpen him. 
"Tiro lend ortigio cam a wind, 
-*- And brogte turles michel mind^ 
It flogen longe, and %ikke, and wel 
Abuten ^e folc of yfrael ; 
Two daiges hem ben fugeles cumen, 
So fele he wilen, he auen nnmon. 




And dried and holden to eten ; 
Oc god ne wile* it nogt for-geten ; [» MS. wile he.] 
%at gruching hauen ho derre bogt, 
8684 fier haued' on hem %e wreche wrogt, [> haaetS }] 
Brend and doluen waf ^at folc foth ; 
*at llede be^ cald ^or-for cabroth. 

Tho Lord smote 
the people with a 
plague becaase of 
their momiuriiig. 


T]10r^ he nomen to ailaroth, 

*or wnr^ maria fumdel foth, 
for fche ^or haue^ wi^ moyfes fliten ; 
^or wnr^ ghe ^anne wi^ lepre finiten, 
And vten fundred .vii. nigt, 
3692 In grot and in frifte, fore offrigt;' 
Moyfes bi-fogte, and fche wnr^ fer 
And firend, and cam dat* broker ner. 

FOr^ nam ^if folc fi^en fro ^an 
fele iumes in-to pharan ; 

For^ waf gon al ^efe o^er ger, 

^0 he woren at fyon-gaber ; 

Fro ^eden" he fento for^ to fen, 
3700 Qtnlc %o riche londes ben, 

^at god hem falde bringcn in ; 

On man he fente of ilc kin. 

xii. fondere men ^or vte faren, 
3704 ^if hoten lond ^urg-vt he charen, 

xl. daigef faren ben ; 

Bi ^anne qwanne he wenten a-gen, 

In-to cades ^e folc was fogt. 
3708 ^ef .xii. ^ider hem hauen brogt 

Of ^e plente^ ^e god ^or gaf, 

An win-grape on an cnuel-daf, 

And tolden hem ^e lond if god, 
3712 M of erf and of notes brod ; 

Oc burges ftronge and folc v[n-]frigt, 

ftalwur^i to weren here rigt ; 

The people come 
to Haxaroth. 
Miriam speaka 
againat Moaea, 

and ii nnitten 
with leprosy. 

[Fol. 71] 


The people re- 
move htmi Haia- 
roth and come to 

P 'Se^en ?1 Men are sent to 
•' search the Land 
of Promise. 

One is sent from 
each tribe. 

The spies haying 
been away forty 

retiu'n bringing 
with them of the 
of the 


In Hebron they 
foand walled 
cities, stalworth 
men, and giants. 

' At the bottom of the page is the catchword—" Moyfes bi-fogte, &." 



The iBraelites 
mormor at the 

[Fol. 726.] 

«*A captahi," 
said thcT, "we 
will maJte, and 
return into 


Joshua and Caleh 
endeaTour to 
still them. 

Ood threatens 

For Moses* sake 
he spareth them. 

The mormorers 
are deprived of 
entering the land. 

Joshua and Caleb 
are excepted. 

Much sorrow 
came upon the 

Yet thirty-aeren 

Ksrs shall they 
in the desert. 

[Fol. 78.] 

Korah, with two 
hundred and fifty 
princes, rebel 
against Moeet. 

And getenifTe men ben in ebron, 
3716 Quilc men mai get wundren on. 

^if folc ^0 fette up grot and gred, 

And feiden he fol wen iuel red ; 

" Betre if vs get we wenden agen 
3720 And in egipte Indies ben, 

^an we wur^en her fwerdef flagen, 

And ure kin to forge ^ragen ; * [> dragen ?] 

An loder-man wo wilen us fen, 
3724 And wenden irt-to egipte agen ; 

Bo quad lofue and calef, 
** Leate^ ben fwilc wurdes ref, 

And do^ nogt god almigten wrong, 
3728 If milce if mikol, if llrenge if ftrong." 

^or ^rette god hem alle to flen, 

If moyfes ne wore ^or agen ; 

Oc for if benes and for if fake[n'), 
3732 get he fal wi^ hem milche maken, 

Oc alle he fulen wenden a-gen. 

And in ^e defert longe ben ; 

And on ^e .xx. winter hold 
3736 or mor nt of egipte told, 

^at hauen ^uf often fand, 

Ne fulden welden ^at leue land, 

Wi^-vten lofue & calef, 
3740 Here rigt-wifed waf gode lef. 

Moyfes told hem al ^is anfwero, 
And he ben fmiten i» forwef dere ; 
Get he fulen .xxx.vii. ger 
3744 In ^e defert ben vten her. 
Agen he maden here dragt, 
Al-fo ^at (kie haucd tagt. 

Of was was moyfes cam,' [» cam MS.] 
And chore was if bernteam ; 

Ille ni^ if herte wexe on 
A-gen moyfen and aaron, 



[I to?] 

Horn two .ii. hundred mon, 
3752 And two' %o .xl. and ten ; 

Ho feidcn he wcren wur^i bet 

to %at feruife to ben fct ; 

And two migtful he hanen token, 
3756 Moiflrcs, princes ho wolden hem maken, 

On dathan(.) an o^er Abiron. 

Moyfes it herde and feido a-non, 

" To-morwcn be^ her alle redi, 
3760 And ilc gure o%cr flonde bi ; 

And ilc garo hifo reklefat, 

And ficr %or-inne and timinge on Vat, 

And %an foldo wo brigtc fen, 
3764 Qiiilc gare fal god qi/emofl ben." 

And %nf it waf on morgen don, 
Ke wnldc he, datban(.) ne abiron, 

For orgel prtdc for^S ^or cnmen ; 
3768 Moyfes wid' folc if to hem nnmen, 

In hero tcld he ftondcn a-gen 

Moyfes and vr, [&] ne wulde gon ; 

Moyfes %or grct and bad if bede, 
3772 And er^e denedo' fone in ^at ftode, [' MS. 

And opnede vnder ere fet ; 

Held np nci^er flon ne gret, 

Alle he fanken %o cr^e wi^-in, 
8776 Wid* wifes, and childre, and hincs-kin, [* wi« ?] 

Swilc endcfi^ vn-bi-wen haucn ; 

%ar% noman fwinkon hem to groucn, 

^if cr^e if to-gidcre luken, 
3780 Als it no were ncu«^ or to-broken. 

FOr chore wel wifte ^at 
Gret fier wond vt of is reclefat, 
And of if fere on and on, 
3784 And for-brende hem %or enmlck on ; 
Oc aaron al hoi and fer, 
Cam him no iieres fwa^e ner ; 

They 0aid thej 
were more w<ir- 
thy to perform 
the »erricea of 
the Tabernacle. 

Dathan and Abi- 
mm were Joined 

to the company 
of Korab. 

Uathan and Abi- 
ram would not 
obey the com- 
mand of Motet. 


[Fol. 73*.] 

, , ^ The earth twal- 
deuedc.] lowed up Korah. 

None had need 
to toil in burying 

A Are came from 

and burnt the two 
hundred and fifty 



Of the 
were made 
erownB for the 
ftltar of braw. 

On the morrow 
the people mar- 
mured against 
Moeea and Aaron, 
who fled to the 

[Fol. 74.] 
A fire slew many 
of the people. 

Aaron stayi the 

Fourteen thou- 
sand and eighty 
were thua alun. 

The Iiraditeado 
not recogniae 
Aaron's autho- 

but think that 
others are fitted 
for the aenrioe of 

Moaea addreases 
the people, 

and directs each 
prince of the 
tribes to take a 
rod, and to write 
erery man his 
name upon it. 

Of ^0 Eeklefates for wur^ing, 
3788 Woren mad, and for muning, 
Conines at ^e alter of bras, 
^e at here tabernacle was. 

Fr al ^if, o^er day \Sor waf neft, 
„. „« Agenes moyfes and if prest 

Gan al ^if folc wi\S wre^e gon, 
And wnlden hem werpen flones on ; 
To \Se tabernacle he ben flogen, 

3796 ^or aueth a fkie hem wel bi-togen ; 
A fier magti %at folc feft on, 
And haue^ manige ^or for-don. 
%an bad moyfes aaron, 

3800 wi% hife Eekelefat, to \Sat fir gon ; 
And he it dede^ alf he him b[e]ady 
Ban and (lod tiren' lines and dead, 
And ^if fier bleffede and wi^-drog, 

3804 It adde or flagen manige ynog ; 
.xiiii. %husent it haue% flagen, 
And .iiii. fcore of line dragen. 

Bog \Sif folc mi^e a fhind for-dred, 
„^^w ^og he ben get i» funder red, 

Get he aglen on here red(.) and wen 
^at it mai loked betre ben ; 
\Sog ^ife brende ben for-faken, 

3812 %og he wenen \Sat god fal taken 
Of ^o .xii. tribuz fumme mo, 
To ben ^or he for-hu-gede ^o. 
Or ynog ra^e of eu^rilo kin, 

3816 He wile %at fumme forue %or-in. 

" Childre," qt^at moyfes, " gore ftrif 
dere^ ^e fowle and greue^ ^e lif ; 
Do we uf alle in godes red, 

3820 Vs fal timen ^e betre fped ; 
He prince me take hife wond. 
And do we ns here in godes bond ; 

[I MS. «ede.] 



And on [ilc] wond writcn fal ben 
3824 %e kindes name %e %or to tgen ; 

God fal to-morgen token don, 

Qtdlc kinde he wile %if mefi^r on. 

%uf it was don, and on a wond 
8828 Wid-uten* ^o wrot he wi^ hond [» wi«-utcn?] 

%e twelfte names of %at kin ; 

%e tabernacle he ded is' in, [* MS. dedis.] 

And %or he if haued god bi-tagt, 
3832 And let if ben %or al %at nagt. 

Omorgcn qtian ho com a«gen, 
Qtiat was bitid he let hem fen ; 

He wond he fond of eu^rilc kin 
3836 Alf fwilc alf he if dedo %or-in; 

Oc on, %e was of aaron, 

("Writen was name leui ^or-on), 

It was grene and leaned bi-cumen, 
3840 And nutes amigdeles %or-onne numen ; 

%o wiflen he dat' aaron [> ISat P] 

"Was hem biilbp ^urg god don ; 

To fen gode witneffe ^or-on, 
3844 %at wond was in %at arche don. 

[I]N ^e defert he wuneden ^or 

.xxx.vii. winter and mor ; 

Longe abuten munt fcyr, 
3848 folgede hem %at ikie fcir, 

And often to %c fe %or-bi. 

And often to %e munt fynay ; 

Her and gund ^or he biried lin, 
3852 Alle he^ olde deden %or fin. [« «he?J 

And at %e lafle ne-^e-les. 

Eft he come fone to cades, 

%or was moyfes fifler dead ; 
3856 %at folc \Sor .xxx. daigcs a-bead, 

And after wuno faire hire bi-stod, 

wi% teres, rem, and frigti mod ; 

[Fol. 74*.] 

The rods w«rt 
written npon, 

and Uid bef<»« 
the Lord in the 

On the morrow 
the rodi were 

and Aaron*8 rod. 
of the houM of 
LeTifhad budded. 
bloMomed, and 
brought forth 

ao it was leen 
that Ood had ap- 
pointed Aaron aa 

yean and more 
the people abode 
in the desert, 

[Fol. 75.] 
wandering about 
fhnn place to 

and aU the old 
ones died. 

At Kadeeh 
Miriam died. 



buried in Moont 

The people mur- 
mur for water. 

Moses is eom- 
the people Wore 
the rock at Meri- 

Moset smote the 
rock twice, and 
the water flowed 

[Pol. 15b.] 
and the folk ana 
cattle had 

The people are 
denied a passage 
through Edom. 

They come to 
Mount Hor, 

where Aaron 

Thirty days the 
folk mourned for 

The sgeof Aaron. 

The people mur- 

Hire lich if biried in munt fin, 
3860 Hire fowle if refted ilede wi^-in. 
It bi-tidde after hire dead 
^at ^is folc forge in Grille ahead. 
And ^er rof wre^e and fbif a-non 
3864 Ageu moyfen and aaron ; 

God [bad] femelen folc and gon. 
And forcn hem fmiten on %e flon 
And feide, nt of %e fmiten flon 
3868 Ynog hem fulde wat^ gon ; 
He and hif folc comen ^er-to, 
Ic wene frigtlike ^at he do ; 
Ones ho fmot ^or on ^e flon, 
3872 And mille, and fag ^e water gon ; 
An o^er fi^o he went if ^ogt 
Betre and foftere, and no mifle nogt, 
%o flew dor^ water michil and flrong, 
3876 Al folc and erue a-nog a-mong. 

^vrg lond edom ne migteit he faren, 
%or-fore he fulen a-buten charen 
Bi ^e defert of arabic lond ; 
3880 Long weige and coftful he ^or fond, 
for^ bi archim ^at meifl^ bnrg ; 
^e defert aren he walkeden ^urg, 
Til dat' he comen to mnnt hor ; 
3884 Aaron ^o wente of liwe ^or, 
Eleazar, if fune, him nefl 
Was mad biffop and meill^r pr^. 
XXX. daiges ^at folc in wep 
3888 Wi^ bedes, and gret, and teres wep ; 
Get ift fene, on ^c munt on ^at flede, 
Quor men aaron in birieles dede ; 
vii. fcore ger and .iii. told, 
3892 ^or ho li^ doluen on ^at wold. 

jlor^ ^e^en he comen to falmona, 
for-weried gruchedcn he ^oa. 

[» «or ?] 


f «at ?] 













^or-foro hem cam wrim-kin among, 

^at hem wel bitterlike Hong ; 

Non o^er red ^or don no waf, 

Moyfes ^or made a wirme of bras, 

And heng et^ hege up-on a faft, [» MS. henget.] 

^urg godes bode and godes craf [t] ; 

Qtiat ilungcn man so fag %or-on, 

^at work him lone al was vn-don ; 

Digere it was al ^at berem-tcm,' [« borcn-tcm ?] 

figer fi^en in-to ierusalem ; 

00 fi^en it waf to dullo don, 

for ^at folc mifleucde ^or-on.' 

Fgti nam for^ ^is folc and ble^, 
Til he comcn to flum iarcth ; 
^if wat<jr him on-funder drog, 
And let hem ouer, drige ynog ; 
King ouer(.) amor(.) reo8(.) feon, 
for to figten cam he;» ageon ; 
%if folc him flog and hif lond tok, 
Su^ fro arnon nor^ to iabok. 
And wcficn al to flum iordan ; 
Oc ho flugcn king of bafaan. 
To lond moab diiigcn he fo, 
^or nu if a burg, ierico. 

Balaac king was for-drcd for-%an. 
And fente in to lond madian, 
To hife frend ^e ben hi;/> nefl ; 
And fente after balaam ^e prefl, 
"Wi^ riche men an giftes oc, 
for to ftillen hife [vn-]c^e mod, 
And bad him cumen for to don 
fol[c] of yfrael hif curfing on. 
Balaam wi^-eld him ^or ^at nagt 
To witen qwat him fal wur^en tagt ; 
Al waf if fultujw and hif fped 

' For this sec 2 Kings, xviii. 4. 

and are plafpied 
nith serpents. 

ThcT, roprating, 
aro nealed by a 
terpont of brass, 

[Fol. 76.] 

which long aftor- 
wards was wor- 
shipped in Jem- 

The people come 
to Zercd. 

Amoritcs, cumcs 
out against Ii»rael 
and Is overcome. 

The king of Ba- 
shan is slain. 

Balak sends after 

to curse the folk 
of Israel. 

[Fol. 766.] 

The failure of the 
first memage. 



God forbids 

Pfilmini to 

Bakk*8 Moond 
metsage to the 

Balaam's answer 
to the messen* 

He consents to go 
with the princes 
of Moab, 

being influenced 
by ooretousneM. 

[Fol. 77.] 

An angel meets 
him in the way. 
The ass is fkight- 

and turns aside 
to the wall, 

•o that Balaam's 
foot is crushed. 

Bi-luken ille, in fendes red. 

On nigt him cam fonde fro gode, 
3932 Agen %if ginges' red for-bode, [« kinget ?] 

And ^at he ne curfe non del 

^if folc ^at gjd blifcede wel. 

morgen feide he, ** fare ic nogt, 
3936 for bode if me fro gode brogt." 

Balaac fente richere an mo 

Medes, and o^er men to %o. 

** Sondes, fondes/' quB?6 balaam, 
3940 Or he ^efe o%ere medes nam, 

« Dog balaac king me gone hold, 

Hif huf ful of filuer and of gold, 

Ne mai ic wenden her bi-ne^en ; " 
3944 Qodes wurd if cumen alf it if qu^^en;' 

Oc or or ge wenden agen, 

%if nigt ic M fonden and fen 

Quoi tiding so it cam on %e nigt." 
3948 On morgen, at %e daiges ligt, 

Vp-on hife afle hif fadel he dede, 

To madian lond wente he hif ride. 

And wente if herte on werre ^hogt ; 
3952 Wicke gifcing it haued' al wrogt. [flume's ?J 

^uf ride^ for^ %if man for-loren, 

An angel drog an fwerd him bi-foren, 

^if affo wur^ fo fore of dred, 
3956 Vt of ^e weige it haue^ him led. 

Sellic ^ogte balaam for-^i, 

And bet and wente it to %e fti 

Bi-twen two walles of fton ; 
3960 Eft ftod ^if angel him a-gon,* [* MS. iffen.] 

^if afle if eft of weige flired, 

So ^at balames fot if bird ; 

And he wur^ ^o for anger wro^, 
3964 And ^if prike^ and negt flo* ; 

' MS. queden. 



for* and narwere *if alFo him bar, 

And *e ^riddo fi^e wur* *e angel war. 

%o ne migte %cs aile flen, 
3968 Ne ho no durflo forbore ten, 

Oc fel *or dun(.) *an ^is was don, 

Balaam it fpure^ and fmit *or-on ; 

And god vndede *if alFes mu*, 
8972 So fo* it if(.) ib it is felcu*. 

Qtiua* *if afle *us wi* vn-mi*o, 

" Qui betes *u me ^is ^ridde fi^e ?" 

Qua* balaam, " for *u tregeft me ; 
3976 Had ic an fwerd, ic iluge *e.'' 

So was *is were to wunder brogt, 

*hog *e afle fpac, firigtede he nogt ; 

*o let go** him *at angel fen, 
3980 wi* *e fwerd dragen him agen. 

Qtm* *e angel, " *in wcige if me lo*, 

*or-fore am ic wi* *e *uf lo* ;' 

If *in afle ne were wi*-*ragen, 
3984 Her fuldes *u nu wur*en flagen." 

Qua* balaam, '^ quanc ic haue mif-faren, 

If *u wilt, ic agen fal charen." 

" far for*,'* qwa* *e angel, " oc loc *e wel, 
3988 for-bi min red, qua^ *u non del." 

for*-nam balaam, and balaac king 

Cam him a-gcn for wur*ing, 

Gaf him giftes of mikil prif ; 
3992 And balaam feido him to wif, 

** Sal ic non wur*^ mugen for*-don, 

Vten *at god me lei** on." 

Balaac him leddede^ heg on an hil. 
And .vii. alteres wrogte in his wil, 
On ilc alter fier al*eme*er, 
And *or-on an calf and a we*er. 
And he bad balaac flonden *or-bi, 
4000 And gede on-rum qui® bute for-*i. [« qwile ?] 

The an^I went 
further, and 
stood in a narrow 

and the aM fell 
down under 

who smote her 
with his staff. 

God opened the 
mouth of the ass, 
and she spoke to 
her master. 

infatuated roan 
was not firight- 
V god ?] [Fol. 776.] 

The angel tells 

P wrolJ ?] that but for the 
ass be would hare 
slain him. 

The prophet 
offers to return. 

He is cauticmed 
bj the angel. 

Balak entertains 


Balak ( 

seven altars to b 


On each altar 
was offered a 
bullock and a 



Ood*8 word 
oomM to Balaam, 

and be 

[Fol. 78.] 

Balak is greatly 

He brings tbe 
propbet to ano- 
tber place. 

Again seven 
altars were 
raised, and offer- 
ings made. 

Tbe parable of 

Israel is eom« 
pared to a lion. 

Balak was Ul 
pleased witb tbe 
priest's words. 

[Pbl. 786.] 
Balak brings 
Balaam to Mount 

Again be blesses 
tbe Israelites, 

fro abunen cam to him bi-ne^en, 
"Word in herte dat* be fal qne^en ; 
Quan be cam to balaac a-gen, 

4004 Swilc wurdes be let vt-ten. 

** Hu mai ic ^at folc curfen on, 
^or lou^rd baned' blifcing don ? 
^if folk fal waxen wel and ^en, 

4008 And ou^ al o%er migtful ben, 
Hif lif be^ bli^, bif ending fal, 
^e time^ al-fo ^if time» fid." 
Balaac mifliked al ^if que^e,* 

4012 And ledde bem \Se\Sen on o^er dede. 
To mont faga, for to fen wel 
Of folc ifrael ^e o^er del. 
He wente on o^er fbind or ftede, 

4016 Betre timing %or-fore be it dede, 
And wende wenden godes ^ogt, 
Oc al be fwinked bim for nogt. 
Hef [t] baue^ be mad ber .vii. alter, 

4020 And on ilc brend eft twin der. 
Qede efb balaam np on-rum, 
%o feide %af qti^nne bem cam dun, 
** ^is folc, fprungen of iirael, 

4024 If Tuder god timed wel ; 
Al-fo leun if migtM der, 
So fal %if folc ben migtfiil ber ; 
^if lean (al o^er folc freten, 

4028 Lond canaan al preige bi-geten." 
nie liked Vanne balaac 
Eumlc word ^e pr^fl balaam fpac. 


Get be ledde bim to munt fegor, 

[» «at >] 


And efte be facrede deres mor ; 
dor^ fpac balaam mikel mor 
Of ^if folckes migt, or be dede or. 
** folc cbru," qwa^ be, " ^at ic fe, 
4036 Blifced fal ben %e blifcede «e ; 

p qoede ?] 




And qtmo-fo wile coriing makeDi 
Illo curiing ful him taken ; 
Of %o fal lifen flcrre brigt, 
4040 And a wond %e fal fmiton rigt 
Moab kinges, and undcr-don 
Al fcdes-kin ^if werld up-on." 

and propheeict 
their (titure hap* 
pinew and great- 


11 fanie tiding quad balaam %or, 

%o made balakes hcrtc for ; 

Oc %an balaam wcnte a-gcn, 

Tagte lie balaam qiuit migtc ben 

%if folc to dere, and gof him red 
4043 %at brogt ifro^l iwcl fpcd. 

*' %e ginge wimmen of %in lond, 

faiger on figte an fofbe on bond, 

And brigte on howe, on fpeche glad, 
4052 "Wi* ^gere* fal ic fondes fad ; [i gerc ?] 

^e ^u ten vt gen ^if men, 

^e cunen' brewen hertc-bren, [» MS. cumen.] 

wi% win, and wlite, & bodi, & dwalc, 
4056 Lnne[li]ke and wi% fpeche fmale, 

To wenden hem fro godes ago 

To %i londe godes and yre lago ; 

Bute-if HSu migt for^en ^if red, 
4060 And hem fro godes luuo led, 

And fonde to wendcn %uf here ^hogt, 

for wi ne wopen ne helped* nogt." [» helpe* ?] 

for^-nam balaam, %at ille q«[e]ad 
4064 %e gaf %if read of foulcs dead. 

%uf it was don, and bi Vat fel 

In fichin fingedo ifrael, 

And for lune of %if hore-plage 
4068 Manie for-leten godes lage, 

And wrogten %or fwilc foulcs for 

%at he %or lutten belphegor. 

T\o feido god to moyfen, 

Soch tidinn 
made Balak's 
heart lore. 

Balaam teaehet 
Balak how to in* 

Iure the Israd- 

by MDdinf out 
▼oonuT women 
fair of taeo and 
•oft of speech. 

who should 
"brew heart- 
burning and 

[Fol. 79.] 

and M> turn the 

people flromOod. 

For war nor 
weapon had no 
power to harm 

lliiB counsel was 

and thus it fell 
that Israel sinned 
in ShitUm, 

and worshipped 


' %e mo[i](lres of %ifo hore-men, 



God commandB 
the chief men to 
be hanged. 

thousand were 

Phinehu kills 
Zimri and Coxbi 

FFol. 796.1 
with his long and 
sharp pike. 

God commands 
Moses to take the 
sum of the people 
abore twenty. 

It was found to 
be 601,720. 

Of those who 
were numbered 
at Sinai, all died 
except Joshua 
and Caleb. 

Moses beinjBT told 
of his death, 

intreats God not 
to let the people 
be "helpless.'^ 

%e fendes folgen and me flcn, 

^e biddo ic hangen ^at he ben ; 

Ben ^efe hangen ^e funne agen, 
4076 'Sise oder* folc M me^e fen." [» o«er?] 

Godes wreehe ^or haue^ of-llagen 

xx.iii. ^ufent of ^agen.' [» dagen ?] 

finees waf a fell man, 
4080 HSe godes wreehe for^en gan ; 

He flug Zabri for godef Inueni 

Hife here bi-ne^e and him abuuen ; 

^urg and ^urg bo^en he ftong 
4084 wi^ hife gifarme farp & long. 

God moysen nemnen bead 
Hif folc ^e was firmeft fro dead, 

Or .XX. winter or more hold, 
4088 ^e in egypte or ne weren told ; 

On and .vi. hundred ^ufent ^or. 

And .vii. hundred and .xx. mor 

Moyfes fond and eliazar ; 
4092 "Was noh of hem told in tale or, 

^0 moyfes tolde hem and aaron, 

%an gunnen fro egipte gon. 

Vten iofue and caleph, 
4096 Alle elles he driuen in deades weph ; 

Alle ^ife wapmcn dor' god let liwen, [» •Sor?] 

%e lond hoten ful hem ben giuen. 

God moyfes clepede and quad to him, 
" ftig hege up to munt Abarim, 

And ic fal don ^e ^eden* fen [* «ef5eii'?] 

^e lond ^e fal ^if folc[e]s ben ; 

^er ^u fait ben of werlde numen. 
4104 In to ^at lond fait ^u nogt cumen.*' 

"Louerd, m^rci!" qwad moyfes, 

Let ^u ^in folc nogt helpe-les, 

And good let oc ^u hem bi-fe, 
4108 Alfwilc alfhembi-hu[f]likbee.*' 



God hem andfwerede, "iofue 
Ic wile ben loder-man aft^r ^e ; 
Tac him bi-foren eleazar, 
4112 ^at al ^in folc wur^ war, 
And ^ine hondes ley him on, 
Sey him on ^in ftede to gon." 
Alf it is boden, alfo he dede, 
4116 lofue wur^ fet on hife ftede. 

Bo moyfes was on abarim, 
^at lond hoten god tawncd him. 
^or qtdles him leften line dages, 

4120 Hif he tagte leue lages. 

And writen hem, haued^ if hem bitagt, 
Bute-if he if loken hem be^ agt,' 
Er^e and heuene he wittnelfe tooc, 

4124 And wrot an canticle on ^at booc, 
^at treated ^o men bitter-like 
^e god ne feruen luue-like. 
^0 .xii. twelue kinderedes, on and on, 

4128 He gaf blifcing bi-leuo gon ; • 

At munt nemboc on %at knol fafga, 
"Wane he was ftigon ^e^en doa,' 
Sag ^e lond of pre^miflion, 

4132 ^ui^ go^* him was fi^en ^at on. 
^er he ftarf i/me. ^o moab lond, 
His bodi was biried wid* angeles bond, 
^er non man fi¥en it ne fond, 

4136 In to lef refte hif fowle wond. 
Ebrius feigcn, ^uf waf bi-tid, 
^at moyfes waf hem ^uf hid, 
for, migten he finden ^o ftede, 

4140 QuoT engel-wird hif liche dede, 
fele fulden him leuen on, 
And leten god ; ^at were mif-don. 

[Fol. 80.] 

Joflbaa ii ap- 
pointed to rac- 

When Moeei was 
on Abarim, God 
showed him the 
promised land. 


upon those who 
would not serve 
him truly. 

The blcHsings of 
the twelve tribos. 



Moses dies in 
Moab. and is 

[5 ^^ ?1 buried by angels' 

'- J hands. 

Fol. 806.] 
io man ever 
found his body. 


It was thus hid, 

that the people 
might not after- 
wards worship it. 

» MS. be« bo« agt. 



Although Moset 
mm 120 yean 

jet his eredfht 
remained bright, 
and erery tooth 
was "by tale 




Beseech we now 
God*a might. 

that he shield 
us from Hell's 

[Pol. 81.1 
and bring us all 
into bliss. Amen I 


Ydolatrie, ^at waf hem lef, 
4144 ofte vt-wrogte hem forges dref. 
["Oyfes if faren, on elde told 
fulle fex fcore winter old ; 

And %og him leflede hife figte brigt, 
4148 And eu^c to\S bi tale rigt. 

.XXX. daiges wep ifrael 

for hif dead(.) and bi-ment it wel. 

Swilc prophete in folc of ifrael 
4152 Bof non, ne fpac wi\S god fo wel ; 

Efdras if witneffe of [hif] fage, 

He was wel wif of ^e olde lage. 


T)i-feke we nu godes migt, 

^at he make nre fowles brigt. 
And fhilde us fro elles nigt. 
And lede us to bHiTe and in-to ligt ; 
In fwilc ^ewes lene us to cumen, 
4160 ^urg q«<at we ben to line numen. 
And in-to blifle wi^ feli men ; 
Wi^ mu^ and herte fey we, Amen ! 



P. 1. 11. 1-2 Man og to Imttn ^at rima ren, 

iSe Wiss^ tcel iSe logede men, 
cy, another form of agh, =iow= ought, ren = run s rune^ song, story. 
"Nalde ha nane runes 
No nane lane runes 

leomen ne Instnen." — (St. Kath« 108.) 
loffeds'^lBLj. It is not necenarily unlearned, ignorant, etc., for O.E. writers 
frequently use the term in contradistinction to clergy. See Ayenhite, p. 197. 
'* Yor all manere of yolk studie]) in ayarice, and (hoth) great and smale, 
Idnges, prelates, clerkes, and letpede and religious." — (Ayenhite, p. 24.) 
*< And hathe klerk and hued man 
Englis understand kan, 
That was bom in Ingeland."— (Met. Horn. p. 4) 
3 Zoken, to take care of oneself, to direct one*s course of life, keep from 
sin. See Ayenbite of Inwyt, pp. I, 197, 199, 201. 
** Ac alneway hit is nyed to leawede men 
that hi ham loki rram \>\Be zenne (ayarice)." — Ayenbite, p. 31. 
10 Hund is eyidently an error for ^M»rf=yond, yonder, oyer. Cf. grauen 
for iSrauen, gu for "Su, etc. See L 276, p. 9. 
** k \eond ^at loud he heom to-draf (& ouer al ^at lend he drof heom)." 

—(Laj. i. 68). 
12 eetruermor^eauermor^BiSitmsfte* 14 sffSe^sagen^stfSe-sage^ sooth-saw 
B sooth-saying, true saying. 
16-16 Cristene men ogen ben sofagen 

sofueUs am quan he it sen dagen.** 
Christian men ought to be as fain (glad) 
As fowls (birds) are when they see it dawn. 
17 tettedoteUs^'sUiWeth.. 20 devil^dwale ^devH-deceiyer, deyil-heretics 
arch-deceiyer, arch-heretic. See 1. 67. Cf. ma))8tredwalessmMt^r heretics 
arch-heretic, in the following passage : — 

**Off all ])is la>e l«redd folic Of all this loathsome learned folk 

pat we nu nuelenn ummbe That we now talk about 

Wass ma})stredwale, an defless J^eww, Was an arch-heretic, a deyil's serf 
pat Arrius was nemmnedd." That Arrius was named. 

— (Orm. i. p. 258, 1. 7454.) 
23 til god srid him in manliched^ 

till god shrouded (clothed) himself in manhood. 

120 NOTES. 

24 bote and red^ salvation and counsel. 25 Atid unsptred al "S* fende* 
«p^rf= undid all the fiend's work. 26 ;w/j>=01d and Middle Eng. holp- 
helped, assisted. 
P. 2. 1. 27 biddi, an error for bidde ? 

31-34 i$M giue me scli timinge, 

To thawien ^is werlf^dea biginninge^ 
^*, huerd gody to im^'Singej 
Qu^er 80 hie rede or singe ! 
Give Thou me a propitious opportunity, 
To show (declare) tliis world's beginning. 
Thee, Lord God, to honour, 
"VMiethcr-so I read or sing ! 
thaunen = taunen, show, exhibit. 

" Ful wel he [Crist] taunede liis luve to man, 
Wan ho Surg holi spel him wan." 

—Bestiary (Reliq. Antiq. p. 226). 
The word is very uncommon in O.E. writers. The MSS. of both poems 
admit of it being read tauuede. In this case it would be connected with 
S. Saxon tawtcenn^ to work, act upon. A.S. tawiany to prepare, till, to 
icur^inge—U} wuiiSene = to worship, honour. 38 Ear Sa«w*=ere that. 
41 ^0 bad god tcut^en atund and sted^, 

AVlien God bad exist time and space. 
43 iSrofing seems to be an error for ISroaim or *??ro«fin= chaos. Cf. waapem 
in 1. 1440, p. 41, where the correct form is wasteme. 

wfte f oliatJ torment they suffer 

h&tne hca'So-welm burning heat intense 

belle to-middes amidst hell, 

brand & br&de ligas fire, and broad flames ; 

Bwilco eke fa biteran r6cas, so also the bitter reeks 

yrotm and Jiystro, smoke and darkness. 

(Caedmon, p. 21, 18.) 
45 "Sw wialtke mune=do thou wisely bear in mind. 47 Jiin= hine =him. 
48 or, another form of ar, = ere, before. 49-56 The moaning of these lines 
may be expressed as follows : — '* And of them two [God the Father and 
God the Son] that dearly love, who wield all here and above, proceeds that 
holy love, that wise will [the Holy Ghost], that wieldeth all things with 
right and skill. Might bcod with word light exist (holy comfort wieldeth, 
[exercises] also that might [the Holy Ghost], for there are three persons 
and one counsel, one might, and one godhead). 64 Ilali /ro«r«= holy 
comfort, an allusion to the oflBce of Iloly Ghost as the comforter. 
" Hire uoster moder wcs an yefrotaede hire 
= Her foster mother was one who comforted her.— (St. Marhereto, p. 8.) 
68 sunde^r] tad=^on sunder shad, i.e. a-sunder shed = divided apart, sepa- 
rated. It still exists in nater-shed, Gcr. wasser-seheide, Cf. 1. 116. See 
Hampole's Pricke of Conscience, p. 271, 1. 32. 
P. 3. 1. 63 dis walkenes ^M;v* = this welkin's course. Sec 1. 79. 64 gunad^bi- 
^MMa^=: bequeathed, ordained. See I. 117. 

NOTES. 121 

69 And euerile wunder, and euerile wo. 

And eTcry evil and eyery woe. 
Wmuhr=i miMtoTtanet evil. S. Saxon wundre, mischief, hart. 
" hare Inst hade's ham to wnrchen to wundre" 
B their Inst leadeth them to work to mischief." — (St. Marh. p. 14.) 
(See Sir Gawaine and the Green Knyght. Ed. Morris, p. 1, L 16.) 
71-72 Onr ancestors had some strange chronological theories. In the 
Cursor Mundi we read that Adam was made at undem-tide, at mid-4aff Eye 
was drawn from his side, and at noon they hoth ate the apple, and were thus 
only three tides in bliss. ^ 
73 "Sw ik (ilk ?) wort in ebrisae wm. 

This word is according to Hebrew opinion (tradition). 
77 M-pon^agen- again, 78 a-gon= gone. It is onr word epo. Gram- 
marians, therefore, altogether err in making the a in <i^osthe prefizal ele- 
ment pe (y) as in yclept, agon and a^o= the A.Saxon o^dfts gone, past. 
We haye abundant examples in O.E. writers of the yerb agon (ago) = to go. 
The past participle is agon or ago^ in conformity to the rule that the 
past participles of yerbs with this prefix do not take the initial y. 81 of raw 
moai; in French speech; moa/=in«/= speech. S Saxon malenn, to speak. 
See Orm. vol. i. 1. 99, 253. 87 <<f/fo»= reckon- 88 or = ar= first. 
P. 4. 1. 102 It hiled [ = hile«] al «w werldes drof, 

= It surrounds (encloses) all this world's drove (assemblage). 
105 Til domet'dai ne sal it troken. 

Till doomsday it shall not fail. 
^roirmsS. Saxon ttuken, O.E. trokie. 

" Ah for nauer nare teonen But never for no injury 

Nulle we )>e trukien.** Will we fail thee, 

— (Laj. i. p. 186.) 
" Ah nanest ^u neuere nenne mon. But thou hast neuer no [any] man 

pe cunne wserc maiden. Who can make a work, 

pe nauere nulle trukien.** That never will fail. 

The later copy reads ">at neuere nolle trokie** 107 euuen^ehavm^ i.e. 
thrust, prest, driven. 1 1 1 oo = 0. E. aa = at = ever. 
119 bit^heltre, fruit tree, from bir^el^ fruitbcaring. 
" "Sare bwys bowys all for byrtht** 
Their boughs bend all for fruit.— (Wyntown i. p. 14.) 
125 quuenU^en^^qnuemeden^\}\ea^^. 
P. 5. 1. 133 walknea wut^inge^ and erdee [er^et}^ frame, 

welkin's glory and earth's advantage. 
yrffi»i*= advantage, gain, profit. See Handlyng Synne, 11. 5, 4249, 
" Twifold forbisne in "Sis der [the wolf] 
'To frame we mugen finden her." — (Reliq. Antiq. p. 218.) 
" Summwhatt ice habbe shsBwedd }uw 
till jure sawle ncde, 
]\S )>at )e wUlenn folljhenn itt 
& )uw till /ram# turmenn."— (Orm. vol i. p. 31.) 

* See " The History of Our Lord," vol. i. p. 53. 

122 NOTES. 

^* JUanne frame, men's adrantage." — (Reliq. Antiq. p. 209.) 
" Jbesu, do me that for thi name 
Me liketh to dre^e pyne ant shame 
That is thy (the Y) soulo note ant /ramtf, 
Ant makemp herte milde ant tame." — (Lyrio Po«try, p. 71.) 
134 Se hnowned {^knowi^) <m$ tie $Urrc name. 

He alone knoweth each star's name. 
136 He teit #«sHe set (placed) them, Cf. 1. 156, where wroui ws= wrought 
them. The pronoun ie or #«=them. 136 iSie tcalkne went=ihiB welkin's 
coarse. See 1. 63. 141 bi mannee tale=hy man's reckoning. 143 egeet^ 
A^^M^= highest, ^e eunnee brigt^the sun's brightness. Dele the comma 
after brift, 145 monel^ met, measure of a month. 148 Seke-fiUe, April 
(the Tapoury or watery month). 
155 wel u?ui^e his migt lefftd ay. 

"Well worth his might ever dear ! 
Cf. ^^ wo worth the day !" etc. 160 eruerile=eauerUe—e^eej, 162 hUflotee 
$nigtt=^\aB floating (swimming) power. 163 "S^nsto mtdtiply. Cf. the 
O.E. phrase, " so mot I the," 164 ^iMJ^raM^tf= propagating, fruitful, 
pa gyt drihten cw»5 Again the Lord spake 

w6rd to Noe words to Noah : — 

tyma'5 nu & tiedrtt^. Teem now and propagate. 

— (Caed. p. 91.) 
" I was borenn her ** I was bom here 

Off faderr & off modcr. Of father and mother. 

pa Jrejjro time wass all gan When their time was all gone 

To tiddrenn & to tsDmcnn." To propagate and to teem." 

— (Orm. ii. p. 284.) 

167 And de [So ?] eexte dais ligt 
=And iSo earn lSe sexte dais ligt. 

168 So, an error for "So ? 

P. 6. 1. 169 frrtm=u'trm= reptiles, lid Qwel=qwtk\ quile=yf}iv^, 112 eingen, 
to sin. It is not an error for einnen, bat a genuine form (contracted from 
einigen)y and not uncommon in O.E.Eng. writers. Sec sineged in 1. 8556, 
p. 101. 

" He suln'lggeden and sorgeden and wercn in "Sogt." 
They sinned and sorrowed and were in thought 

(Reliq. Antiq., p. 224.) 
" pe Ter J»e manere to zene)i in chapare is to zello to tyme." 

— (Ayenbite, p. 83.) 
"Alsuo may ho mid his ojene wyue tene}i dyadliche."— (iWa^ p. 36.) 
' 8unegi'=^io sin, occurs in the **Owl and Nightingale," 926. 
178 to fremen and do framtf 

to serve and do good.— (See 1. 133.) 
** Heo scullen me mon-radcne mid mo[n]5cipe//*«mm^." 
They shall mc homage with honour perform. — (Laj. ii. 586.) 
Freme hnd. frame are radically the same words, the former being of A.SaxoD 
and the latter of Norse origin. In the Ayenbite, p. 91, vreme nmfreme '^ frame 

NOTES. 123 

is lued exacUj in the iense ot frum$ : ^'We wylle}> wel fei we be yronded 
(tempted) Tor hit is onre vrwn« ine Tele maneres, Tor we bye}> ^e more 
ymjlded and ^e dredToUer and }>e more wys ine alle ^inges and ]>e more 
worf and f« more asayd." 1 97 oe = off = oWf ought. 
P. 7. 11. 204-6 Whilst it (the soul) followed holy will, 

God's self there while like it is, 
And unlike when it will sin. 
lUet as lik+et = like it ; un-lif is evidently an error for un-lik = unlike. In 
the MS. the/ has a long tail, and might almost stand for an incomplete k ; 
iMfijf— displeasing; likei pleased (?) maybe for liked. 217 hiefft^hipht 
^threatened, literally promised. 222 He kere^^etich. of them. Cf. the 
expressions her non, ncn A^snone of them. 228 «t&=sakin, related; still 
preserred in foesipy originally podsib. See Ayenbite, p. 36. 230 wroete^^ 
wroffie ws-piei, of workeft^ to aehe^ pain^ hurt. Cf. A.S. rop-weore^ 
stomach-ache; weoreeum, irksome. In the Reliq. Antiq., p. 61, a receipt 
is giren "for erel and werke in J>e bledder." On p. 64 of the same work 
we haTe a receipt for the " seke man" whose " hered werkes." 234 iSurtej 
an abbreriated form of 'SMr/)r#=behoTed. This Terb is used with the dative 
of the pronoun.- (See Handlynge Synne, 1. 6826.) 
"Whyne had God made us swa 
pat us thurt never haf fcled wele ne wa." 

(Uampole's P. of C, 6229). 
P. 8. 1. 240 sf/t aped may be regarded as a compound, and printed eeli-sped^good 
speed, prosperity. Cf. 1. 310, where iwel spedzs^ iwel-tped^ misfortune. Cf. 
O.E. ffode-happe^ prosperity, and ilU-kappe, mishap. 247 8euendai=^8euend 
dates seventh day. 260 newee^a-new, a genitival adjective used adverbially. 
Cf. our modem adverb needs, O.E. nedeSy of necessity ; livety alive. (R. of 
Gloucester, 301, 376. Owl and Nightingale, 1632.) deathes^^^ desid. (R. of 
Gl., 376, 382. Owl and Nightingale, 1630.) 266 rode-wold=rode tree. I 
have printed rode^wold and not rode wold, because the two expressions are 
widely different in meaning. In the latter phrase the word woldsB-pnt to 
death, slain ; in the former it is an affix »» -tree, -beam ; so that rode-wold 
corresponds exactly to the O.E. rode-tre^^ rood- tre=^ the cross. 
" pe ille men in manhed sal hym [Christ] se, 

Anly als he hcnged on ))e rode-ire" etc. 

— (Hampole's P. of C, 1. 6260.) 
Cf. dore-tree. Piers PI. 833 and the phrases " hanged on a tree," " the 
gallows tree," etc. O.E. Tre= tree ^^Yfood, beam, and treen » wooden, still 
existing in axle-tree, eaddle-tree, etc. The -u^old in rode-tcold must there- 
fore »■ -/rtfoawood, beam, which we still preserve in threshold, O.E. 
threehwald, threehwold (A.S. iheree-xcald, thyrsewold). The affix -wold for- 
tunately occurs again in lines 676 and 614 in the word arehe-wold ^^ vltV- 

Sexe hundred ger noe was hold, 

Quan he dede him in "Se arche-wold, — (1. 676.) 

Sex hundred ger and on dan olde 

Noe fag ut of «e arche-icolde.--(}. 614.) 



A pasBa^ in CsBdmon'B poems furnishes us with the Tery term ark-board 
by which we have rendered arehe-woid, 

'* Lsod swa ic "Se hate '* Lead so I thee hete (command) 

under taree-bord under the ark-board 

eaforan fine." thy progeny." 

-(1.23, p. 80.) 
" Him J>a Noe gowat " Noah then departed 

swa hine nergend het as him the preserver bad, 

under earee-brnd** under the ark-board." 

-(I. 4, p. 82.) 
259 Si^enfor-let dai dai i$ pris 

Afterwards lost that day its honour. 
266 And seli sad fro %efoirwrogt. 

And the righteous separated from the wicked (accursed] 
8el% constantly occurs in O.E. writers in the sense of good^ and umeli^ with 
the opposite meaning of bad^ wicked. At first sight it would appear that 
the for in forxorogt is the same prefix which we hare in forbid, foreake, 
0.1&, for-toorth, "good for nothing;" hut forwrogt in O.E. = OTerworked, 
and, hence, fatigued. Forwrogt seems to be connected with the O.H.Ger. 
foruuerget, cursed ; O.E. weriedy cursed. The first interpretation, however, 
is supported by the Goth, verb fra-vaurf^'an ; Ger. verwirken^ siindigen. 
271 Ligber he eridde a dere srud 

Lucifer he shrouded (clothed) in dear (precious) shrouds (vestments). 
Ligber is evidently Z^7<^r= Lucifer. It occurs in the Ayenbite, p. 10 : — 
" And verst we wille]> zigge of }>e zenne of prede, vor f et wes J^e verste 
zenne and f e aginninge of alle kueade, for prede brek verst velajrede and 
ordre, huanne Li\tbere the angel for his greate vayrhedo and his greate wyt 
wolde by above ]>e o]>re angeles and him wolde enmi to God f et hine zo 
vayr an zuo guod hedde ymad." 
272-276 And he became in himself proud, 

And with that pride upon him waxed envy 
That evilly influenced all his conduct ; 
Then might he no lord acknowledge, 
That should in any wise control him. 
P. 9. I. 275 'SAati^sB suffer, endure, tolerate, acknowledge. S.Saxon ^afen^ i^etten ; 
O.E. thave. 

*< pe sexte b£de ]>att mann bitt The sixth petition that one prayeth 

Uppo }>e Paterr Nossterr in the Pater Noster is that God should 

patt iss, ]>att Godd ne J^ole nohht not suffer nor permit loathsome spirits 
Ne \afe laj^e gastess. to gain the upperhand of us 

To winnenn oferrhand off uss through their loathsome wiles." 

purrh heoro lafe wiless." — (Orm. i. p. 188.) 

** & Hengest hine gon werien. And Hengest gan him defend 

& nalde it noht i\euen [J^olie].** And would not suffer it," 

— (Laj. vol. ii. p. 216.) 
276 ^Atn^# = place, office, duty ; it seems to be here used adverbially in the 
sense of "any wise," " at all." 276 grauen is evidently an error for \ra¥et^ to 
compel, control. Cf. gu for ^m, p. 11, 11. 365, 366. 

NOTES. 125 

S78 Min uU nof^ on heutns makin, 

*'Sette/' he (Lucifer) said, *<mi sete I sal 
Gain him ]>at heist es of alle ; 
In ]>e north side it sal be sette, 

me serais sal he non gette."— (Carsor Mundi, fol. 4^.) 
282 ffeuelie^jfeuenlie^hke, Cf. the A.S. go-eftnlmcan^ to be like, to 

** And 'Se'Sen he sal eumeu eft, 
and thence he shall come again. 

for to demen allejmen, 
for to judge alle men. 
Oc nout (m-gwenlike^ 
but not a-like." — (Helig. Antiq. p. 225.) 
<* It (the hiw) fet ISe licham and te gost " It feedeth the body and the spirit 
Oc nowt gtvelike** but not alike." 

—{Ibid. p. 216.) 
295 "Sif ^tMo^f «this wicked one. In Early English writers we meet with 
seyeral deriratiTes of this word as kueadliche, wickedly, kueadvol^ sinfiil. 
(See Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. 4, and extract in Note to 1. 271, p. 124.) 
301 Euerilc %hing haued [hau€^'] he geue name^ 

To eyerything hath he giren name. 
309-310 Tet I ween I know of a device, that shall bring them misfortune. 
P. 10. L 814 bulm hunUj without search, or hunting, without delay. 316 bUirtm, 
to depriye of by treachery, to cheat a person out of a thing. 
'* "Sa herodes gessegh for-'Son bisuicen 
[& bilgrtet] waes from dryum, [& tungul 
crseftgum] uratJ wsbs suiSe." 

(Matthew ii. 16, Northumbrian Tersion.) 
** Listne^ nu a wunder, Listcneth now to a wonder, 

tSat tis der do'S for hunger : That this deer (wolf) doth for hunger : 

go's feldo to a furg, Gocth a-field to a furrow, 

And fallelS "Sar-inne, And falleth therein, 

in eried lond er in er^-chine, In eared land or in earth-chink, 
for to bilirten fugeles." For to deceive fowls. 

— (Reliq. Antiq. p. 217.) 
318 <fr«ti0 IS trouble, disturb. Cf. 0.£. drovcy to trouble, droving^ tribula- 
tion. '* pa Herodes ]>8Bt gehyrde, ]>a wearS he gedreffd,^ & eal Hierosolim- 
waru mid him." — Matt. ii. 3. 

" & for-]>i ]>att he sahh ])att )ho 
Was drafedd of his spesche 
He toe to froffrenn hire anann."— (Orm. i. p. 74.) 
*' And because that he saw that she was troubled at his word, he took to 
comfort her anon." Southern writers, by metathesis, formed from dreuen 
{drtue) the vb. deruen {derue)^ thereby confounding it with another vb. 
deruen or derm, pret. doruet p.p. doru$n (A.Sax. deor/any pret. dear/^ p.p. 

' The Northumbrian version reads gedroefed from which the O.E vb. drove. 

126 NOTES. 

dorfen)^ to labour, perifih, be in trouble. Dreue is a transitire vb. of the 
weak conjugation, while d$ru$ is intransitive and of the strong conjugation, 
neyertheless we find derue (pret. (hrue), taking the signification of dr9it$. 
*' Stute nu earme steorue ant swio nu'Se lanhure swikele swarte deouel, )mi 
tune deru0 me na mare." — (Seinte Marhereto, p. 12.) *'Stop now poor 
stem one, and cease now at once deceitful swart devil that thou harm me no 
more." In Lajamon we find not only pret. drof^^ distressed, but d$rfd»^ 
and the p.p. iderued. In the Owl and Nightingale, p. 40, we find the p.p. 
idorve = troubled, injured. 

"Other thou bodest cualm of orere (orve), 

Other that lond-folc wurth i-dorve." 
322 And senkede hire hure Mre hale 

BsAnd poured out to her the bale of us all, 
\.e. gave her the cup of sorrow, of which we all drink \ eenhede^^eehenkide^ to 
pour out, to give to drink, to skink. See Orm. iL 181. La^ ii. 202, 431. 
Alys. 7581. Owl and Nightingale, p. 70. 
824 Quat oget nu 1Sat for-bode o-wold 

ssWhat should now that command signify ? 
i.e. What is the meaning of the command; (h-tvold^sa'woldsatto signify^ 
denote. It has this sense in 1. 1944 : 

Quat'8o his dremes owen oHOold 
BsWhat-so his dreams should mean. 
In 1. 2122 toold occurs as a noun = interpretation, meaning. In other 
parts of the poem a-u7o/</= prevail, and ufold (sb.)s» power. The connec- 
tion between the idea of power^ and meaning^ interpretation, is not, after 
all, so very remote. Do we not speak of the force of a word, its pow^r, 
ute, etc., in an expression ? 
327 for ie fruit aired [sir^ ?] mannet mood, 

ssfor its fruit enlighteneth (cleareth) man's mind. 
330 wiient for tcitenss^know. 333 on hire modssiin her mind. 339 tenfiit 
=«(To^=solicited ; the pret. of eeri^Se, the original meaning of the Terb 
is (1) to go ; (2) to cause to go, to urge ; (3) to solicit. 

341 for to foriSen isfendes wilj 

for to further (do) this fiend's wilL 
" for up he rigtetS him 
redi to deren, 
to deren er to ded maken 
if ho it muge foi^n."— (Reliq. Anti^, p. 212.) 

342 At he %at fruit, and dede untkil, 
Ate he that fruit and committed sin. 

umkil, literally, signifies indiscretion, foUy, and by an easy traaipontion, nii^ 
crime. (See Ormulum, vol. i., p. 12. Gf. 0.£. MPij^f^t«= irrational). 
P. 11. 1. 345 rn-&ujptimA^= disobedience ; but in line 346 it ngmfies weakneas, 

347-8 Vn-weide woren and in win Their own limbs within them 
Serf owm liwtee him trttS-wt. Were powerless and in strife. 

NOTES. 127 

vnwMe » un wield j «« the S. Saxon vniwalde, heary. 

*< hiso limes arn Mnwelde:'^(lU\\(\. Antiq. p. 210.) 

(•!«. w<eak with a^) ; tn win, in strife, conflict. 
" and wr5 al mankin 
he (the devil) hauoR niS and win" (enyy and strife). 

(Reliq. Antiq. p. 213.) 
" ■Sis fis wnne^ wi"5 (in) tJe se gmnd, 
and lire's iScr evre heil and sand, 
til it cnmeth "So time 
"Sat storm stire^ al iSe se, 
tSanne sumcr and winter winnen (strive)." 

(Reliq. Antiq. p. 220.) 
** j?ar aros walo and win,** 
There arose slaughter and strife.— (La). L 18.) 
Jlesses frem^e and aafie same Lust of flesh, and shame of form 

MiiH hefelten on here liehame, hoth they felt in their bodies. 
349, 350 frem^e seems connected with frem$n and frame. See Note on 
these words, pp. 121, 122. 
860 %u kaues iSe eorget euf^he tcakei. 

Thou hast the sight of sorrow roused. 
t^fShe^^ sight , but if it be an error for ei^he it will signify adversity, mishap. 
862 luken ~ shnt out 363 tilcn ^i meU\n\ = earn thy food. tUen (till), 
earn, procure. 

*' ne maig he tUen him non fode. 
he is not able to procure food for himself." — (Ileliq. Antiq. p. 210.) 
364 md=^wi^^ with, eusitet teret^Ui^n of sweat, i.e, drops of sweat. 
We may, however, by spoiling the metre, read ewotte ^ ieree, for in O.E. 
writers ewot is frequently used in the singular and makes the plural ttcotet. 
866 Til gu beat eft into er^e CHineft, 

Till thou shalt again into earth come. 
beae = be^et =a art. The present has also a future signification. 369 nithful 
a envious. 

" nyth )»arc springes raani bogh, 
pat ledes man to mikel wogh, 
for nithful man he luuves lest, 
pc qnilk he wat cs dughticst." 

—(Cursor Mundi, MS. Cott Vesp. A. iii. fol. 163*.) 
Uf^ and lif^f loathsome and vile. 

372 And atter on is tnnge eliuen. 
And poison on his tongue cleave. 

373 san »» sehand^ disgrace, shame. 377 pitches. This word answers to 
the "coats of skin" in our English version of the Scriptures. In modem 
English pilch is merely the flannel swathe of an infant, but it formerly 
signified a fur garment. Cf. Ital. pellicia, peUzza, any kind of fur ; also as 
Fr. pelisse (pelice), a ftirred garment. 

** Here kirtle, here pilche of ermine, 
Here keucrchefti of silk, here smok o line, 
Al-togidcre, with both fest, 
8che to-rent biiiethen here breet."— (Seven Sages, 473.) 

128 NOTES. 

P. 12. 1. 384. Cherubim hauet [hau^] 1Se gaU$ gperd^ 

Cherabim haye the gates bolted (barred, £uteiied). 

391 n^m SB lorrow, grief. See Gloss, to AUit. Poems, 8.T. MwemmmtU, 

392 Of iwd and dead hem etotuMS greim 
Of evil and death thej stand in awe. 

A similar phrase occurs in 1. 432, p. 13. The phrase eUmde awe is not un- 
common in 0.£. writers. 

** Than sal be herd the blast of bem, 
The demster sal com to dem. 
That al thing of etandee awe** 

(t.f. standes in awe of.)— (Met Hom. p. xiL) 
'* For Crist com sal be sa brigt 
pat thorn j^at mikel lauerd might 
Him sal of etand ta mikel au, 
pat alle ]>e filthes of his maugh 
Sal brist ute at his hindwin, 
For dred he sal haf of drightin." 
— (Antichrist and the Signs of the Doom, in Jahrbuehfir B om a m e e he 
und Englieehe Literatwr^ 1863, p. 203, 1. 408.) 
" Thereof ne etod him non owe" — (Seren Sages, 1887.) 

393 on eundrims^ aetmder =s apart, separate. 

398 And leded (lede^ eamen gunker Uf. 

And lead (pass) together your two lires. 
leded SB leddfi, is a yerb in the imperatiye mood; gunker j the A.S. ineer 
(tfuaQoBjour two, of you two. Cf. )unkerr ha^e^^oi you both. — (Orm. 
i. 214.) 
408 And eumdel quem^ it hie eeri mood 

And somewhat it cheereth his sorry mood. 
411 More for emeste dan for gamen^ 

More for necessity than for pleasure. 
P. 18. 1. 417 al ewUc MZ»all such time. 

420 iSan he wae of it broker wold, 

When he was by his brother killed. 
421, 422 An hundred ger after it dead, 

Adam fro eue in trifte ahead. 

An hundred years after his death, 

Adam from Eye in shrift (penance) abode. 
{i,e, on account of the death of Abel.) 

*<A hundred winter of his line 

fra J^an forbar Adam his wiue, 

for soru of Abel >at was slayn." — (Cursor Mundi, fol. 8.) 

431 and ttnu^ ut'lage=tLnd became an outlaw. 

432 wiiS dead him etood hinke and age. 
Of death he stood in dread and fear. 

hinke 'dinkey doubt, dread. 

436 ^eft and reflae iShugte him no eame, 

theft and robbery appeared to him no shame. 
J{(^a-robb«ry with yiolence, rapine. (See La}, i. 172, 272, 424 ; ii. 626.) 

NOTES. 129 

** pe fint sin is o covatise 
pat reyis mani man >air praise, 
^is cumes blindnes and tresun, 
BtuUede^ theft, extorsiun." 
—(The Seyen Deadly Sins: Cursor Mundi^ Cott JfS., Vetp, A iii.) 
438 iUmdm ayofi» withstand, oppose. Cf. 0.£. again'^tta^ to oppose. 
489 Mtt of eon^ and wigte offe, 

Measure of com, and weight of goods. 
The only objection against explaining fe by goods or money is that in the 
poem it signifies cattle, the proper term for goods, etc., being agt$. In 
La)amon/», howerer, has the meaning of goods, money. 
440 And merke of felde, Jirat fond he. 

And he first dcTised division (boundary) of fields (lands). 

444 ai lie texte kne^tit the sixth degree. Km in this sense is used by 

Bobert of Oloucester, p. 228 :-~*'Ho come of Woden j^e olde louerd, as 

in te>e kne ** (i,e. tenth generation). 450 On englHt tale := in English speech. 

P. 14. 1. 456 He was hirde tcittere and toal. 

He was herdsman wise and experienced (skilful). 
See Gloss, to Allit. Poems, s.v. wafe. 
457-8 Of merke, and kinde, and helde, ^ ble, 

sundring and Mameni[n']ig tagte he ; 
He taught of (concerning) the character, breed, ago, colour [of cattle], the 
keeping them asunder, and the matching them together, merke refers, per- 
haps, to the form, shape, etc., of the cattle, and kinds to their pedigree. 
459 ^/^, music, still exists in glee, gleeman, etc., 0.£. ^^m'i>}^0 =s singing. 
gleu, to amuse by singing. 

*' Bi a piler was he far sett 
To gleu faa gomes at fair mete.— (Cursor Mundi,fol. 40*.) 
Cf. gieo, music— (Laj, i. 298.) ^feo-cr<8/ifw = glee-crafts, arts of music— 
(Ibid. i. 299). ^/ev)-rf/-«»« = glee-sound.— (Ibid. i. 77.) gleowen, gleowien 
to chant, play.— (Ibid. ii. 382, 429.) 466 a sellic smiiS, a wonderful (rare) 
smith. 468 to sundren and tnengen ^s to separate (the ore from the dross) and 
to mix (alloy). 

469 wopen of wigte and tol ofgri^. 
^weapon of war and tool of protection. 

Wigte 3= uig = war. Wigte may signify sharp. 

470 Wei eu^e egte and safgte wHS, 

This line seems to be corrupt and to stand in need of some emendation. I 
would propose to read as follows : — 

wel ett^e egte and sagte wi^ 
=well could he with them annoy (i.e. with the weapons of war), and shield, 
protect (i.e. with the tools of safety). Perhaps we might define egte^ 
wound, and sagte =a heal, cure. If this interpretation be right tol of griiS 
would refer to some curative agents. 472 ivut^ hisne, became blind. 
<< pis Lamech was called Lamech fe blind, 
Caym he slogh wit chaunce we find."— (Cursor Mundi, fol. 10.) 
475 Also Ite mistagte, also he sehei, 

As he mistaught, so he shot. 


Of u» mmi0 ig(S -mM itft. 

Om Im 4Hi i» aaek flmm.— .>» L 2844. p. ».; 

**gB Oft 3f«ff ma^ is. ijft 

lie rodkiiifB • Ja we of iar fWyifrJ. 
•^ a« IzradL ooK br daft 

F. 1-5. I. 40^ 4r4r. «e.»dB(«De.«tL^=^i9t bdoEB^dte. jiw i— 1> fct. 

-{Knpai^s P. of C, L Miw 
Se8E.or6l0iKa«v,(l; P^j^9iirtaiirFhiatB]xTO.4X 40 *MbU» 
«w«m dfeovnoi; dbnwiii m a dm T atif of O^ tkimig^ te A««B» a hAv 
hem oi wfiiek k ^bnoMftc wbiA often i^nfin irn O JL a Aniu fttHB (IL of 

**J^atttalatete i i iiii iii >ag 

^ wffcdUHy yat keaoa kiwamL 

Aad at &t kat draws tihej 

TW wiHchai w^ Oaai tam (bcfiave)." 

— (Ona. n. ISI.) 
'^ TW tea Uai gaa a^f It 
Tkat RpKml bmt oMuake.*'— (Kjii^ Hon. 978 ) 
401 he bcgaa holj eaitai 

Of ffOLjen^ aad of god-feanag-oeB, 
for life'i he^ aad muTi eonfort (eomrRl). 
500 alUd^hai4M0d^ho&Mm; icck=>Ue=^took. 501 fr% mmmn smm; 
fron naa'i Mknrilup, locietj. The usual fona of wtem ia O.E. k j pm me , 
pntms^etmaatmf general. 50S-610 From Hampole^s Pricke of Con- 
MrkfiM, pp, 122-126, we learn tliat both Enoch and Hdj (Elijah) ihall 
eome before doonudaj to torn the Jewi from following Antidurist to the 
Chrkiian Uw:—'< For 1260 days, or three jean, shall they oontiane to 
preach, Antichrkt, in great wrath, shall put the two prophets to^eath in 
/•ftualom, where their bodies shall lie in the streets for three days and a 
htlf, tfter which they shall ascen^ to hearen in a cloud. After their d^th 

KOTBS. 181 

Antichrist shall onlj reig^ fifteen days, at the end of which time he shall he 
shun hefore the Mount of OtiTet.'* Some « clerks*' affirm that he shall he 
shun hy St Miehul in Bahyl<«, '< that great hUL" (See ''Antiehriat tmd 
ikt Sigrn hefvrt ike Doom," in Jahrhnch fiir Bomaniwhe nnd Englische 
literatur, 1868.) 617 Metodwt. In the <' Polychronicon Banulphi Hig- 
deni," p. 23, ed. hy Churchill Bahington, 1865, amongst the *<anctores 
names" we find mention made of ** Methodius ctiam martyr et epiicopas, 
cni ineaieeiato rerelaTit angelus de mundi statn principio et fine/* 518 
Mfke f^raBfij^JU 9ir*m$koer insight, dear fore-knowledge. 
P. 16. L 525 qttat a^ ai«oAfa>what should happen. 526 nmter wold^ destroyed 
hy water, wold muj^ipalUd, flooded, from waUen. 530 hcro-plagey 
whore-play, whoredom. Cf. O.Sax. hwr-uuUo; O.H.G. huorgUuit, In 
O.E. Aor» (not iriiore) was an epithet applicahle to men as well as women. 
It occasionally signifies adultery. It is found in comhination as a quali- 
fying term in horo-^op, horetone, a bastard ; hore-houtj a brothel. The O.E. 
kortpid, defiled, unclean ; horowe, foul (Chaucer). -Hon, ouri, dirty. Pro- 
▼incial E. hony (Deronshire), seem to belong to another family of words. 

532 Wimmm welten weret meitir 

Women cohabited with master men (i.e. with fiends). 
See lUit. Poems, p. 46, 11. 269-272. 

533 And aunle iooded wmten o», 

And such madness (folly) went on. 
wodedmmUHfdhed, Of. aUedm^alihed ^hohnea (I. 500, p. 15). "pe o>er 
ontreu>e >et com> of prede is icodhede, me halt ane man wod )>et is out of 
his wytte, in huam skele is miswent."— (Ayenbite, p. 12.) 
584 Oolhed hunkinde he gunnen don. 

Unnatural lust they did commit. 
Oohm^^Xxiai, lasciTiousness, occurs in the Owl and Nightingale, 1. 492. 
Ps. Ixrii. 14. 

" Non lest (listen) ou man do amys 
ThoT} hys o^ene gale (lust).*'— (Shoreham, p. 107.) 
hunkinde «= unkmde, unlawful, imnatural. 537 quad meeter, wicked 
craft (practices). See Allit. Poems, p. 46, U. 265-268. Quad takes 
sereral forms and meanings in 0.£. ; as gued, wicked (Kyng Alys., 
5619; eyil, 4237) ; the devil (R. of 61., 314) ; guead^ wickedness (Ayenbite, 
p. 4) ; quaihe, wothe, icathe, evil, harm (Hampole's P. of C, 2102, 4558 ; 
Allit. Poems, B. 885). 

" De gudt deit, de schuwet gdm dat licht."— (Reynard the Fox.) 
537 hun-wreete plagtt wicked lust; hun'Wreete=%tmoreetey weak, frail, and 
hence wicked. 

" Mflsrling vmoarate [ontcreete] man 

Whu heeuest J?u me fus idon." — (Laj. ii, 228.) 
*< penne J^at hsefd (leader) is unwraet [omoreet] 

pe hsep (host) is fae wurse."— /(Wf. vol. ii. 259.) 
" Thanne a}te men here wyves love, 
Ase God doth holy cherche ; 
And wyves nau}t ajens men 
J(on omvreetne$ee werchc^ 

132 NOTES. 

Ac tholje, 
And uBXL}t onwrost opsecliem by 
Ne tounge of hefede holye." — (Shoreham^ p. 67.) 

See Orm. i., 168-9. A.Sax. Chron., 1062. Wrighfs Lyric Poems, 37. 

Kyng Alys, 878. Owl and Xight., 178. 638 A ^eJU kindi=va thiefs 

kind, in sodomy, thief in O.E. was a general tenn of reproach. Perhaps 

in iSe/l9 we hare an allusion to Cain. 

642 And kten podes frigtihed And forsook the fear of Gk>d. 

643 And mengten wi^ waried kin And intermixed with the aocorsed kin. 
646 Of h$m icoren iSc geUnM horen Of them were the giants bom. 

— (See Genesis ri. 4). 
646 Migti mm, and figti, [and] fwAwm 

ssMigii men, JSgti andforhren, 
Mighty men, warlike and forlorn (doomed). 
648 Mil taU, little account (worth). 663 blissen^ lessen =b&4e99tH (?). Of. 
blinnen and linnen ^io cease. See IL 3663, 3803. 
664 iSat it ne toexe at more hun-frams 

lest it should grow to greater otIL 
hun-frame^unframe, loss, disadrantage. 666 deree^kin^aBJomaiM. 

P. 17. 1. 660 griiSy protection, safety. 

« he wunedeu (dwelt) seo'Styen (afterwards) here 

inne gri^e and inne fri'Sc (peace)." — (Laj. ii. 50.) 
" Lauerd, lauerd, jef (gire) me ^rt'S."— (Ibid. iii. 36.) 
Cf. grethy quarter (Sir Cleges, 292). gritk-hrtteh, breach of the peace 
(Owl and Nightingale, 1043). grith-eergeant (Hauelok, 267). 660 fetelesy 
a vessel, tifat or vat, 

** J>e ^mi^fetleea wass 

Brerdfull off waterr fllledd."— (Orm. ii. 148.) 
'< Seifeteles of stan war thar stan[d]and, 
Als than was cumand in the land 
And Crist bad thaim iliiifeUlei fUle 
Wit water, and thai did son lus wille." 

—(Met. Horn. p. 120.) 
662 limed, daubed, pitched. 664 sperd, sparred, barred. See Orm. D. 
261 ; H. i. 142, ii. 68 ; Havelok, 448. spere or ajMirrtf signifies also to lock, 
shut up. Chaucer, Troilus and Creseide, v. 466 ; Bone Florence, 1774. ^ig 
=s^ic, thick. 
666 ^or buten noe{.) long swing he dreg. 

Thereabout Noah long toil he endured. 
sxcing » swine, toil, labour. 668 welken, pass away, literally to fade, wither ; 
and usually applied to plants and flowers. 

^' It wites als gresse arcli at dai, 
Areli blomes and fares awai ; 
At euen doun es it brogt, 

Un-lastes, and welkes, and gas to noght."— (Ps. Ixxxix. 6.) 
See Hampole's P. of C. 1. 707. 576 arche-icold. See note to 1. 266. 
582 gette or get, poured down, gette is the preterite of geten or gets. 
See I. 686. Cf. O.E. yhete {}ete) ; prct. yhei; p.p. yhofen {i^ote). 



** Yhet over >am fi wrcth."— (Ps. Ixviii. 25.) 
See Ps. xli. 5, Uxiii. 21. Percy's Reliq. vol. ii. 81. Cf. " a metal geoter;' 
a metal caster, Kyng Alys. 6726. out-yhettedy poured out, Hfljnpole*8 
P. of C. 7119. See Gloss, to Allit. Poems, s.v. OoU, 692 mxmed « iMOfM^S 
a month. 
P. 18. 1. 698 tbragen by metrical licence for wi^'dragetif withdrawn. t$* noiUres win 
s the water's force (strife). Wmnc in O.E. has the signification of to fight, 
contend with, strive, and hence to get. Cf. O.E. umnne^ victory; wan^ 
contrivance, remedy. See 1. 347. 

'' AUe we atter dragen off ure eldere, 
"Se broken drigtinnes word ^urg ^e neddre ; 
'Ser-'5urg havefS mankin 
bo^en wX and trm."— (Reliq. Antiq. p. 216.) 
607 e9t SB east. Probably only an error for eft ss again. 618 Arche-tpolde, 
See note to 1. 267. 617 J2a^= hasty, rash. literally it signifies quick 
and frequently occurs in O.E. writers with this meaning. Cf. O.E. radel^f 
radfyf quickly, suddenly. 

" Her chylderen scho doughte ther to bathe, 
Sche sat adoun hem to vnswade. 
For greet sorouwe, and for scathe, 
Handys gan wrynge, 
And fyll aslepe swyde rode 
In her sorouwyng."— (Octavian Imp., 306.) 
See Owl and Nightingale, 1. 423. 630 tudered (see p. 124, note to 1. 164). 

P. 19. U. 631-637. Often he prayed with timid prayer. 

That such vengeance as Qod then did 
Should no more on the world come. 
What vengeance so ever there should be taken. 
God granted it in token of love, 
Showed him in the welkin above 
A rainbow, they call it red and bluu. 
686 G'a^ as granted. It is the preterite of a vb. ffaie^ to grant. 
« Fourti dais he sal [tham] yate 
pat fallen ar ute o ]>air state 
pom foluing o j^at fals prophet, 
pat ]>ai mai ]>am wit penance bete." 
— {Antiehrietf in Jahrbuch fiir Bomanische und EngUsche Literatur, 
1863, p. 204, 1. 428.) 
gate or gate, pret. gaite, ia the Northern form of the word, the corresponding 
southern term is ^te, pret. ^tte. 

« & }ho ne wass nohht teer onnjffiu. 
Ace )atte hemm h^re wille 
& }atte ]>att )ho wollde ben 
Bihht lajhelike fesstnedd 
Wi))]) macche, swa summ i >at aid 
Wass la}he to ben fesstnedd."— (Orm. t., 80.) 
<< & ^e king him }ette 
swa Hengist hit wolde."— (La), li., 172.) 

134 NortES. 

« & ]>e king him \ttt4 
al >at he fimde."— (La), i. 189.) 
See Seinte Marherete, p. 18. Allit Poems, p. 17, L 667. m^m^in, 
637 mm flepedBa one calleth it; eUp€d^dep€tm:^eldp$'rfi; wt^^iL We 
hare a similar construction in 1. 1082 : 

<* for al "Sat nigt he sogten "Sor 
iSe dure, and fundend nenere mor." 
fundend'^fundeH-^-ed^founden-^-et^foTmd it The anflior of the poem 
constantly joins the pronoun et^=^it to the preterite of weak Terba. See line 
479, where letet^let it. 690 stodet^stodit^iL stood. 1654 kiddU^ 
kidd tVss showed it. As the plurals of the present indicatiTe do not end in 
-e^ or -et in the poem, but in -en (-»), eleped maj be an error for ckpA 
or cAtjmM^ calls, and men^ 0.£. m^^one. See line 750. 
643-644 And as high the flame shall go. 

As the flood flowed on the downs (hill). 
lowe, a northern term (of Norse origin) for flame, the southern form (of 
A.Sax. origin) is leie. Religious Songs in Owl and Nightingale, p. 79. 
" Of his neose thurles 
cumedh the rede leie." 
See also Legend of St. Brandan, 612. 

*^ pair throtes sal ay be fllled omang 
Of alle thyng ]>at es bitter and Strang, 
Of lowe and reke with stormes melled, 
Of pyk and brunstane togyder welled." 

— (Hampole's P. of C, 1. 9431.) 
663 vUn^wi^-vien, without. See 1. 666. Of. 1. 696, with 1. 698. 666 
bi talej in number. 
P. 20. L 676 pan iUe tcune^ did wicked practices. 678 mimiii^=remembrance= 
O.E. meninffy mining. See Met. Homilies, xr ; Sir Gawayne and the Green 
Knight, 1. 924; Lyric Poetry, p. 37, 1. 13. 692 fendee JIMimg, fiends' 
fctrife. Probably ^"Stii^rr/i^^iii^, contention, strife. The phrase /pfidSM 
Jkathe^fendeeflei^ingy occurs in Shoreham's poems, p. 97. 
^* lyf thou rewardest thyne eldrynges nau}t 
A-lyve and eke a-dethe, 
That were wel besy to bryngc the forthe, 

^yf thou hy gna)st and flagjst eke, 
Ryjthys \}isX fendee Jleathe.** 
P. 21. 1. 713 hicte=hifftef was called, named. 724 tool wei=wel iiW=Tery well, 
extremely well. Of. the 0.£. expressions toel aldy wel Umg^ etc., yery old, 
Tery long, etc. ; tool wel corresponds exactly to the O.H.G. and M.H.G. 
f^ icol ; Mod. Ger. eehr wohl. See Erec. (ed. Haupt. 1839), 2017. 
726 TiMre lei hur^ and iSd^en he nam, 

Terah left TTr, and thence he went. 
let (pret. of ^^)=left ; nam, literally took, and hence took the way, de- 
parted, went. See U. 744, 745. 727 burfft, an error for burg, 
P. 22. L 743 for, went. See 1. 763. 

748 Of weledet fideum and of bite Rich of (in) wealth and of (in) bliss. 



welatks is an error for tcetlSes ; fulsum=ixichf plentoouB, boontifiil, occurs in 
OJ^ /ultumhid, fidmmdy, 749 m<=i« t^ U there. 
751 Each thing dieth that therein is cast. 

768 %m a it wetU=ik\}B is it changed. 754 6rtwt/fr, if not an error for 
brin-Jirt (burning fire; see 1. 1164), signifies wild-fire, m. brimstone. Cf. 
A.8ia. ^tri^/^=fire of brimstone. 763 hunger bond. We ought, per- 
haps, to read htrngir^bond, corresponding to the German hwigeri-^iothj 
fiunine, daarth. 764 ftgtr^feyw^ far. 767 to leUH=:io lose. 
P. 23. 1. 787 erdne=smdej errand, prayer, petition, message. 
" Ih seal iu sagen imbot, 
gibot ther himilisgo Oot, 
Ouh nist ther er gihorti 

so fronisg arunti"^{0]Med'B Eyangelienbuch.) 
to God erdno bermz=Ui intercede with God. Emde occurs in Lyric Poetry, 
p. 62, in the sense of to intercede. 792 artnutike^armiHlr^Uc*, 
793 He was hem lef, he woren him holdf 

He was dear to them, they were true to him. 
795 tat = achat, treasure, still existing in teot, thot. 796 vn-aehteledy un- 
told, immense ; from aehlel, to estimate, reckon 
801 ^or he quHum her witten iotmen, 

Where they formerly wished to dwell. 
P. 24. I 813 aiU6=:hattA, u caUed. 

827 IW het god abre iiat tagte lond, etc. 

There God promis^ Abraham that that promised land, etc. 
tagte=bitagtey literally assigned, appointed. 832 giteinge of Umtrd'hed= 
desire of lordship, greed of domimon. G^iMtiy^scoTetousness ; the correct 
form is giiting (iitetmg, iitttung), but iittiftge is found in Laj. ii., 227. 
See Orm. i., 157. <* Al his motinge (talk) 

was full of it^sM^tf/'— (La), i., 280.) 

833 Neg ilc burge hadde ite louereding, 
Nigh each borough (city) had its lord. 

834 kumeUng is literally a stranger, foreigner, but here signifies a king or 
ruler not of natire blood, one of foreign extraction. 

** For I am a eommelgng toward ]>e 
And pilgrym, als aUe my fielders was." 

— (Hampole's P. of C, 1385.) 
'*Wande ein ehomelineh ih bin mit dir unde ellente also alle uatere mine." 
— (Wendb. Ps. xxxnii. 22.) 
P. 25. 1. 842 ferding ttor, a great army. 844 gouelj tribute, tax. Later writers 
use the word gauel or goud in the sense of usury. See Ayenbite, p. 5, 1. 88. 
Cf. gaueler, usurer. Ayenbite, p. 25, 105; Ps. cviii. 11. 847 ha4ied=^ 
AaM#8,hath. 848 here-gonge, inrasion. 

** For ich am witi fill iwis. 
And wod (knoweth) al that to kumen is : 
Ich wot of hunger [and] of hergonge** 

—(Owl and Nightingale, p. 41, 1. 1189.) 
851 fmre oh token andfifue woren, four attack and fire defend. 

136 NOtES. 

** heo wenden to beon sikerc. They wecne4 to be seoore 

^eo Belin heom on-tohu.'* when Belin attacked them. 

—(La), i. 241.) 
864 witUr o/^<=8killed in ^ghting. See Gloss, to AUit. Poems, b.t. 
totter, and La), i. 260, 409 ; ii. 247. 
866 Ahram lit him tunde wely 

Abram caused him to be well surronnded (well guarded). 
The ellipsis of the Terb to be is yery common in O.E. writers. 869 wenden 
=zwineden^ thought. 

P. 26. 1. 875 wi^-'^uUn [= wi^-uien] «o %e cudenJUn 

SB except those who could flee. 
882 bat ^ had ^ head = literally offered and hence restored. 886 Bwwett^ 
deliyered, rescued, the p.p. of hergen (O.E. her)e<, henoen). 
« pis hoc is ymad vor lewede men 
vor Tader and vor moder and vor o>er ken 
Ham Tor to her)e Tram alle manyere zen 
J>et in hare inwytte ne bleve no voul wen." 

— (Ayenbite,p. 211.) 
"And huo }>at agelt ine enie of ]>e ilke hestcs him ssel }>er-of Tor-j^ench, 
and him ffrive, and bidde God merci yef he wyle by ydorj^."— (Ibid, p. 1.) 
Orm uses hernhenn^ to save, preserre, from which he forms the compound 
herrhlesSf salvation. 888 feree walej brave companions (allies). IFale sig- 
nifies select, choice, worthy, and hence brave. See Gloss, to Allit. Poems, 
s. V. IFale. 
892 HefroiSer[ed]e him after ia ewinc. 

Ho comforted him after his toil. 
Herbert Coleridge (Gloss. Index, p. 83) connects fnt^er$ with the A.Sax. 
frofirian^ to comfort. Of course there is nothing to be said against the inter- 
change of / and th (cf. afunt, thirsty ; afyngred, hungry, etc.) ; but the 
k.^. freo^ian^ to protoct, render secure, is nearer in form, and there is the 
O.E. vre^ie (Ayenbitc) to prove that this verb had not gone out of 
use. 895 «tf ti(fSe del = the tenth part, tig^e =» tithe = tenth. 898 hargt 
^=harg (the pret. of hergen) preserved. 910 xoi^-uten man =s except the 
men. The rhyme seems to require us to read fiam \ the meaning would then 
be " without reserve." 

P. 27. 1. 911 At heee hadde fM migte hi-geten. 

He had them all with might begotten (obtained). 
hee^B^he •{- M-Bhe + them. The combination hee occurs again in 1. 943. 
ee or if = them, as in 1. 948. See Note to 1. 135. 913 m^elike trr/, with 
great moderation, very meetly. Cf. unmed6eliche in Seinte Marherete, p. 10. 
918 algen « halgen = hallow. 920 hi-told (rescued) should be the pret. of 
a vb. hiteUen, but no such word occurs in the poem. Lajamon uses hi-teUen^ 
to win. 

** Ac wih him we scuUen ure freoscipc (freedom) 

mid fehte hitellen:*—{Yol, i. p. 328.) 
" Bi-tJenche^ eow ohte (bold) cnihtee 
to hi'tellen eoweore rihtes."— (i. 337.) 
The fditor tzplains hiteHen by to win, but regain would suit the context 

NOTES. 187 

'* Nn yu hauest Brutlond, 

Al In-tald to >ire hond."— (Vol. ii. p. 335.) 
" Nu ich mi lond habben W.^««."— (Vol. iii. p. 268.) 
924 Quo-io hia tUty him bi-agt 

^Whoeo them (goods) holdeth, him it behoYeth (yield as tithes). 
ffi8=:ia=e«j them. 927 puiden tcel, requited well. 
934 Of^e'telfBol iSin erward ten^ Of thyself shall thine heir come. 
encard= trtseweard, heir. 939 ftam god A<^=took good heed to, attended 
carefully to. A:^=care. SeeR. of Gl. 177, 191. Owl and Night. 1226. 
Hampole's P. of C. 381, 697. 941 Euerilc for euerilc-otif every one. 
fUirile is the same as the 0.£. euerieh. Mod. £ng. every, 
943 Vndelt hes Iside quor-to hea tok, 

Undivided he laid them where-so he took (brought) them. 
This line refers to the ** duue and a turtuly** in the following line. See 
Geneds xt. 10. 946 on-rum the same as a-rum, apart, aside. 
" Tho Alisaundre sygh this, 
Aroum anon he drow, ywis, 
And suththe he renneth to his muthe (army)." 

-(Kyng Alys., 1637). 
946 And ofiSo doUt k$p he nam. 

And of the pieces care he took. 

P. 28. 1. 949 kagte it wei, drove them away, kagte is the pret. of kaohe, to drive. 
"And he ansuered als he war medde. 
And said, " Alias and wailewaye. 
That ever I com at yon abbaye. 
For in na chaffar may 1 winne 
Of tha lurdanes that won tharinne 
For likes nan of thaim my play, 
Bot alle thar kache me away."— (Mot. Horn. p. 161.) 
963-964 God said to him in true dream, the future condition of his seed. 
beren^Um « bam'ieemy offspring, descendants. 

" "We are alle a (one) man Jarn-^ww^."— (Cursor Mundi, fol. 27*.) 
966 And [m] uien erdee eorge sen. 

And in foreign lands sorrow see (experience). 
" Outen sones to me lighed ]rai, 
Ouien sones elded er )>ai."— (Ps. xvii. 46.) 
" Filii alieni mentiti sunt mihi, filii alieni inveteraVerunt." 
Cf. 0.£. utenladf a foreigner. 968 Hor = or^ before. 960 iSat hoteite lond, 
that promised land. 964 untuderi, barren. The usual O.E. term is unberand, 
unbearing. 966 abre ^ to abram. 969-971 And Sarrai would not suffer 
it, that Hagar were thus swollen (with pride). She held her hard in 
thrall's wise (treated her as a slave). 974 one and aori, solitary and sad. 
976 tot? and tcerij lonely and weary. JFil literally signifies astray, from the 
verb wiHe, to go astray. See Gloss, to Allit. Poems, s.v. Wpi. 
** He is hirde, we ben sep ; 
Silden he us wille, 
if we heren to his word 
dat we ne gon nowor tri^."— (Reliq. Antiq. 209.) 

138 KotBS. 

" And child Jesus mUsd them fra/'— (Met. Horn. p. 108.) 

977 WisU hire drogm son for iSritt. 

Knew her to he soflfering sorely for thirst. 
drogoH may he an error for dropondo -> suffering, iori as an adjectiTe is not 
sorrowful, as most editors interpret the word, but heayy, painful, and hence 
anxious, etc. See 1. 974. 

^ Quen thai him (Jesus) missed, thai him soht 
Imang thair kith and fsmd him noht, 
And forth! Joseph and Mari 
War tot him sorfiil and j«rt."— (Met Horn. 108.) 

978 guemodo Mro Utt, satisfied her desire. 

P. 29. 1. 984 fok frigti^ formidable toVk^fHgti does uot here signify, as in other 
parts of the poem, afiraid but to ho feared, 991 in tundor run^ in diyerse 
communings. 1010 iie ton == the one. fon=:that one, the first; Uf^= 
that other, tiie second. 

P. 80. 1. 1019 guamod=gtmHode, pleased. 

1021-1024 Qnoth this one, " this time next year, 
Shall I appear to thee here ; 
By that time shall hliss he&U Sarah, 
That she shall of a son eonce&Te." 
1026 AtidithirelSo^aoeUiiShiii^, 

And it appeared to her a manreUous thing. 
1028 on wan$^ wanting one, ue. one less. *' In >is burh was wuniende a 
meiden switSe }ung of jerea, i¥fo worn of twenti."-'(St Kath. 69.) 
1082 And it wur^ mV Mmmi twiio ooly 

And it became truth (was eoMfirmed) within such time. 

1035 8telen=go away stealthily or secretly. 

1036 Ne mme dode Ahrahtm keieny Nor my deed from Abraham hide. 

1037 omno iira^= complaint of sin (see 1. 1220) ; dwale may be taken as an 
adj.=:grieTous, nuschierous. 1038 miriee ddU^ an error Cur mirk ddU=z 
pleasant dale. 

1039-40 "So euUk nbram-is horU eor, 

for loth Mi mwe w tme de "Sor, 
Then had Abraham's heart grief 
For Lot, his nephew, dwelt there. 
1041-4 "Lord," quoth he, "how shalt thou do (this), if thou shalt take 
Tengeance thereon ; shalt thou not the righteous protect (spare), or for them 
(for their sake) to the others mercy bear (show)?'* mi6 bereH=to bear 
mercy, to show mercy to. See 1. 1046. 
1046 Jo eal m4iien He otede for Hoy 

I shall haye mercy upon the place for those (for their sake). 
JMen signifies to use gently, act with moderation towards any one^ to 
oompassbnate, to show mercy to. (See Allit Poems, p. 46, L 247 ; p. 51, 
1. 486 ; p. 54, 1. 565.) 1049 atnootj departed. There is no such verb as 
at'witanf to depart, in Bosworth's A.Sax. Diet.; but we have the O.E. 
at-ftegen, at-gon^ at'oeapOy etc, and the simple vb. loUe is not unoonmion in 
Endy English authors. 

*' The fini dai sal al the 86 
Bohi and rui| and hejer be 
Than ani fel of al the land, 

And Hb mikel the tother day 
Sal it Battel and tcit away."— (Met. Horn., p. 25.) 
'* When this was sayd, Bcho w^ away."^iiMrf., p. 169.) 
lOM quaJlc$ is evidently an error for guaU=waitf look for. 

P. 31. L 1056 Sirosjond hUte, and 8drtf6 him [hem ?] WiL 

He roee, and bowed, and urged (infited) them weU. 
1060 E$ tciiUn Mm Urginfra %t dituL 

They wished to preserve him from death. 
kryiM is literally to preserve, but it may be here used passively, as the 
infinitive often is by 0.£. writers, and we must then render the line as 
follows : — ^* They wished him to be preserved from death." 
1062 And he him gulden it euerilc del. 

And they him requited it every whit 
1068 OealiSal burgifolc tat helde woe on. 

But all that townsfolk that were old enough. 

1078 tatfoU m-eeUy einne wod. 

that wretched folk, mad with sin. 
1076 wreehe and letting^ pumshment and hindrance. 

1079 Wil ai^en earn on euerilc on. 
Blindness afterwards came on every one. 

1082 /undend=Junden + id=»Jmden + it» found it. 1086 UfUdonred^m 
wHt don redy wilt do (obey) counsel, Le. wilt take advice. 
P. 32. L 1095 Ml i»/a=in time, timely, opportunely. 
1097 tat here non wente mgen. 

that none of them should turn back, 
1101 gunde under dun^ under yond hilL 1103 eren^ if correct, would sig- 
nify eereen, but it may be an error for /ran, to set free, and hence to save. 
1105 Ai woe borgen bala^eegor. 

Aye was saved Bela Segor (little Bela). 
See Gen. xiv. 2; xix. 20, 22. 1107 hine^^ him »the name of the town 
being regarded as of the masculine gender. 1108 efte^dine s earth-quake. 
** A hundyr & thowsand and se^vryntene yhere 
Fr& )>e byrth of our Lord dere, 
Erddgn gret in Ytaly 
And hugsum fell all suddanly, 

And fourty dayis frfii >ine lestand."— (Wyntown, p. i. 289.) 
The verb dinne in O.E. has not only the sense of to din^ but to shake, quake. 
See Seinte Marherete, p. 20. 

" pe erth quok and dind again." 

— (Cursor Mundi ; Cott. Ms. ; Vesp. A. iii. fol. 11^.) 
1109 tone ao, as soon as. 1110 brend-Jler-rein, rain of burning fire. 
1116 Ne mai non daiti waeem tor^on^ 

None may dare to wash therein, 
(faiff, if not an error for darm^daren^ dare, venture, musta^'Stfiii, a man, a 

140 ifaoB. 

mmmL 1119 lemte JUrt m^mu tSEwd ha ateck, S« L 1W7. 1120 

fgmUt m U m ttamy tnrwif nto > ifc—e. 

llll & iM mmjmwmat mint dUk 

So ii tiben wv dung«d bkot dik. 
»<=««-■(, at <ii Acre. ll2Sdfa«fadHMm,bddCaiiMMed)or(l»j}dMtib. 

P. 33. L 1137 TImj mj the trees that are dure war it, eoBe to aatentj m tine, 
and briBf fat^ finit and thnrey b<Et when ther applet arc r^e^tre-a^ei 
one Bar wot tberem. Jkn-^dtM^ fee a^hti. For Ae faariag of mIi^ aoe 
Gloat to iHit. PoesBS «.r. r«^ 1131-2 That kad ii called dak of «lt, 
Basj oae luldctik thereof ixttk heed (account;. 

^ Of diair sAcpe dud gif na ttie. 
Whether dud be i^e or hale.** 

— (Cott MS. HarL 4196, fcl. 92.) 
1137 »i>yw*, dweh. It sgmfies nore properir to kmM. 1139-40 Here 
ii an allaBOB to the destmetioa of the world bj fee ■cBtMaed in lines 
040-644, p. 19. Thooe maideni erewhile beard loaae aaj that fee shoold 
an Aia worid eoaamne. 1140 jwr-mmAtm^ to boni up entir^, fron die 
O.E. mMiki or jirtU«, to bun, mrdi. See Gkas. to Allit Pbema, 8.T. 
•wyike. 1142 Jkm wrteAt, Tcngeance (plagne) of fee. 1143-4 The 
Cimor Mnndi aaji that Lot* s dangbters teeing oalj tbeir Cither, thongfat 
that all men bad perished. 

** Bot Lotb him held >at care wit-in. 
He and bit dogbtrea tain ; 
For yn nan bot >air fidre tan, 
pta. wend aEe men war don odan. 
Thorn >at ilk wafnl wrak ; 
pe dder to >e yonger BfA : 
'Sitter to >eindeml tai, 
iHm teis >e folk er aUe awai ; 
Bot Loth cor Cider et cannan nan, 
Bot we twa left et na womman ; 
I think mankind sal perist be, 
Bot it be stord wit me and >e."^foL 18.) 
1147 tmder-ff&Hf (1) to go under, (2) to cheat, deceiye. In line 1100 mtitr- 
^ofi=to undertake, take up again. 

" Jet OOT by-leaTc wole cnder^ffon, 
That tbyse dire (Persons of the Trinitj) betb ryjt al on." 

— (Shoreham, p. 142.) 
** Ope the beje e^tjnde day 
He mder-ytde the Gywen lay."— (Ibid. p. 122.) 
*^ And tut Adam he [Christ] tmder-gede^ 
Reisede bim up and manldn, "Sat was fallen to belle dim." 

— (Beliq. Antiq. L 224.) 

1161 $^er herty eacb of them. Cf. O.E. et^S^r ^ each eye, both eyet. 
1159-60 Now beboYeth ut to torn back and take up the tong oonoendng 

1162 ^1^ reuli loU andfrigti mod. 

With moumftil cheer and frightened mood (mind). 

NOTES. 141 

fiM/tssgad, rueful, from the yerb rui, to pity, oompainoiutte, grieye for. 
Cf. O.E. rueneUf compasfion ; Buer, a meroUiil persoB ; nuihe^ pity. 
" He saith *' we ben ybore euerichone 
Making sorwe and reuly mone."— (MS. Addit. 11305.) 
lot4^ £ure, cheer. 

'* piB iiah >e leodking The king saw this, 

grimme heore laUs.*' their grim gestures. 

— (Laj. ii., 245.) 
** pat freond BseiiSe to freonde, That friend sayeth to his friend 
mid feire lotm hende, With fair comely looks, 

* Leofde freond, waes hail V" " Dear friend, wassail ! " 
— (iW/. u., 175.) 
P. 34. I 1163 Soiej East Anglian for reke, smoke. 

1164 And ^$ brinjlret atinkM smoke, 

And the sulphur's stinking smoke. 
9tinkeM=9tmkende, stinking. 1166 Asm reu. The yerb rewe is used 
impersonally in O.E. 1167 »w5#n=«t'Seft, afterwards. It may, how- 
eyer, signify southwaids. (See Gen. xx. 1.) 1171-2 Erewbile as first 
Pharaoh her took, now taketh Abimelech her also. 1177 mf-kmnes, woman- 
kind. 1178 wi^-heliS=zipiiS'held. 1179-80 In dream to him came tidings 
wherefore he suffered and underwent that misfortune. 1180 Un-timifkg 
is literally that which is unseasonable. We have the same notion expressed 
in O.E. unhap (mishap), misfortune ; £. happen^ happy, and £. hap^ happen, 
etc. 1184 ^tti tie »elj that same time, immediately. 
1186 And hit yuel sort wot ouer^ottj 

And his eyil lot was passed. 
1 188 ^a iSe tmnaeU gan him nunmor deren. 

When the quinsy did him no more yex (annoy). 
Our author or his transcriber is certainly wrong about the *' ncinaeie,* for 
the punishment of ^* lecher -er aft" was meeelry (leprosy), the quinsy 
being the penalty for gluttony. The seven deadly sins were thus to bo 
punished in Purgatory : — 

1. Pride, by a daily fever. 

2. Covetousness, „ the dropsy. 

3. Sloth, „ the gout. 

4. Envy, „ boils, ulcers, and blains. 

5. Wrath, „ the palsy. 

6. Gluttony, „ the quinsy. 

7. Lechery, „ meselry or leprosy. 

1192 ^ai faire blod, that fair woman, blod in O.E. was used nB a term of 
the common gender, as also were such words as girl, maid, etc. See Gloss, 
to Allit. Poems, s.v. blod, 

1 193 Bad hire ^or hir trt^ heuod ben hid 
=Bad hire iSoT'tci^ hir heuod ben hid f 

Bad her there- with her head to be hid, 
(That is, she was to buy a veil for her head). 

1194 timing, good-fortune, happiness. See note to line 1180. 1195 bi- 
teumtj be seen. 1197 ipurd=^umr^, became^ on elde wae, in age weak 

142 mnTBS. 

(feeble). Wdc^wetk; the older form is wae. See La?, ii. 24, 195, 411. 
" FoiT ioc amm i me BeUfenn woe, 
& Ml off onntnimmnesse." — (Orm. U. 285.) 
^* Vor noat makeV hire tvoc bat Bunne one." 
For nought maketh hir weak bat sin only. 

— (Ancren RiwlOi p. 4.) 
1 198 trwmk is used like timede = t€0med=htoxighi forth. 

P. 35. 1. 1200 O'huUn »Morm = aboat shorn, is merely the explanation of circam- 

" thritte yeir fra he was bom, 
was ysmael wen he was »«Aom."— (Corsor Mundi, fol. 166.) 
1201 toy is another form of law, Cf. O.E. day$ and daw$, 1204 al twilk 
sely eyen at such time. 1206 is toldy is reckoned. 1208 fro teding tUm, 
remoTed from his mother's care (?). teding =^Unding (?), nursing, care. 
^^fro t^ing don" in the Cursor Mundi is expressed by the phrase tpan$d 
fra the pap = weaned from the breast. 

1209 Mikel getininge made ahraham, great feasting made Abraham. 
geetninge (feasting) seems to be the same as the S.Saxon^tfffnM^e, abanqaet. 
The original meaning is hospitality ; O.E. geHen, to entertain a guest ; 
S.Sax. gietnen, to lodge. See Ancren Riwle, p. 288a, 414. . Laj. iL 172. 

1212 And gtmael ioae him vn'Stoac, 

And Ishmael was to him (Isaac) disagreeable. 
vn^ncaCf displeasing, distasteful. There is no such word as un^etoac to be 
found in the A. Sax. glossaries, but we haye ewaCf sayour, taste, from which 
I haye deduced the meaning here giyen to un~atcae. The word ewak occurs 
in the sense of sweet, pleasant, in a poem in the same dialect, in the Reliq. 
Antiq. p. 218. 

« He biUeS (pecks with the bill as a bird) one the foxes fel (skin) 
wo-so (who-so) tellet$ idel spel, 

and deyel geld (requiteth) awah (pleasant) billing (pecking) 
witJ same (shame) and witJ sending (infamy)." 

1213 un-framen, to annoy, from O.E.framef to benefit, to profit. 

1216 Hir tcae ytmaelee anger MS, To her was Ishmael's anger displeasing. 

1217 Ghe himenie hire to abraham. She bemoaned her to Abraham. 
bimente &s pret. of bimene, to complain, lament. 

**bimene we us, we hauen done wrong." — (Reliq. Antiq. i. p. 227; see 
R. of Gloucester, p. 490.) 1220 dtcale, complaint, grief. See 1. 1037. 
** Be ])U neyre to bold to chiden agen oni scold, 
Ne mid man! talcs to chiden agen alle dtcale8.-~^(BA\<{. Antiq. i. 183.) 
1231 rapedef hastened, hurried away. See Rich. Coeur de lion, 2206. 
" The wretche stiward ne might nowt slape ; 

Ac in the morewing he gan up rape," — (Seyen Sages, 1. 1620.) 
*^ The king saide, * I ne haye no rape (I am in no hurry) 
For me lest yit ftil wel slape."— (Ibid. 1. 1631.) 
1224 In mmertid, in egeet tel. 

In summer time, in the highest time (the hottest season) of the year. 
1228 hetegram, fierce heat. 1229 wef^on i^riet. The sense requires us to 


read wix oft-^rMf, becanse oft-'Sm^sa-thiTBt or thinty; on- «■ «m- » <r- 

ot in on-mm = m^rum -» aside ; on'Wnder= a-tunder, etc. 

1231 Tid'like hem pan i&at wittr faken. Soon did that water fail them. 
P. 36. 1. 1238 Bi al-tofer to a hoge mat ten. By as far as a bow may reach. 

1239 iik and tor, nighing and sadness. 1241 dtde hire retd^ brought her 


1242 An angel m^edt hire i^at ned. An angel alleviated her distreis. 

htreu the datiye of the personal pronoun. 1244 §eli timing, a fortunate 

occurrence. See note to 1. 1180. 1247 nam fro iSan, went from that place. 

fro iSan = Sc.fra thine^ from thence. 1262 mikif and rif^ great (powcrftil) 

and wide-spread. 1254 In Arabia his kin dwell. 1268 kungriehe — king- 

ncAtf, kingdom. Cf. Atm^iiSMN = kingdom, 1. 1260. kungiond = kingland, 

kmgdom, 1. 1262. gngUmd=htnglond, kingdom, 1. 1264. 1261-2 Dele 

the comma after /or-tS^m, and insert it after tema. 
His tenth son was Tema, 
Wherefore is there a kingdom called Teman. 

1264 Het a guglond eeten (eften ?) fro iSa, 

Was called a kingdom afterwards firom that time.' 

etienfro 1$^ ^cistwards from those othfr kingdome. 1269 eik^r p/igt, drm 

P. 87. L 1276 feren pUgt, pledged fellows. 

1279 iSog [it] icae nogt is kinde londy 
Xovcrtbelcits it was not his native land. 

1280 Hichere he it left ^an he it fond. Richer he left it than he found it. 
1290 On an hit ^or if taJ iaunen ^e. On an hill where I shall show thee. 
1292 ^at he bed him tiro [to ?], that lie commanded him to go to. tvfo, an 
error for to. See 1. 3752. 1295-6 They say on that hill's side was made 
the temple of Solomon. 1296 dune^it eH^en = dune^ie tiden^ down's (hill's) 
sides. 1299 huxotn o rigt^ rightly obedient. 1301 tagt, an error for tag 
(saw). Seel. 1334. 

P. S8. 1. 1808 "So If MI'S %e chiid witter and icar^ 

Then became the child wise and aware. 
1316-20 Wonderfully art thou in the world oome, 

Wonderfully shalt thou be hence taken ; 

Without long suffering and fight (struggle) 

God will thi*e take from world's night. 

And of thyself holycaust have, 

Tliank Jlini tliat He would it crave (demand). 
1317 iShroiring = throt'y suffering, agony. 

** iSroiCtcinge and pine."— (Orm. ii. 174.) 
*' Vor wis wisdom is don euirc M)ule-hele biuoren fleschos hele : and hwon 
me ne mei nout bo So holdcn somed, cheosen er licomes hurt fen >uruh to 
stronge vondun^CB, soule fiwcwwyr."— (Ancren Biwle, p. 372.) For true 
wisdom is ever to put soul -health Iwfore flesh-health, and when one may 
not hold botli together, to choose tirst bodily hurt than, through too strong 
trials soul, agony (death). 1323 Supply don after wulde. 1328 nnge = 
nogt now. IZZl frigti fagen niny be cither frig ti and fageUy timid and glad, 
i>r ehefrigti'fagen, timidly glad. 

144 NOTES. 

1382 for jftaae bi-Uaf un-Mlagen, for Isaac remained unslain. 

1333 Bi-afttnt behind, abaft. 

** Tacc >aBr an shep buffUnn >in bacc 
and offre itt forr ]>e wennchell."— (Orm. ii. 166.) 
1336 on ytaae atede^ instead of Isaac. 

P. 39. 1. 1345 Sarra xvasfagen in kinde$ wune, Sarah was naturally glad. 

in kindes wun$ = after the manner of kinde (nature) ; kindei wum = kind- 
wise, kin- wise. 1365 aem^ is evidently an error for semea, burdens, loads. 
See 1. 1368. seme = is properly a load for a pack-horse. 
<* An hors is strengur than a mon, 
Ac for hit non i-wit ne kon. 
Hit berth on rugge grete setMs, 

And dra)th bi-vore grete temes."— (Owl and Nightingale, p. 27.) 
1372 minerdneiSufor^etet^heliket mine errand do thou further successfully. 
fot^e seems to be an error (or for^erej further, promote. 1373 Imif grant, 
still exists in lend, loan, etc. 
1375 ffe bad hiee bede on good ael, 

He offered his prayer (in good time) opportunely. 

P. 40. 1. 1379 ilc-on = each one of. 

1382 Ne icor ttogt eofot^ ^euwe numen, 

The custom had not been so forth (up to that time) practised. 
1388 bofte = bi'Ofie, behoof; of. O.E. bgefj^e, bi-of^e. See 1. 1408. 1890 
^M = bracelets, armlets, probably from A. Sax. biigan (=beogan) to bow, 
to bend. The original meaning is crown. In Piers Ploughman 346, beigke 
signifies a collar. In the Middle High German version of the Book of 
Genesis (ed. Diemer) it is stated that Eliezer, for love, gave Bebekah 
" Zw^ne 6ringe 
und zudnc arm-'pouge 
iiz alr6teme golde.'* 
1391 ghe seems to be an error for he, 1394 kidd •/ = made it known, 
showed it. 1897 good grUS^:^ good entertainment. 1398 Him (the dative 
of the personal pronoun), for him. 
1404 Quile eet^e and we^he him wel bi^eam. 

What prosperity and wealth had well befallen him. 

1409 wi^'^an, with-that, thereupon. 

1410 fagneden wel iSia aondere-man, welcomed well this messenger. 
fagnen is literally to make /am or glad, to welcome, entertain ; aondere-man. 
The proper form is aondea-tnan, Cf. loder-man for lodea-man, 1. 4110, p. 117. 

P. 41. 11. 1 411-12 When God hath it so ordained, 

As he sendeth so it shall be, 
1416 ^e=:1So, then. 1417 garefi, to prepare (to set out), to make yare, to 
get ready. 
1419-20 For entreaty nor meed not would he there. 

Over one night delay no (any) more. 
drechen is (1) to trouble, annoy, (2) to hinder, delay. 
(1) *' Sir Pilates wife dame Porcula 
Tille hir Lord thus gan say— 

NOTES, 145 

" Demo }o noght Ihcsus tillc ne fra, 
Bot meDske him that }0 may 
I hare bene dreehid with dremes swa, 
This ilk night als I lay." 

—(Gospel of Nichodemus, Harl. MS. 4196.) 
(2) '* Quhen Claudius ]>c manhed kend 
Of }e Brettownys, he message send 
Tyl Arwyragus, ]>an ]»e kyng 
pat Brettayne had in goycrayng, 
For til amese all were and stryfe, 
And tak his dochtyr til Ids wyfe, 
And to Bowmo ]rat Tribwte pay 

Wycht-owtyn drychyng or delay."— fWyntown, vol. i. p. 92.) 
In the Cursor Mundi we are told that wanhope (despair) causes 
" Lathnes to kirc at sermon here 
Dreehitig o scrift (delay of shrift)," etc.— (Cott.MS.Ve8p.A.iii.) 
1427 or or first ere, i.e. before. 1428 morgen-giioe=morgen'g%itey nuptial 
gift, the morning gift, the gift of the husband presented to the wife on the 
morning after marriage. 1430 godun dai, good day. godun=godne^ the 
accusatiye of the adjective. 

" He let clipie >e saterday : 
pe frercs bifore him aUe 

And bed alle godne day."— (St. Dunstan, 1. 200.) 
1434 iondetfare^ the journey of the messenger (Eliezer). 1437 on-felde^ 
the 0.£. afelde, 1439 E^^ede^ alleviated, is connected with the O.E. ethe 
{eath)t easy, and literally signifies softened. 1440 Offaiger icaspetie, of fair 
form, waspene is evidently an error for wasteme or tcaatene, ** He seh ]>eo8 

seli meiden marheretc >c schimede ant schan al of wlite 

(face) ant of tcastum (form)."— (Seinte Marhcrete, p. 2.) *< In ]>is burh 
was wuniende a meiden swi^e jung of jeres, two wone of twenti, feir ant 
freolich o wlite & o trw^Mw."— (St. Kath. p. 69.) 1442 Rere iamening^ 
their union, intercourse. 
1444 And age ne bi-apae him tieucre a del. 

And she contradicted him never a whit. 
hi9pek$ in O.E. also signifies to threaten. See Castle of Love, 1. 221. 

P. 42. 1. 1448 Abraham dedc hem ai^en sundri icwien, 

Abraham assigned them afterwards sundry abodes. 
1456 Sim bi-stodcn wurlike atid wel, 

Mourned for (bewailed) him worthily and well. 
See 11. 716, 3857. wurlike = wur^like^ worthily. 1461-4 Long it was ere 
she him child bare, And he entreated God, when he became aware of it 
(i.«. that Rebekah was barren). That he should fulfil that promise. That he to 
Abraham erewhile made. 1463 JUkn^ to fulfil, accomplish. See Orm. i. 91. 
quede, promise, sa}ing, is the same as the O.E. quede, a bequest, quide^ a 
saying, from qw^Sey to say, still existing in quoth. See La;, i. 38, 43 ; ii. 
151, 197, 613; iii. 3; Orm. ii. 321. 
1467-S At one burden she bore 

Two, who were to her akin of blood. 

140 NOTES. 

»Me bhd= O.H.G. sippe-blmt^ blood relatives. Perhaps this line was in- 
serted by the author on account of the popular belief at this time, that the 
birth of twins was an indication of unfaithfulness on the part of the woman 
to her husband. 1 469-70 Also it seemed to her day and night, As (though) they 
wrought in fight (struggling, conflict). Which of them should first be bom. 
1470 "And the children struggled together within her."— (Gen. xxv. 22.) 
The following curious paraphrase of this passage occurs in the Cursor Mundi, 
fol. 20ft:— 

" His wiif (Rebekah) ])at lang had child forgane, 

Now SCO bredos tua for ane, 

Tuinlinges >at hir thoght na gamen, 

pat in hir womb oft faght samen. 

Swa hard wit -in hir wamb ]rai faght, 

pat SCO ne might rest dai nc naght ; 

At pray to Godd ai was sco prcst, 

To rede hir quat ]rat hir was best ; 

pat hir war best he wald hir rede. 

Hir liif was likest to be ded (death). 

Strang weird was giuen to ])am o were, 

pat }>ai moght noght ]>air strif forbere 

Til ^ai had o Jraim-seluen might 

To se quarfor )>at )>ai suld fight. 

Fra biginning o >e werld 

suilk a wer was neycr herd, 

Nc suilk a striif o childer tuin 

pat lai ]>er modcr wamb wit-in. 

pair strut it was tu (in ?) stem stith, 

Wit wrathli wrestes ai]>cr i*Tith. 

Bituix unbom a batcl blind, 

Suilk an was ferli to find. 

He )>at on ]re right side lai 

pe tothcr him wraisted oft awai ; 

And ho }>at lay upon ])e left, 

pe tothcr oft his sted him reft. 
Atid= rt» =in. 1477 GJie is evidently an error for ghet or get^ yet. liuet 
= alive. Cf. netcea^ anew, etc. 

P. 43. 1. 1484 9weU fnel, sweet meal (food), not sweet speech. "And Isaac loved 
Esau, because he did eat of hb venison."— (Gen. xxv. 28.) 1487 tdS a 
mete^ sod a meat, "sod pottage."— (Gen. xxv. 29.) 1493 mattUike ivfri= 
mattilike and iceri, overcome (faint) and weary. MattUike is connected 
with the O.E. mat, motCy faint, half dead. See AUit. Poems, p. 12, 1. 386. 
1494 laeob wut^ tear he teas gredi, 

Jacob became aware that he (Esau) was hungry. 

—(See Gloss. s.v. Oredi.) 
1495-6 " Brother," quoth he, "sell me those privileges Which are the first 
(eldest) son's. 1499 bii^eliket quickly ; blithelike has often this sense in O.E. 
writers. 1601 wut^i wuney a worthy (high, great) privilege. 1603 ofHntU 
$ely offering time. 

NOTES 147 

1504 Wm icune ben acrid »$meiik€ and W0I, 

Was wont to be clothed seemly and well. 
1506 dede hit ending^ came to his end (died). 1507 heg tide, hey (high) days. 
1510 twume del, two-fold. 1511-12 And when the fother were (should be) 
buried, to hare two portions of hereditary property. ereward=i erfeward, is 
properly the guardian, keeper of the erfe or inheritance, and hence the heir, so 
that instead of ereward riehe we ought to read ereu;ard'riche, corresponding 
to the A.Sax. yrfe-land, hereditary land. The -riehe is the affix found in 0.£. 
Aeven-ri^, heaTen kingdom ; king-riche^ a kingdom ; £. biehepriek. The 
-icard (in ereward) = warder, keeper, is found in O.E. gate-ward, dore-umrd 
(door-keeper), hat-ward (boat-keeper) ; hey-ward (farm-yard keeper) ; tU- 
ward (steward, the officer who originally had care of the highwap or etiee ?) 
P. 44. 1. 1514 theny an error for ten, to go. 1515 in wit, in wise, so that ; but may 
we not read in-wis^i-wie, indeed, truly? See 1. 2521. 1518 Solden 
wut^elikef esteemed honourably, held in honour, respect ; a may be for and, 
or for aif ever ; but a wel is probably one word, a»tcel ; Sc. aweel, 
1519-20 An hundred times as much waxed his honour, 
So may God prosper where ho wiU. 

1521 IfifSede Ut/olk [i$at] himfei wei. 

That folk envied him because he prospered. 

1522 And made him change his abode ; Jiitten is to remoye, to Jlit, 

" land he (Noe) had M grette plenty, 
For him and for his sons thre ; 
Hast to tilth he gave him >an, 
To /litt ]^c brcres he bigan ; 
Sua lang ydi flitting he ]>am sloght, 
pat winc-treis he Jam wroght."— (Cursor Mundi, fol. IS.) 
1524 treu^e feet, pledging of troth (fidelity) ; feet has usually the sense of 
confirming, pledging, in O.E. 

" pis ncu forward (covenant) wMfeatened Jan." 

—(Cursor Mundi, fol. 23.) 
1527-28 And ago came upon Isaac, 

Se became sightless and weak of (with) age. 
elde twac = eldea wae, weak of (with) age. 1531 i^at^ what. 1535 brogt ee, 
brought them. 1536 And she well knew the father's choice ; lire answers 
exactly to the later gloss, trMMtf^what is chosen, selected; S.Sax. cure, 

** per stoden in >ere temple 
ten Jusend monnen 
Jet wes Je bezste cure 
Of al Brut-londe."— La}, i. 815. 
1537 And made exceedingly good, or very opportunely, that meat ; on $de^ 
on-telCf good, literally timely, opportunely ; S.Sax. on eele, safely. See note 
pn 1. 1542. 

** Cnihtes fuse1$ me mid 
letelS slffipen Jcne king 
And fure we on w/V— Laj, i. 32, 

148 NOTES. 

BSB-men sfter The sea men after 

f6ron fl6d^w6ge marched the flood way 

folc W808 on solum, the folk proepered^was in prosperity). 

— (Caedmon 184, 18.) 
1539 Clothed she Jacob and made him rough. 1542 nles mel, an error for 
ulie mel, good (timely) meal ? Cf. miriee dak for mirie dak^X. 1038, p. 30. 
See Laj. i, 76 ; ii. 173. 

" And \2A word saide 

Brutus >e eeU (the good)."— Laj i. 30. 
'< hauelS mi fader bi ^tcre sse 
Castel swi-Se 9ale:*^{Ibid, ii. 14.) 
1544 For he handled him and found him rough. 1545 When he knew him, 
opportunely he blessed him, faithfully and well, on gode $ely in good time, 
opportunely. See note to L 1542. Dele comma after <«/, and insert it after 
P. 45. 11. 1547-8 Heaven's dew and earth's fatness, 

Abundance of wine and oil. 
1550 Supply and after migU 
1565-6 Quoth Esau, '' right is his name 

Called Jacob, to my disadrantage." 
1569*70 Nerertheless, dear father, intreat I thee 

That thou giro me some blessing. 
1573 et^ee emere, earth's fatness ; emere is properly /a^, grease, butter. In 
the Orm. ii. 106 it is used in the sense of ointment. 1574 granted him 
blessing that was precious to him ; gere is evidently an error for dere, beloved, 
dear, precious. 
1575-6 For Idumea, that rich land. 

Of pasture good, was in his hand. 
lavse, cf. O.E. leewen^ to pasture; lezzer^ (Shropshire), a pasture-land). 
fWicliffe, 1 Kings xvi. 11 ; 1 Cor. ix. 7; Luke viii. 34.) **If ony man 
schal entre by me, he schal bo saved ; and he schal go yn, and schal go out, 
and he schal fynde Ueewie** (Wicliffe, St. John x. 9.) *' Egipte ajenst kyndo 
of o\er londes ha}) plenty of com ; he is bareyne of lesttej and whan he 
ha)^ plentc of leem it is bareyne of com." (Trevisa's translation of Hig- 
den's Polychronicum, vol. 1, p. 131.) 
1577-8 Quoth Esau, " The tifne o/ mourning shall pass away. 

And I shall take vengeance of (on) Jacob." 
1577 grot is a noun formed from the vb. to grete (to weep, mourn), just as 
ipop is from tvepe (weep). It is the same as the O.E. gret^ grete, cry, outcry. 
P. 46. 11. 1583-4 "Be thou there," quoth she, "till Esau 

Appeased be, who rages now." 
B^e-mo^ed {^e^e-modcd) is literally easy minded, humble, mild, and hence 
Boft-mooded, appeased. S.Sax edmod, eadtnodied, edmodie. See Laj. ii. 554 ; 
Ancren Riwlc, 246, 278. The insertion o{ be is necessary to the metre as 
well as the sense. 
1588-9 Esau married in order to annoy us 

When he allied (himself to kin of Canaan) and is so foolish, 

^ Written leaeo'ce. 

NOTES. 149 

1591-2 Wherefore he maketh him stubborn and ::iroiig, 

For he is mixed amongst that kin. 
1694 • Ne bode ic tto Ufigere werlde$ lift 

I could endure (abide) no longer world's life. 
1605 an aoiSe drem, in true dream. 1606 hiuene ^m-heayen-beam (?), the 
sun (?). 1610 Zened=lemGd; but the MS. also sanctions 2nM<f=: remained, 
which seems to me a far better reading ; and [Jacob] wuf^ ut-auuen^ and 
Jacob became cast out of (aroused from) his tUep. 1615 i—icyl, 

P. 47. L 1620 amongua = amonges = amongst ; a^ffen eumen = agen-eumen, return. 
1623 for muniffing=for muningy for a memorial. 1624 And get on olige 
=and poured on oil; olige=^Q 0.£. olicy elye=o\\\ anelge, to anoint 
1636 A well well coTcred under a stone. 1638 abidm (= abode) is the 
pret. pL of a^tVfo. 1641 Mi^d^ «am^= should assemble. 
1649 Jacob tci^ hire wente %at etont 

Jacob for her removed that stone. 
tci6 in O.E. signifies in, for, against, etc. 
1651-2 And he made known he was her aunf s son, 

And kissed her after kins -wise (as a relatire). 
mouiea is properly a female relatiye ; S.Sax. tnatoej nu>)et tnowe, and must 
be distinguished f^om tn(di, mcy^ magy etc., a male relative. ** pis }et >unche'S 
me wurst >8et tu fe ane hauest ouergan fi feder ant ti moder, tnciee ba ant 
mehen, (St. Marherete, p. 16.) 

" Nu is [nis ?] afered of the 
thi mei and [ne }] thi nunoe ; 
Alio heo weredh the weden 
that er weren thin owe." — (Rolig. Songs, p. 76.) 
We occasionally, as in this instance, meet with the word in a mote limited 
sense. <<Annd hire me)he Elysabae^ 

Wass gladd inoh & bli]>e 
Off hire dere child lohan, 
And lefli} jho himm fedd."— (Orm. i. 109.) 
**Has >ou her," yoi said, <<ani man. 
Sun or dogter, mik or mau 

To >e langand, or hei or lau."~(Cunor Mundi, fol. 17.) 
We even find a confilsion betwec;^ the two terms, as in L 1761, p. 51, and in 
the following passage : 

*^ Loth went and til his mauea (sons-in-law) spak." 

—(Cursor Mundi, fol. 17.) 
P. 48. 11. 1655-6 Laban welcomed him (Isaac's son travelled from afar) in friend's 
wise (friendly) ; feren s S.Sax. feorren^ afieur, far, from a distance. (Seo 
Aucren Riwle, p. 70, 1. 3888.) 

'* The Sonne, and monne, and many sterren 
By easte aryseth swythe/«re»." — (Shoreham, p. 137.) 
1668 and laban kerie rara0= and Laban's herte was wrung (with pity)? 
1666 \oaS=qwc(^y quoth, spoke. 1668 iri'5 akil, in reason, reasonably. 
1671 Luue wel tnichil it agte a-wold, 

Love so great it ought prevail. 
awold^ prevail, avail. *'perfore everyche Romayn overcome J> oj^er is over* 

150 Notes. 

come wi> flatefynge and wi> £ure wordes; and jif wordes fiulle>, {iftos schal 
hym awdde" (Trerisa's translation of Higden'a Folychzonieam, toL i. 
p. 253). 1676 tflystotfstook. 
1681 Umg umne i$ her drtftfn, long custom is here lield (practised). 

P. 49. L 1693 foiMkfiHrv, CQstom of the land (ooimtry). 1700 mMm, called them. 
Cf. calde w in L 1702. 1706 iUe H-mm, foolly raTished. 1712 eharm, to 
depart, literally to turn. 1713 ^Mde an error for g$ld§=^ should reqnite. 
1713-14 Unkas Laban should reward better 

His senrioe, and withhold him yet. 
1715 »erti$ JU j«r^«f =he entreated Mm to serve. 
1 719 -26 Corenant is made of aU sheep, 

Jacob should take charge of than of one colour, 
And if of those, spotted omt came. 
Those should be taken for hire (wages). 
Sheep or goat, qieckled, straked, or gray, 
Are placed from Jacob fiur away ; 
Nerertheless those of one colour, 
Bore many alike and dissimilar. 
P. 50. 1. 1723 hanoed^ hatwiy ** livid, a sad colour mixed with blue." It also 
signifies rugged, shaggy. 1726 f?ft-/ii0c= unlike in colour. It seems to 
be, however, an error for o»-/tii;0= alike; likefeu^ unlike, <^i««tniifiy in 
form. 1729 ^ gunder bUt, the diverse coloured ones. 1736 To be under 
him longer is displeamng to him. 1740 dipping tme, shearing time. 1747 
fbr-olm^fir'holen, secreted. 
P. 51. 1.1758 iSut md^ike tpae iSis em, 

thus kindly (mildly) spake this uncle. 
1761-2 . My relative, my nephew, my feUow (companion) 

Thou oughtest not to do me such unlawfulness (wrong). 
ntog. See note to 1. 1651. 
1763-4 I was afraid it might occur to thee 

To take thy daughters from me. 
1765 fro an error for /or (?) 
1767 Theft I deny, that is my advice, 

That he be dead (put to death) with whom thou findest them (thy gods). 
1768-9 tfaathem. 1771 $fuel i$t bi'togm, evil is there accuseds wrong- 
fully has accusation been made, Lo. I am accused of a crime, bitogen, 
the p.p. of biteon, signifieB also befaiUn, 1773 My labour about thy pro- 
perty is drawn (taken up), i.e, 1 am troubled about thy property. 1774 
And to me was thine honour dear ; u^;^t>i^= honour, respect, good opinion. 
\77 5 f rend sule wit ben, friends shall we ttco be. 1776 And troth plight 
(pledge) US two between. 1779 gl€(^=glad, 1782 turned backward ere it 
was light. 1783 of tceie rad, quickly away. 1784 Soon was he &r from Laban 
separated. 1786 Engel-wit^ » engil-wird, a troop, multitude of angels. 
" per wes Bruttenc weored 
baldeliche isomned." — (Laj. ii. 412.) 
1787 wopnede Jtere, a woaponed (armed) host. 
" iwepned wel alle 
heo wenden to >an walle."— La}. i« 401. 

NOTES. 161 

'' & 8one anan se jfvu wan se^d 
purrh en off Godess cnnglen, 
A mikell here off enngle^eod 
WasB cumenn ut of heoffiie, 
& all }>att hirdcflocc hemm salih 
& herrde whatt te}} sungeim."— (Orm. i. 115.) 
'* He comuth with so gret here 
Wondur is the ground may heom beore." — (Kjfng Alys., p. 91| 1. 2101.) 
P. 52. 1. 1797-8 And Jacob sent far before 

Him rich gifts, on (by) sundry (seroral) bom. 
1798 loae^lac, loc, a gift, present. 

""Seriche reo'Seren 
& schoop & bulo, 

brohten to foife^."— (St. Kath. 63.) 
*^ And bi ^att allterr waas )>e ule 

fele wise jarkedd." — Orm. i. 34. 
•* Alle hii nemen fat lock.** — (Laj., later copy, ii. 320.) 
and sundri = an aundrij on (by) sundry. 1804 The sinews sprang from the 
limb. lith^membeTj limb. See Hampole's P. of C. 1917. 
1805-6 Would they (Jacob's kin) no sinews thenceforth eat, 

His own kin will not forget that uaage. 
1808 Till the dawning up again burst. 1811 leate^ Ute^ relinquislL 1818 
How shall any man be able to hurt thee? 1826 And honoured him as the 
first-bom ; wur^e should be iour^[ed]e, 1828 iSo rew Mm m, then com- 
passioned him so, yearned towards him. 
P. 53. 1. 1829 trume, host. (See Guy of Warwick, p. 291 ; Laj. iii. 73, 107.) 
** And he arayeth hare trome 
As me (one) areyt men in fyjt." — (Shoreham, p. 108). 
1833 Jacob was sorrowful that ho forsook (refused) them (the presents). 
1835 hoi and «fAt>= whole and sound; ^Atres sheer, pure, imdefiled. 1837 
him to frame ={0T his own use. 1840 fy«A=:fye/^s encamped. Of. Ger. 
zelt; Eng. tUt, 1843 Then King £mor sold him a piece o^ ground. 1848 
She departed leave-less (without permission) from that place. 1851 Her 
own counsel misled (ruined) her. I would propose, however, to read — 
for ge lietede hire owen red, for she followed her own counsel. 

1854 And hie burge-fok fellen in «^ 

And his people (borough-folk) fell in war. 
trt = M^=war. Cf. Semi-Sax, tci^e, battle, conflict. (Laj. i. 201 ; ii. 260; 
iii. 5.) Wi-aXf toi-eax, a battle-axe. (Laj. i. 67, 96, 166, 286.) 1865 bi- 
epeken^ blamed. Cf. biepae^ 1. 1444, p. 41. 
P. 54. L 1872 Gol prenee=golde prenee^ gold brooches. IVene is connected with 
O.E. preonne, to sew up. Sc. pHn, a pin. 
1873-4 Deep he them buried under an oak, 

No covctousness made him weak (disobedient) in heart. 
1877-8 For Solomon shall find them, 

And his temple deck withal. 
1887 tnerke dede^ set up a mark (monument). 

152 NOTES. 

P. 65, U. 1901-2 Of Edom eo it was named then, 

For it was before called Bozra. 
1906 deden ttft-re(f= committed sin; unred, want of wisdom, misconnsel, 
folly, wickedness. (See Owl and Nightingale, 161.) 

"For unned is switSe rseh (rash)."— (Laj. i. 278.) 
1910 Brietut of waspme {tooiteme), brightest of form; witter t9Mfi«= skill- 
wise, skilful, of good abilities. 1912 vnhUUn ^ bann, discover and lay bare 
(disclose) ; rnAiV/bt=0.£. unhelm. (See Snrtees, Ps. xxriii. 9.) 1914 uw/ 
iSetcedy well conducted, well behaved. 
1915 for-iSi voexem ici^ gret «i^; 

we should read, perhaps, 

for-^i he w&xen wH^ gret m(S, 
Wherefore they increased in great envy (jealousy). 
tt7»^5=in, as elsewhere. 1919 «>rm = «A«m = reaped. Shear is still an 
E. Anglian term for to reap. 

" And I sal say til men eeherande, 
Gaderes the darnel first in bande, 
And brennes it open the land, 
And seheres sithen the com rathe, 
And bringes it unto my lathe."— (Met Hom. p. 146.) 
1920 A^0s theirs. Cf. ure=oxm, 1923 hu mat its m», how may this 
appear (be seen). 1928 0tt$«=«t'5M= afterwards. 1934 In Dothan he 
found them at peace (with one another); 8ogt=tagt, O.E. mA^ m^ at 
peace, reconciled. Does 8ogt = sought = come, arrived ? 1936 fro ferm = 
from afar. 
P. 66. 1. 1942 iSistente3ie= eistemesse^ mtem, (See 1. 1960.) Cistern ocguxb in 
the Middle High German Book of Genesis and Exodus, ed. Diemor, p. 75. 
" Nu sehet zc dcm tr&maerc, er bringet nivmare 
Slahen wir den selben himt, 
Werfen in in der gisteme grunt." 
1942-4 In this pit, old and deep. 

Yet shall he be cast, naked and cold, 
'WTiat-8o(ever) his dreams may signify. 
1943 tcuf^e = wurS e = wur^ he (?) = ho shall be. 1950 deme sped- in secret 
haste. I should prefer derue 8ped=derfe aped, bold (wicked) haste. 1952 
tpiees ware=»pieet-toar$=spiccrY. 1958 Than he should there die in their 
power. 1 96 1 %hogte awem = appeared grieved = was sorrowful. 
1962-3 Believed him to be slain, set up a cry 

Will he not (he will not) cease, such sorrow he endured. 
1962 r«w, cry, outcry. 

" 'Sanne rernen he alle a reni^ 
60 homes blast oiJer belles drem (noise)." 

— (Reliq. Antiq., vol. i., p. 223.) 
1967-8 In kid's blood they turned it, 

Then was there-on a piteous stain. 
1968 /iVastain. 

" Ah wis se swit>e lufsume leores 
Ha leien, se rudie 
k se reads i-Utet (coloured) 

^otES. 153 

caucreach leor 

as lilie i-lcid to rose, 

pffit nawhit ne ]>ahte hit 

p8Bt ha weren deade."— (St Kath, 1. 1432.) 
*< Saide Laverd of Basan torne, torne sal I, 
In depnesse of ^e se for-)i ; 
pat ])i foto be lit^d in blode o lim, 
pe tunge of >i hnndes fra faas of him."— (Pa. Ixvii. 24.) 

P. 57. 11. 1975-8 He wept, and said that << wild boasts 

Have my son swallowed here." 
His clothes rent, in hair (cloth) shrouded, 
Long monming and sorrow is him befallen. 
1977 haiffre. " pai sal be, als ])C appocalips spekes, 

In hardo haf/res cleddo and in sckkcs." 

— (Hampole's P. of C, 4530.) 
1980 herieditif console ; literally encouraged him (to hope that his son was 
still alive) . 1 982 hertiftff = consolation. 1 989 akiudcfi for skiitdedon = skiftcd 
e= shifted, changed. 1992 They made quickly covenant of purchase. 1995 
1999, 2000 But he became then so naturally cold, 

To do such deed had he no power. 
2004 The author of the poem seems to have confounded Potiphar with 
Potipherab, the priest of On. (See Gen. xli. 45.) 

P. 58. 1,2011 an heg for and heg - and high. 20i5 On$ and atUU^ alone and secretly. 
2019 Provided that he would with her wanton ; wile seems to be the same 
as wigeUf to play, sport. May we not supply plaige, play, after wile ? 2021 
But what she desired was displeasing to him. 2024 But it was to him all 
alike displeasing. 2026 tgeld=ieyld^Usii. Of. ^i/^ (of a cart). 20Z0 god 
8=0.E. jfhod-)od, went. 
2081-2 And said Joseph would do to her. 

What she might not prove (or bring) against him. 
2031 mis for eeid, said (?). 
2035-6 The blame is his, the right is hers, 

God almighty will discern the truth. 
wite, blame, still exists in tunt ; O.E. at'Wiie, 

P. 59. 1. 2043 ehartre for ewartre=yriBon, 

** Forr nass nohht Sannt Johan \ei ta 
Intill cwarrUrme worrpenn." — (Orm. ii. 270.) 
?044 i?rtMMM=prisun«re8? in hagt, in sorrow. We might translate 11. 
2042-4 as follows :— ** The gaoler ^d love him, and hath entrusted him the 
prison to live in cJutrge of the prisoners." Cf. Ger. eitpoa in aeht nehmen^ 
to take charge of anything. 2045 on-eagen^un eagen^O.'E, mis'Saw, op- 
probrious language. 2047 One that the king*s cup presented (the butler.) 
2049 onigt=anigtf by night; ofrigt=afrigtf in fright, affrighted. 2054 
Hard (troublesome) dreams would cause that (i.e. cause thcra to mourn). 
2057 aofu or «/ro;iy= pleasant or unpleasant. 2058 The interpretation will 
on (to) God belong. 2059 win-tre, a vine. 

154 XOTES. 

'<He thoght I sagh a wm4rt^ 
A bogh >ar waa wit branehea Utre ; 
>]B tre i^on ilk bogh. 

Me thoght hang unmbtri* iiiogh«"^Ciinor Mandi, foL 26.) 
2060 That had fall grown bongha three; wrnxm-faH grown, ex^aina 
Shakeapear's man of uhuc. 2061 Fint it Uoomed, and afterwarda boie. 
2062 The benriea ripe M became I awaie. Supply " fo" after r^ (?}. 2078 
Freaent my petition ^teroede for me) to Pharaoh; A#nftif=«nMlr. Ct 
O.E. wordle=woTlL 

"Bnteheorealmea-dede But theire alms-deed 

Heore emd$ tchal here." Shall intercede for them. 

— (Rdig. Songs, p. 68.) 
2075 kmde hndj natire land. 2076 And here wrongfiilly held in bond; 
wrigide9like^%ffrigU'Ui'Uk$j fimlt-less-ly ; wrigte^wrihhliy a firalt, crime. 
M For msB nohht Godess gii» wi]^> >a 
patt wi)»^renn Godd onnfsmesa, 
Ace helle-wawenn ias till >a 
All aflflerr >^jre imAAte."— (Orm. i. 186.) 
P. 60. 1. 2077 /•'S^S fitf Me, listen now to me. 2078 ^rMMf-iltrpM^ bread-baskets. 
Cf. O.E. bar-Upcj a basket for keeping barley in. See Townley Myst, 
p. 829 ; Widiffe, Exod. iL 3. Leep, or baskett (lepp. K). Sporta, calathns, 
corbis.— (Prompt Parr.) 
2084-5 It were preferable to me (I had rather) quoth Joeephy 

Tell the meaning of pleasant dreams. 
2086 rtcheHs:rickm=io tell, explain; MMp^foroe, stroke. (X the use 
of bond, woidy U. 2114, 2120. 2088 bm doln} <m rode, be put on the 
cross (be crucified). 
2089-90 And fowls shall tear away thy fleah. 

That no wealth shall be able to save thee. 
2094 fTt'S fUen erd, in a foreign land. 2105 On a bush full grown and rery 
beautiful (seasonable } well-seasoned, prime ?). 2107 tM^ibeifs withered. 
dru^ numoH, seized with drought (dryness). 
P. 61. L 2114 Who could explain the meaning of these dreams. 2119 tSo ho^tst 
then called; ho^t^S.B. hahU, called (?). Is it an error for logi^lmgt, 
taken ? 2122 %u dr$me$ uw2ffa=thi8 dream's meaning. Woid signifies (1) 
power, (2) force, (3) meaning. 2130 iiM^fM^™ grievous; the OJS. nod often 
signifies grief, trouble. 2182 roopm and rakett, rasp and rake, diminish and 
scatter. The Swedish raka signifies to clip, shave, shear. 2134 UHet, bams. 
(Sec note to 1. 1919.) Chaucer uses the word in the Here's Tale. ** Berne 
or lathe, Horreum."— (Prompt Panr.) 2136 htmgri^goro, fiunine years. 
2146 00 Uhbar, so faltily accused him. (See baron in L 1912.) In the 
Castle of Love to-^ms= disagree ; to-boron, at enmity, 11. 49, 552. 
P. 62. 1. 2153 The seven years of plenty pass away. 

Joseph himself knew how to provide beforehand. 
2161 for node oogt, friendly by compulsion. (Sec 1. 2165.) 2163 ho lutton 
him, they did obeisances to him. 

2167-8 Joseph know them all in his thought (mind), 

He pretended as if he knew them not. 

ifOTEs. 155 

2171 cams; the MS. reads mmm, 2176 For hunger doth (oftuies) them 
(JacoVs loiii) hither to come. 2178 H gurt b$rmfff by your behaviour* 
2179 For mi mtm we ought to read m many one man. 2181 For seldom 
betideth any king himself. 
P. 68. L 2190 ^>"i$«<; pvn in evidently an error for gwre'^jovat, 
2191-2 For then was Joseph sore afraid 

That he were through them deceived. 
2196 iU <0fi>«the one. 2198 io iMAiif ain pledge, as hostage. 
*' He said, * Forsothe, a tokyne to wetUU 
Salle thou lefe with me.' "—(Sir Perceval of Galles, p. 19.) 
2204 ;rrv(/W-"Binful. (See note to L 2076.) 2209 For we denied him 
merci; tcvrfMcfm-B denied, refused. 

*<God sohewes in his godspelle 
Of >e riche man and li^arus, 
How )^at he warmd him almus, 
parfor Ood wmmed him agayno 
A drope of water, to sloken his payne 
In >e fire of helle when he was >an." 

—(Cott. MS. Tib. B. vii., fol. 37.) 
2214 i»i»»O.B. putt, thrown, placed (B. of Gloucester, 3376, 459; Lay 
le Freine, 136). 
P. 64. L 2219 o«^-i$A<j^^, over-anxious. 2224 iSos^<M» the monies. 2282 Death 
and sorrow cometh on me ; «y#S wmii^giS, cometh, alighteth, falleth. 
<< ft fi wraccho (wretched) saule 
[Seal] tim to belle.'*— (La). iL 186.) 
2283 bi'le%pm a hi-Umen » remain. 
2235-8 Then quoth Judas, *' It will go hard with us. 

If wo do not keep our agreement with him." 
Famine increased, this com is gone, 
Jacob again biddeth them go again (to Bgypt). 
2241-2 Then quoth he, "when (since) it is necessary. 

And / know no better ]^an." 
2249 God grant that he may be kindly disposed (towards you) ; ^i-^nadit 
^^i-moded (see note to 1. 1684). 2262 Aj^—soon ; literally easily, with- 
out difficulty. 2264 Kind thought (natural affection) was in his heart then ; 
'5a^=1$aa='S0"> then, ii necessary for the sense and the rhyme. 
P. 65. 1. 2265 ffcrlen'mO.E. }arke, Mod. Bng. y«r*, prepare, get ready. 
}earkim scipen gode."— (Laj. i. 111.) 
2259 None of them had then merry cheers (countenances). 2262 ur n&H, 
none of us ; nr should be properly un. Of. L 2260, where we have^Mr for ^/v. 
2267-8 Very glad (fain) he was of their coming. 

For he was held there as a prisoner, 
to nom$ may have the same signification as the phrase to wedde»»9B hostage, 
as security ; ttome (wm ?), derived from mmen^ to take, capture, signifies 
seizure. Of. tcop from wep^ (weep), pro^ from ^r»to (lament, cry), Icp (flee) from 
Upe (leap, run), etc. 2269 vndren ^im««=A.Saz. rndtm-tid; vndrm is the 
ProT. aandorn^ oandurth^ omdom* It literally denotes ''the intervening 

156 NOTES. 

period, which accounts for its sometimes denoting a part of the forenoon, or 
a meal taken at that time, and sometimes a period between noon and sun- 
set."— (Gamett.) 2276 And he willingly accepted it. 2279 Know I there 
that he now trembleth (for the safety of his sons) ? 
2287-9 Soon he went out, and secretly he wept 

That all his face was wet with tears. 
After that weeping, he washed his face. 
P. 66. 1. 2295 of eucrilc ionde^ of every dish, of every mess ; «wm? signifies a dish, 
mess, meaL S.Sax. tonden^ sitndfj viands. 

** wanliche (bad) wcoren fa iondtn,** — (Laj. iii. 32.) 
" fas beom fa sunde 
())es bearo j^e sondes) 

from kuchene to fan Idngc." — (Laj. ii. 611.) 
<< Hwer beodh thine dihsches 
Midd thine swete sonde}" 
— (Eeligious Songs in Owl and Nightingale, p. 74.) 
2207 In abundance they became glad. 2302 '5«fe*»=<ferf!r«= deeds. 2311 
iceren . . . u:^«/= had gone. 2316 r«-»f^^^=rM*f ^5^, misfortune, evil. 
" Her waas unmeoU^e unnride inoh 

Till an mann forr to drejhenn."— (Orm. i. 165). 
'' Ah ich heom singe, for ich wolde 
That hi wcl understonde schulde 
That sum uneelthe heom is i-hende (near)." 

—(Owl and Nightingale, p. 43.) 
I-Ater writers use the word in the sense of wickedness. (See Shoreham's 
Poems, p. 43.) 2314 bi-call^, accuses. See Twain and Gawin, p. 21, 
1.491. 2318 ^Mrtf on = one of you. 2320 t?p=tytf=rpow. 
" Moni of thisse riche 

that weredcn fob and grei, 
An rideth uppe stede 
and uppen palefrai, 
Heo schulen atte dome, 
suggen weilawei.**— (Relig. Songs, p. 68.) 
P. 67. 1. 2335 Provided that thou spare Benjamin. 

2336 Ic ledde ui on iracthe fnin, 

= Ic ledde [him] ut on trewthe min ? 
2341 80 e gret'^so he gret, so he wept. 2342 That all his face became 
wet of (with) tears. See 1. 2356. 2354 sttndri^on-sundri, apart. 2356 . 
lie here, each of them. 
P. 68. 1. 2367 (mnne erudy two changes of raiment. 2368 ffweden^ fi^e garments. 
2373 tt?t^ seines fest^ with burdens loaded. 2380 He knew not who they 
were (on account of their princely garments). 2384 All Egypt in his power 
is placed (fixed). 2390 or ie oftcerlde chare, ere I from the world go (turn) 
= ere I die. 
P. 69. 1, 2399 derer, an error for </<t«= beloved. 2400 How many years are on 
thee, fo = few ; O.E. fotce. 2404 Because I have passed (suffered) them 
in woe. 2406 her uten erd— here in foreign lands. See 1. 2410. 2412 seli 
mei, good sustenance (food). Cf. 1. 1542. 2416 g'Oten= y-hotsH, called. 

NOTES. 167 

2427-31 So was it pleasing to him to be laid, 

Where the Holy Ghost secretly had said 
To him and his elders, far ere before, 
Where Jesus Christ would be bom, 
And where bo dead, and where be buried, 

P. 70. 1. 2435 Or iSan = ere that. 

2441-3 Joseph caused his body to be honourably prepared (for burial), 
To be washed, richly anointed, 
And with spices to be scented. 
Smaken usually signifies to taste, savour, but here means to scent, to be 
scented. Smac in the Owl and Night., 821, is used for scent, while in the 
Ayenbite of Inwyt it has the sense of flavour. 

" Zalt yef)> smac to fe mete.** 
See Gloss to Allit. Poems, s.y. Stnaeh (p. 194). 
2444>9 And Egypt's folk him bewaked, 

Forty nights and forty days, 
Such were Egypt's laws ; 
The first nine nights the bodies they bathe, 
And anoint, and shroud, and bewail 
And wake them afterwards forty nights. 
2451-5 Hebrew folk had a custom. 

Not immediately to bury with iron, 
But to wash it (the corpse) and keep it right, 
Without anointing, seven nights. 
And afterwards (keep it) onointed thirty days. 
2452 yrtf = iron; O.E. ire^ iren (Owl and Night. 1028). The form ize^ 
iron, is also met with in O.E. vmters. See Ayenbite, pp. 110, 183). 2454 
smerhsy ointment, belongs to the same class of wonis as ftteUs^ a vessel, 
reckeles, incense, etc. " fe Bnieryeli ne is najt wor)^ to hele fe wonde ne 
wonde ne non ofer fing ]»er huile )>et fet yzen is ferinne." — (Ayenbite, 
p. 174.) 
2459-60 For truth and with good deeds, 

Done is then all that watch-deed. 
2 ^60 weeh-ikdey vigils. 2463 And some honour every year. 2465 Do for 
the dead church-going ; chirche-gong = church-going. 

" pe grct cyte of Medes su)>>e afure he (William) sctte, 
Vor me (one) ne myjte non ehyreJie gong wyf out lyjte do." 
— (R. of Gloucester, p. 380.) 
2467 And that is instead of the vfgils. 

P. 71. 1. 2472 daige* is evidently an error for laiges^ laws. See 1. 2456. 2479 
wis of h€re[n\ skilful in arms. 2487 ouer'pharan = ouer-fareny pass over. 
2488 in bin'eie don, put into the tomb. ** And whanne Jhesus hadde.oomen 
over the water at the cuntre of men of Genazereth, twey men havynge 
devclis runnen to him, goyngc out fro birielis (tombs), ful feerse, or wkkidy 
so that no man mijte passe by that way." — (Wicliffe, St. Matt. viii. 28). 
2498 To beScn wi^Se?, to supplicate for mercy ; bSen may be an error for 
hden^ to entreat. 

158 MOTES. 

P. 72. L 2606-12 « It shall," quoth he, <« be ftilillled 

What God befiyre ha^ to oar elders sworn ; 
He shall lead jou in his hand 
Hence to that promised land ; 
For God's love I yet entreat you ; 
listen to it (my prayer) then, promise (it) now 
That my petition shall not be lost (sight of) ; 
With you let my bones be bone. 
2610 Letted » leet^, listeneth. 2614 God bring the soul into bliss. 2616 
egipte-Uke^ after the costom of the Egyptians. 2621 to fid m wie^io 
fiO-iwiay Tery fiill (completely), indeed. See I. 109. Onn uses the word 
fuliwie^ fid iwut^ fid^iciet, in the sense of certainly, traly. See Gloss, to 
Omii s.Y. fidiwie. 2624 fiyr lejftd eoulee nedy for the need of predous 
souls. 2628 Hay God help him kindly (joyfiilly). For the meaning of 
welt see Gloss, to Allit Poems» s.t. irfty. 2629 And preserre his sool 
from sorrow and tears. 2682 God grant them in his bliss to haTe pleasure ; 
tpHen signifies to sport, lire pleasantly. 

^pan was Uortigeme ^ king 
in Gantnarie-bnzi. 
per he mid his hirede, 
hshliche epOeie (nobly direrted themselTes)." 
(—La}, ii. 168.) 
**dSL was $pU nnde wtuine 
under wiben nnde manne. 
Tone benche we benche 
hies man aUiiteren win scenchen ; 
Si apiUen and tronchan 
nnz in iz der sl&f binam." 
— (M.H.G. version of Genesis and Exodns, ed. Beimer.) 
P. 73. 1. 2644 hatilf serere, croeL See Gloss, to Allit. Poems, s.t. JEruii^. 2646 
§eli «t%, prosperity. 2647 Quoth (spoke) this king with them, secretly, in 
council. 2648 miehU jpAf= great speed, rapidly; insert m before miehiL 
2662 fiten seems to be an error for teten 2666 vtifSewed twrne^ unaccus- 
tomed (extraordinary) labour; vn^fSewed also signifies immoral, wicked. 
See Onn. i. 74, AUit. Poems, p. 9, 1. 190 2666 fitgd^fit^'^fidj foul, 
loathsome. 2660 They caused them to creep along (or through) dikes; 
dikee^OJE, dieheet may here signify subterraneous passages, burrows; or 
perhaps dikes =^KwerBf from the allusion to mue and fin. "And Jhesus 
said to him, Foxes han dichief or banncis, and briddii of the eir ban nestis, 
but mannes sone hath not where he reste his heued." — (Widiffe, St. Matt 
Tiii. 20.) 2664 eomb, crest or top (?). 2668 Hhoffen^iSoffemf throTe, 
See 1. 2642. 

2661-2 And wide about (through) the cities to go, 

Where none had preriously come. 
P. 74. 1. 2676 But they disobeyed from fear of God. 2678 They defended ihem- 
seWes with lies. 
2680-1 God requite it these women well. 

On their homes, their wealth, and in happiness. 

NOTES. 169 

eddi Mi Wf literally, pleasant time, bat may liere denote profperity, luccese, 
etc. 2^3 <9w/i4:»-" openlike, openly. 2588 Abraham is an error for 
Anwam, i.#. Amram was Moses' first name. 2590 drtfiU and bUfi, sorrowful 
and afraid; bMS. In A.Saz. 5^^Mri$ -> gentle, slow; M(e^ = miserable; the 
S.Saz. blafi » destitute, poor ; hli^^re^ cowardlier. 2594 Nor could she 
take him stealthily (secretly) of (from) the water ; or tt^Un may signify to 
still, quiet. 2595 n^#MM « rushes. Cf. Sc. r«M^, reyst, 2596 terred^ 
tarred, pitched. 

P. 75. L 2609-10 God had such beauty him giuen, 

That the rery foes let him live. 
261 1-5 Egypt's women came near. 

And bad A#r leave the child there. 
But she took it away with a cry (scream) ; 
Of their command took she no heed. 
2612, 3 k$^gk$^ she. It cannot be the plural h$ » they, for this would 
require numen instead of nmn, 2621 On whose t§at (paps) he soon hath 
seized. 2629 on aunea aiede, instead of a son. See 1. 2367. 2639 ayne 
[b= ane] itundj one minute. 2644 ^is ^imtiiy >• this occurrence, this timely 

P. 76. L 2647-8 If help had not run between 

This child had then soon been killed. 
2650-8 He said, <<The child doth as he knows (i.e, acts according to the 
extent of his knowledge) ; wo should now learn whether it did this wit- 
tingly, or in childishness." He offered tMs child two burning coals, and he 
took (oonsiderod) how he might use them (».#. what ho might do with them), 
and in his mouth so deep he placed them, that his tongue's end is burnt 
therewith ; therefore said the Hebrews truly that he afterwards spake indis- 
tinctly. This legend is thus given in Lady Eastlake's life of Our Lord : — 
<* Therefore when he (Moses) was three ycarsjof age she (ThermutiB) brought 
him to Pharaoh, who caressed him, and in sport, put the crown on his head, 
when the child eagerly pulled it off, and dashed it to the ground ; for it is 
said that the crown was engraved within with figures of idols, which Moses 

instinctively abominated Those around Pharaoh looked 

upon it as a bad omen, and they counselled the king that he should be slain ; 
but another counsellor said that he should be pardoned, because he was too 
young to know right from wrong ; and a third counsellor said, * There is in 
this child something miraculous and uncommon. Cause, therefore, a burn- 
ing coal and a ruby ring to be set before him ; and if he take the ring it will 
. show that he knows right from wrong, and then let him be destroyed, lest he 
spoil the kingdom of Egypt. But if he take up the burning coal, it wiU 
show that he is too young to know right from wrong, and then let his life be 
spared.' Then the king said, *Let the hot burning ooal and the king's 
signet ring (which was a large shining ruby) be placed side by side, and we 
shall see what he will do.' And immediately the child stretched out his 
hand to take the signet ring ; but the angel Gabriel (who instantly took the 
form of one of the attendants) turned his hand aside, and the child Moses 
took up the burning ooal, and put it to his mouth, and his tongue was burnt 
therewith, so that he was unable afterwards to speak distinctly, even to the 

160 NOTES. 

end of his days." 2653 hrennsn ^ hrennende, bnnimg; to^^two. 2652 
child'hede ; *' ac ze)>^e ich com to clde of vol man, ich Toiiet alle mine 
c/#iY^A<Yf<'s."— (Ayenbite, p. 208.) 2654, 5 t«»them. 2658 miterlike ^ 
S. Sax. mislielie, variously, differently; and, hence, thickly, indistinctly. 
The form misser-like may be a corruption of the A.Sax. mMMM-Ziic, dis- 
similar. Mislte/te in Owl and Nightingale, 1. 1771, signifies ecroneously. 
2660 [^i]/f>A = bi'Uf, remained. 

266o 8 By that time that he was a youth (young man) 

With (for) beauty and strength renowned. 
The Ethiopian folk on Egypt came. 
And burnt, and slew, and vengeance took. 
2G75 8 Teremuth scarcely might bring it about (prevail) 

That Moses shall with them forth-go, 
Ere she have her pledged and sworn, 
That to him shall be borne (kept) honourable faith. 
2676 hire, an error for hem, them. 2677 ?te=ffhe=B\ie, 2680 were (a 
substantive from tcereti, to defend), a defender, protector. Cf. dere, harm, 
from deren, to hurt. 
P. 77. 1. 2682 vn-warnede, unexpected. This enables us to correct the reading rn- 
v;arde in 1. 180. 2688 M^'SAury^ out-through, throughout. Cf. O.E. tf^ 
tcithy without, iii'tcith, within, etc. 2696 Nevertheless that sojourn was 
very distasteful to him. 2701 metm is the p.p. of mete, to measure. 2702 
'5t« one causes remembrance, thai otte causes forgetfulncss. 2703 Se feet ie 
=he fixed them. 2704 Gave her the first gem ; he was then dear to her. 
Two lines seem missing after this line. We might supply the following : — 
And quon awei nimen [faren] he wolde 
Gflf hire "Se totter, he was hire colde. 
And when he would go away, he gave her the other gem, and was distasteful 
to her. 2708 £=he. 2712 a tnodi etivsard, a moody (proud) steward. 
2714 That seemed to Moses a great shame. 
r. 78. 11. 2718-20 And secretly he buried him in the sand, 

He weened that no Egyptian 
Had known it, or should have seen it. 
2720 a een may signify *■ have seen.* Northumbrian ha, to have ; but more 
probably we should read a-sen, to sec, the infinitive being required after 
suldef so that etdde a-sf/}= should sec. In the Romans of King Alysaundre 
atcn occurs as the p.p. of a-eee, to sec. Cf. our modem words waJke and 
awake, i-iee and arise, etc. These double forms were far more common in 
O.E. writers than in the modem stage of our language. 2727 And en- 
quired of him what it should mean. 2730 to rad, too hasty. 2736 chea=^ 
went, is here used like nam, (See Gawaync and the Green Knight, 1. 930.) 
V. 79. 1. 2757 ^ewe and wursipe, courtesy and honour. 2758 eetdede, kindly deed 
(actions). (See Owl and Nightingale, 1. 997.) Eeete mete occurs in the 
Ormulum for delicate meat (food), etc. 

*' Ac thur lund is bothe este and god." 

—(Owl and Nightingale, p. 36, 1. 1029.) 
2764 To wife in law he her took ; in /a^^=in law, in marriage, is an early 
u^e of a common phrase. 2769 And Moses had gone on a time, 2771 For 

NOTES. 161 

to look after the condition of the herds. 2775 hrennen=^bremiend4. Sec 
1. 2653. 2776 And nevertheless green and whole remained. 2783 in min 
geming, nnder my care (protection). 2788 mi^che, of milk; qud^en, to 
P. 80. 1. 2789 ansa in. 2790 on hond^on-hottdy soon, speedily. Ger. in die hand. 
(See Laj. vol. ii. pp. 96, 106, 251, 264.) 2792 to «a/», to that=for that 
purpose. 2797 If he refuse it and be there-/© contrary. 2803 to token, for 
a token (sign). Cf. to icedde^ for a pledge, etc. 2812 /rr, sound, and hence 
unfer (1. 2810), diseased. (See Sir Gawaync and the Green Knight, 1. 103 ; 
Ormulum, i. 41, 153, 212. 2815 get^^Mx (see 1. 582.) 2817 tcanmol^ 
un-eloquent; tcan occurs in O.E. wan-Iiope, despair; tcan-trauthey disbelief; 
mol is the same as moal (speech) in 1. 82, p. 3 ; t7i-rtfAwi=aun-rcady, slow. 
(See Gloss, to Allit. Poems, s.v. reken,) 2822 Who made the blind, and who 
the looking (seeing) ? 2824 fuitum, aid, assistance. 

pa cristine liSen after, The Christians pursued after, 

and heom on liciden, and laid on them, 

& cleopeden Crist, godes suno, and called Christ, God's son, 
beoii heom tLfultwne. To be to thorn in aid (to help them). 

— (Laj. ii. 264.) 
P. 81. 1. 2828 vnaUken, disclose. See Gloss, to Allit. Poems, s.v. Steke. 2830 
Ounces -jovL two. See Orm. i. 301 ; ii. 98. 2831 funden ; 0,^.fomde, to 
go, occurs in Allit. Poems, p. 65, 1. 903. 2834 of lime = alive. 2838 is 
tcerkes len, reward of his works ; ten may be a short form of Men, left. 
2845 feren awike, unfaithful companions, that is, his two sons who were un- 
circumciscd. For ledden read ledde (?). 2847-50 Zipporah took this young 
lad, and made him to have circumcision, and wept, and turned back 
frightened, and let Moses forth alone proceed. 2855 ej/^er ere = ef/^er here 
each of them. 2856 hatt^ is hef^e vt-dragen « hath his heart out-drawn. 
Cf. our expression, to unbosom oneself, with the Ger. eein herz ansehUtten, 
P. 82. 1. 2876-78 I defended so that thou was rescued, 

And labouitod, and great sorrow endured, 
Tet is it unseen (is it a secret) how I accomplished it ? 
2882 hide-like (= hidingly), secretly. Cf. O.t. hidel, a hiding pUce (Ps. 
xxvi, 5). 2890 to-gode, for good, gratuitously. 2891 ^e tigeUa taU=^ the 
number of the tiles (bricks). 2892 And old and infirm, great and small. 
eiten = eldeny old; eUden= eHende, ailing, infirm. 2894 And to God he 
made his complaint (bemoaning). 
P. 83. 1. 2900 iihunerg = iSuner; O.E. thoner, thunder. 2903 Min miiehe witter 
name may signify (1) my great wise name, or (2) my merciful wise name. 
In (1) miiehe = michel = mikel, great ; but in (2) it = milce, mild, merciful. 
Seel. 3603. 2918 Iglic = uglic, ugly, horrible. 2919 wiehes kire, select 
(choice) witches. 2920 in sowlee lire, in soul's loss. The line may signify 
men, in whom were damned (lost) souls. 2921 And the heads of them all 
he bit off. 
P. 84. 1. 2934 wit = we two. See Orm. vii. 73, H. i. 4, 300. 2935-6 This king 
himself is very bitter against this folk, and of heart hard. 2937 And try 
better with this token. 2947 trike, a rivulet, small stream, evidently con- 
nected with the verb trick'le. 2957 wreehe = ioreke, vengeance, plague, 


162 NOUBS. 

Cf: michelaikd miJkel, dike uid diehe, etc. 2857 boi = boot, rdeMe, deliTer« 
ance, is connected with O.E. beUj to amend, to alleTiate. 2962 bi-toemen 
= bitumen, turn, change. 
P. 85. L 2969 frotkes A^tf = hort of frogs. 

2977-8 Pole-heads (tables) and frogs, and rarages of podes (toads), 

Bound hard all Egypt's folk in sorrow (wretchedness). 
in tile «= in tmsiU ; vn-sele, misery, wretchedness. J^olb^uedet (PtOTindal 
Eng. poU-head), a tadpole. Palsgrayc has poUt, FioUf-wigM^ tadpoles. 
'^Tadpoles, poU'wigges, young frogs." (Florio, p. 212.) FU-wygle, wynne, 
occurs in the Prompt Parr. (HalL) ; pode^^Via^JL pode^ paddock, a toad 
(Shakespeare) ; W.ProT.E. jMuittoo/^ toadstool. (See King Alia. 6124.) 
'* "Sare nakyn best of wenym may 
Lywe, or lest atoore a day ; 
As ask, or cddyre, t&de or pade, 
Suppos fat )?ai be fiddyr hade." — (Wyntown, i. p. 16.) 
2988 tf^-trofiJsup-went, but Uterally up-wound. 2989 on biU, in tAoir 
bite. 2990 smite, a blight, plague. 
V. 86. 1. 3011 bad m^, entreated for mercy. 8013 wr€t6=ioov^:^tcuf^, became. 
3014 And broke them that promise (see L 3062). 8027 dole, wound, ulcer. 
3037 ^e to un-frame, to thy sorrow, 
r. 87. 1. 3045 al tir=:aU sheer, clearly, openly. 8047 vngkere may be an error for 
undere = hadlj, or, what is more probable, for vii^«fi0=: unready, unex- 
pectedly, ffere being the same as gare, yare, ready, prepared. 3048 berglee 
= unprotected, shelterless, from bergen, to protect. 
3055-6 Moses, cause this weather to turn. 

And I shall let you out &re (go). 
3058 mweder, storm. See IL 3050, 3061. Weder in O.E. is often used 
for a tempest, storm. See Twaine and Gawin, 411; Wyntown, i. 887; 
Bomaunt of the Bose, 72, 4302 ; atwond, departed = away -wound, or away 
winded. Of. at in at'tcot, departed, p. 30, 1. 1049. 3065 greeeeopp^ grass- 
hopp-e-r, locust. Cf. O.E. hunt-e, a hunt-e-r, etc. 
" And to lefe-worm far fruit gaf he. 
And far swynkes (labours) to greu^hope to be." 

— (Ps. Ixxvii. 46). 
3066 And what the hail then left (untouched) shall all be attacked (or taken 
away ?) 
P. 88. I. 3075 but, without exception (?). 3077 Eu = hu} how? 3080 Ex^while 
nionc of men was leave besought. 3086 an newe Jigt, in a new conflict. 

3087 skij)peree,t\io grasshoppers. See 1. 3076, where opperee is similarly used. 

3088 They did on grass and com injuries. 3102 ^herkneeee^derkneete, 
darkness, is a genuine form, and occurs in the Coventry Mysteries: — 
*' Therhmse, or derkncssc, tenebre, caligo."— (Prompt. Parr.) 3105 Many 
there suffered sorrow in life; bead=abead, suffered. 3108 sowen^sogen, 
saw. Sec 1. 3329. 

P. 89. 1.3111 boden = bidetide = abtdende, awaiting, abiding. Or Unbidden (to 
stay). 3120 Death shall wreak me over you (i.e. you shall be punished 
with death). 3125-6 Now shall I into Egypt do (send) such a plague as 
was ere neyer none. 

NarB6. l63 

8131-2 NotshaUIyouikU 

Of tiuit I have you promised. 
3139 Every house-folk that may permit of it. 
3141-^ The tenth day it should be taken, 

And kept on the tenth night. 
And slidn on the fourteenth day. 
8144 <o it notm mMi^ A it may suffice for ; ttoten « O.E. noUf naitCf to 
avail, be of use to, profit, etc. 
P. 90. 1. 3147 br$d=OJL hrad, roasted. (See Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight, 
1. 891.) 8148 wrekm, taken, thrown out. ** God nele na}t )^et me make, 
his boos marcat ne bo>e, huerout he torek ]>o fei lyalde and bo}te in ^e 
temple/'— (Ayenbite, p. 172.) 3160 hi$ owetiftmdy his own wants (need). 
. 3153 wri^l] can it mean hatU} (see Ex. xii. 11.) At first sight it seems 
to be a derivative of wirt (by metathesis trrtV), an herb ; but the mention 
of rew m€U{n\ in 1. 3151 renders this rather doubtful. 3154 bi'Uum, the 
remainder. O.E. lave, leve, the remainder. 3156 (fiirtf-<rfn= door-trees, 
posts. '* For James the gentile 

Jugged in hise bokes 
That feith withouten the feet 
Is right nothyng worthi 
And as ded as a dore-tre 

But if the dedes folwe."— (Piers' Ploughman, 833.) 
3156 uuerdaffm=over8lagm, imer$lag$, over-piece, lintel. ** Ovyrslaj/ of 
a doore. superliminare." — (Prompt. Parv.) 3172 Bwine-hiref wages, 
P. 91. 1. 3206 frossfor, on account of. 3211 stunthn does not mean stood, but is 
a vb. (formed from the sb. stund, a stound, a short space of time) signifying 
to delay awhile, to wait 3212 How Pharaoh should act toward them. 321 3 
Pharaoh summoned (assembled) out his army ; batmm*^ io call to arms. 
*^ pa bleou Bmtui Then blew Brutus his horn 

& banftidi [bannede] his ferde." And assembled his forces. 

— (Laj. i. 75.) 
3218 offaU rm— swift of foot. 

P. 92. 1. 8220 to werehen ir«, to work war, to make war upon. 3224 n$ gaUm,^no 
gaUy no ways ; gaU is often used by Northern writers as an affix b -wise or 
-ways ; as al-^ate, thu$-gaUf etc. 3230 On (against) Moses they set hp a 
cry. 3235 dregm irt'5 i^T, endure with patience. 3240 That for you ways 
(paths) may be well provided. 
P. 93. 1. 8255 a» 9k%ge, a cloud. Gf. Milton's 'tky-tinetured' (Paradise Lost, 

Book v.). <* it ne left not a 8ki$ 

In al the welkin long and brode." 

—(House of Fame, iii. 508-511.) 
3264 daieniftg'^daigming, dawning. 3271 in (wired wen, in perplexing 
doubt ; twired signifies two-fold (doubtful) counsel. 

** and [Bruttes] duden switSe vnwraste And Brutus did very evilly 

alle his haste, all his behests, 

and weoren alle twirade,** and were all of two counsels. 

^(La). u. 392.) 

164 NOTES. 

3275 a morgen quite, a morrow while, a minute. 3282 w$k§9i seems to be 
an error for wrekett, taken (sec 1. 3148.) 

P. 94. 1. 3292 pert—apert, open, clear. 3300 wlath^^la^, loathsome. I am rather 
inclined to take this as an error of u^/arA^ brackish. 3234 supply don after 
fft4, 3301 a fundm (discovered) irew = a tree Mchich he found. 3274 
helden, an error for holden, 3310 bread wantede, bread failed. 
3815 Bet us were in Egipt ben, 

It wore better for us in Egypt to be. 
3319 oN-^r^ss^bear up/ endure patiently. 3324 aofele to, as many as. 

r. 95. 1. 3327 ^ie dewee cost, the nature of this dew. For the meaning of eott see 
Reliq. Antiq. pp. 217, 226. 3328 rim frost = rime frost, hoar frost 8338 
for-hadede, consecrated it by burning. Onn uses hadede, ordained, ii. 23 ; 
ii. 106, 3340 That it gave a flavour of honey and oil. ZSilforbone tnor, 
more than was bidden ; forbone may be an error for forbode, prohibition, 
command ; or we may read (and the MS. will admit of it) forboue, above. 
Cf. bi and for-bi, etc. 3345 Kept it apart in a clean place. 3348 vtm 
U^ = idthouten let, without cessation. 3353 Soon was that water wanting 
to them. 3354 haue ; the rhyme requires hane ; ^rist hane, would signify 
torment of thirst. 

P. 96. 1. 3378 here ^ing, their affairs. 3381 Moses prayed for the folk of Israel. 
3383 For kth is read Ut his, 3388 They supported them with a stone. 
3393 bode seems wanting after sente, 3394 Of this occurrence to have a 

P. 97. 1. 3398 min blis, Jehovah-nissi is generally explained as ** The Lord is my 
banner." 3410 stering, government rule; stere in 11. 3418, 3420 rule; 
sieres, rulers, 11. 3413, 3415; steres-tnen, rulers, 11. 3417, 3429. 3412 
a meister wold, a master (head) ruler, the same as oiter-man^ 1. 3424. 3413 
tgen — tyen, ten. See 1. 3418. 3414 lie here, each of them. 3429-32 
He bad them choose rulers, mighty, who are God-fearing, truth-loving, and 
who strife and covetousncss forsake. 3432 nixing signifies not only strife, 
but niggardliness, wickedness, slaughter, etc. O.E. writers usually employ 
the word in the sense of a coward, villain, miser, etc. 3448 May we not read 
/ wUe minfole cnoioen be=\ will be known to my people ? 

P. 08. 1. 3134 And willingly (gladly) he received (accepted) it. 3438 is ntmen, 
has gone. 
3449-51 And Moses told this to Israel, 

And they promised him every whit 
What he biddeth them they will do. 
3453 'S^« to daiges=s:ih(isc two days. 3458 irt'S goren dragen=s'pievced 
with darts, " hco beoren on heore hondo 

gares [spercs], switJe stronge," — (Laj. iii. 44.) 
3 159-60 These people fearful thus abode, 

While these days forth have passed. 
3461 Supply in a after daigesQ), 3462 Spile, ravage, destruction (see 
1. 2977). 3463 On tliia mount stood a cloud's shadow; ands^an=^a (see 
1. 3475). Dele the comma after stod, 

P. 90. I. 3471-82 Each of you bear in mind, that it is not Moses, Amram's son, 
whom ye shall to-day hear speak, but He who slew Egypt (you for to 

NOTES. 166 

ayenge), and a path mado in the sea ; and who let Adam discover the tree 
\vhich preserved Noah, and led Abraham out into the land of Canaan ; who 
caused Isaac to be begotten of old Abraham and of Sarah (of old teats) ; 
who gave Isaac (Jacob r) so many sons, and who gave Joseph such rich 
gifts (abilities) ; Let his w^ord be to you as precious as life, dearer than 
either child or wife. 
3488-9 None might go further except Nun, 

And also his brother ^Varon. 
3489 (hi ^s one. It may be an error for o(;=salso. 3496 My vengeance 
is severe, my forbearance is long. 3497 in idelj in vain ; ukl in 0.£. signiiies 
etnptyy void. 3498-3500 Nor swear it lyingly to defile in sport, Nor let 
thou not my honour be lost in the fiend's tempting {i.e. in yielding to the 
devil's advice). 
P. 100 1. 3508 for tntke of = for failure of, for want of. 3615 Nor covet not thy 
neighbour's thing. 3518 Thou losest everlasting bliss. 3519 figeren^=. 
fyeren—feren, afar. 3533 iiemeld=)te}nend=nemned, named, appointed (?). 
P. 101. 1. 3545-6 That mad folk there out of day brought Ur {i.e. put Ilur to death) 
and put Aaron in fear ; * to don of daw'=to bringen of dage=sput to death, 
(see Legend of St. Beket, 1. 622 ; Allit. Poems, p. 9, 1. 282.) 
" For quen the childe es born, sal I 
Do it of daw sa priuely, 
That na wiht sal the squeling here. 
And delf it sithcn in our herbere."— (Met. Horn. p. 167.) 
P. 102. 1. 3573 for gode is frequently employed by Chaucer. 3574 It is a song 
wicked and foolish. 
3581-2 And mixed it in tite water and poured it off. 

And gave that folk that draff (dregs) to drink. 
Cf. O.E. draff, chaff. ^^ Draffe or drosse, or mater stampyd, pilumen." 
(Prompt. ParV.) Cf. '' draf-sak.'* (Chaucer.) 
3583-4 Then wist he well who had done it (committed idolatry). 

Seen it (the dregs) was on their beards. 
3603 miic/ie mo^^milce mod, mild (merciful) mood. 
3605-6 God answered, " off shall I take them, 

Who are not tcorthy to be placed thereon." 
3607 tnin engel ofij my angel ulone. 
P. 103. 1. 3611 to pligty for their sin. 3614 And as sun-boam bright shone his 
features. 3624 f//5 tcitier dragt, with skilful device. 3626 And their 
labour they well accomplish. 3635 of lore teal, of choice loro. 3637 bcttm 
^btteu, amend, from bet, better. 3640 Ere they from Sinai forth havo 
passed. 3642 '^e (fS^er, the second. 
P. 104. 1. 3647 This folk has after pleasure gone. 3653 Moses caused it to cease 
with his prayer. See note on blissen, p. 132. ZOoS for-hirArd ^=: for-irlrd , 
tired. 3661 Zonterd = huerd, lord. 3664 Thou shalt cause me quickly to 
suffer death. 3676 And brought a great mint of quails; but turlfs = 
turtles, doves. See Ayonbite of Inw)^ p. 181. 
P. 105. 1. 3681 dried, an error for derird, killed (?). 3688 Tliero became Miriam 
somewhat foolish ; wth ^ sotf, a fool (see 1. 3685) ; it may be, liowever, an 
error for lot/i, stubborn, obstinate, or uroth, angry. 3710 A bunch of 

166 NOTES. 

grapes on a long pole ; 0.£. eou^U, cowUy a coop, tab, etc. ; Pror.E. eowl\ 
euuel-8taf signifies the staff or pole upon which the people carried their 
kneading troughs. This interpretation is supported by the form eo%ifle'ir$ 
or too-tree, Falanga, yectatorium. (Prompt. Panr.) ** Phalanga est hasta, 
Tel quidam bacnlus ad portandas cupas, Anglice a stang, or a eulitafe,*' — 
(Ortus.) " Courge^ a stang, pale-staffe, or eohstafe, carried on the shoulder, 
and notched for the hanging of a p^le at both ends." — (Cotgrare.) In Caz- 
ton's Mirrour of the World, c. 10, a.d. 1481, it is related that in Tnde 
** the clusters of grapes ben so grete and so iulle of muste, that two men 
ben grctly charged to here one of them only upon a eole-^imf.** In Hoole*s 
tran^ation of the Orbis sensualium, by Comenins, 1658, is giren a repre- 
sentation of the coU'ttaff {mrumna), used for bearing a burden between 
two persons, p. 135; and again, at p. 113, where it appears as used by 
brewers to carry to the cellar the new-made beer in " soes," or tubs with 
two handles {labra)y called also eowU, In Brand's <* Popular Antiquities,'* 
ii. 107, will be found an account of the local custom of riding the eowl^^tajf 
or ttang (Way in Prompt. Parv.) 

P. 106. 1. 3721 neerdes ilagm^ slain of (with) the sword. 3723 MUr^num^lodeM- 
mafif leader. A leader we will choose (take); tm^hi'Un. 3726 ref^ 
rift rife, loud. 3728 9irmge » ttrm^e. 8730 If Moses were not opposed 
there- ^0. 3782 mikhe ^ mileej mercy, pity. See 1. 3728, where the correct 
form occurs. 3740 Their righteousness was pleasing to God. 3742 mtrwet 
<ffre= sorrow's hurt. 

3745-6 Again (backwards) they made their course, 

As that cloud had taught. 

P. 107. I. 3755 mifftfid qualifies meistres in 1. 3756. 3760,61 tie gmre^ each of 
you. Cf. quik gun^ which of you, I. 3764. 3761 rekkfat, incense rat, 
the vessel holding the incense, censer. See Orm. i. 2, 35, 58. 3762 
timinge seems to be an error for time ge^ wait yo. 3767 orgel pride^ arro- 
gant pride. Cf. orr)heUmodt pride (Orm. i. 216). *< Ichabbe isehen his 
ouergart, ant his egede orhel ferliche afallet."— (St. Marh. p. 11.) I have 
seen his presumption and his arrogance fearfully felled. 3770 Instead of 
the reading in the text substitute the following : Mogtee^ ond vt ne in^ 
gon; vr seems to be an error for v^^out. See Numbers xri. 12. 3774 
Held up neither stone nor grit. I do not think eton nor gret='ttrong nor 
gret = strong nor gi-eat. 

3777-80 Such destruction shall unbelief have 

No man need labour to bury them 
This earth is together closed 
As it were never ere broken up. 
3786 Jteret ntt^e^ flame (burning) of fire. 

P. 108. 1. 3796 There hath a cloud them well girded. 3802 Ran and stood between 
the liring and the dead ; tiren seems, from the way it is written in the MS., 
\jo be an error for tuen = twen, between. 3807-14 Though this folk, much 
frightened, remained quiet for a time, nevertheless they are yet in diverse 
counsels (i.*. of conflicting opinions). Moreover, they become foolish in 
purpose, and think that it may be decided better. Though these burnt 
\i.e. those destroyed by fire), are refused, yet they ween that Ood shall tak« 

NOTES. 167 

of tbo twelve tribes some to be in tbe place of tbose wbora he had despised 
(rejected), mi^t =^ mi^ede ; O.Sc. meaede^ become calm, quieted down. 
3S09 offlm—aylen^ailt become weak or foolish. 3BH for'huffedey de- 
spised, rejected. 

'* Ah Gurmond hit for'ho\ed$ 

And habbe ho heo nolde." — (La}, iii. 156.) 
** For niss nan mann ^att uss birr]> att 
Forrho)henn god to lemenn." — (Orm. ii. 107.) 
P. 109. 1. 8824 The name of the tribe which ihall thereto belong. 3826 Which 
tribe he desire this serrice to he on, 
3851-2 Here and there (yonder) there they buried lie, 
All the old (ones) did there end (t.^. died). 
P. 110. 1. 3865-6 God bad assemble the folk and go, 

And before them smite on the stone. 
3880 eostful, dangerous. See Met. Hom. p. xix, where far-eoat = a dan- 
gerous voyage. 3884 wente of litce = turned from life « died. 3887 in = 
hin s=s hifte^ him. 
P. 111. 1. 3924 The sense requires us to read, for to ttUlen hi$ vn-^e mod, for to 

quiet his uneasy (disturbed) mind. 
P. 112. 11 3931-2 In the night a message came to him from God, 
And a prohibition against this ldng*s counsel. 
3941 nts goue /told ^should give me faithfully; hold => holds ^^fAiihfuWj, 
traly. 3945 0(7 or or == but first ere. 3951 And turned his heart on worse 
thought. 3958 And beat and turned it to the path ; «/i, path, way. ** "Ses 
is forSon 'Se'Se gecuoeden wods iJerh esaias tJone witgo cuoe'Sende : stefn 
cliopende in woestem gearuas woeg drihtnes, nehta doeiS [wyrcas] stiffa 
his." (Matt. iii. 3. Northumbrian Version.) 3964 fMy^=w^+i7== nigh it. 
P. 113. 11. 3972-3 It is as true as it is marvellous. 

Said this ass thus with anger. 
397&-7 Had I a sword, I would slay thee. 

So was this man to mischief brought. 
3985-6 Quoth Balaam, " since I have mis-fared, 

If thou wilt, I will turn back." 
3988 Against my counsel speak thou nought 

3993-4 Shall I no word be able to forth -do (utter), 

Except what God layeth on me. 
4000-1 And went apart, but for a while, for from above, etc.; gut l»(ie=z 
quiU bute^^hvii for a while. 
P. 114. 1. 4009-10 nis life is blithe (joyful), so shall be his ending (death). 
Who prospereth as this (one) shall prosper. 
4015 For or read and^). 4016 Wherefore he did it for better success. 
4022 For hem read he (?). 
P. 115. 1. 4049 "The young women of thy land, fair of sight, and soft of hand, and 
bright of hue (complexion), of speech glad (joyous), in haste shall I set 
apart as messengers; Do thou send out against these men those who can 
brew (produce) heart-burning with joy, with features, and in-ith body and 
sin, pleasantly, with speech small (flattery), to turn them from God's fear to 
thy land gods and our Riws ; only might'st thou follow this advice and lead 
them from God's love, and seek to turn tbus their thought, for war nor 

168 NOTES. 

weapon hclpeth not. 4062 %«-e=^fr«= haste. At first I was inclined to 
take ^ffere for dere^ so tliat ici^ %ffere=ioi harm. 4053 /«•=/*(?). Or 
should wc read, %e do ten f'^= cause those to go out. 4066 Luueke may he 
an error for /MM«./iil:«=pleasantly ; or it may =/«Me-foA-tf= lore; -Ise heing 
a not uncommon ending of ahstract nouns, as in O.E. fttrlec, feiraess, 
hcauty. 4063 guad. The rhyme seems to require gitead; iSat iUe quad^^ 
that wickedly spoke (advised) ; iSat tile qt4ead=^ihAi wicked wretch. 
P. 116. 4086-88 God had Moses numher 

His folk who were first preserved from death 
Either twenty winters or more old. 
Who in Egypt were not hefore numhered, 
4096 All others were driven in death's weh. 4106-8 Let thou not thy 
folk he helpless, and a good leader choose also thou to govern them, even 
such a one ^ ahaU he needful for them. 4108 I would propose to read 
instead of AUwUc als hem bi-hulik bee ; Al excih ale hi hem hu\^f\lihe be, 
the verh sal heing understood after hem. See 1. 3208. 
r. 117. 1. 4110 loder-man See note on 1. 3723. 

41 19-22 There whilst to him lasted life-days, 
Them he taught precious laws, 
And having wrote them, hath them entrusted to them. 
Unless they them keep, on them shall he sorrow (misfortune shall 
hefall them). 
P. 118. 1. 4143-4 Idolatry, that was pleasing to them, oft out-wrought (efiTected) 
for them sorrow's trouble, that is, brought sorrow and trouble upon them. 
4159-60 In such virtues grant us to come ; 

Through which we shall be to everlasting life taken. 


p. 4. 11. 124-6 Fodme, When we find, as on p. 2, 1. 43, ISroting for ISrosim, we 
must not be surprised at learning thai fodme is an error (or fodinge, produc- 
tions; dispensation, order, production, from fadiaft, gefudian^ 
to dispose, order, produce. ** Hwajt is sc Sunu ? He is fajs Fu-Mlcr Wisdom, 
and liis Word, and his Miht, )>urh fone sc Fteder gcsceop calle )^ing and 
gefadoder'-{mir\c—''hQ Fide Cutholica "—Thorpe's Analecta, p. 66.) "An 
JScj-ppcnd is ealid >inga, gescwcnlicra and uugeswcnlicBa ; and we sceolun 
on bine gclyfan, for)>on f o he is so'S God and kna Aelmihtig, se"5e na?fre ne 
ongann ne anginn nuDfde, ac he sylf is anginn, and he eallum gcsccaftum 
anginn and ordfruraan forgcaf, |'aet hi beon mihton, nnd Jrct hi ha^fdon 
agcn gecynd, swa swa hit f lere godcundlican fadimge gdicode."— (Ibid, 
p. 63.). 

P. 16. 1. 632 Wimmen welten ueree meater, 

Women wielded a man's art.— (See Rom. i. 26.) 

P. 27. 1. 924 For Quo-ao hia alt him bi agt, read (?) Quo-ao his alt him gelde bi-agt. 

P. 29. 1. 1013. Dele the comma after dm/, and construe as follows :—" JJoir»/rtf 
calf s flesh and bread of flour." 


A, in, 271, 538, 635, 953. 
A, have (?), 2720. 
Abead=abad, abode, 422, 3856, 

3862. A.S. ahidan, prot. aldd, 
p.p. ahidan), 
Abidan {pi. pret\ abode, 1638, 

2488, 3459. 
Abiden {p.p.), abided, remained, 

Abraid, awoke, arose, started up, 
•231, 1617, 2111, 2385. A.S. 

ahredan (pret. ahrad). 
Abute, about, 3455. 
Abnten, about, 94, 1772, 2482. 

A.S. aHtan. 
Abuten-fichoren, circumciBed, 1 200. 

See Scharn. 
Abuuen, above, 10, 108, 331, 636, 

1518. A.S. ahufan. 
Addo=hadde, had (3 pers. sing.\ 

240, 518, 519, 600, 1039, 1747, 

1693, 2274. 
Adden=hadden, had (3, 

.239, 1480, 2451, 2545, 2456. 
Afkre, after, 1652. 
Age, awe, 432, 3546, 3632. A.S. 

ege, fear, terror, dread. Dan. ace. 

0.£. age, awe, is a northern form 

corresponding to the southern 

eige or eie. 
Agen, awe {ace), 192. 
Agen {a) again, 405, 604, 606, 

979, 985 ; {h) against, 562, 3373, 

3375 ; {c) adverse, opposed to. 

3730; {d) backwanls, behind, 
back, 1097, 3267; {e) towanls, 
1786, 1796, 1823, 1824; (/) 
for, 562. A.S. agen. HceAgon. 
Agones, against, 538, 541. 
Agenward, back, 1782. 
Ageon, against, 3912. A.S. agean. 
Aglen, to become weak, foolish, 
3809. A.S. eglian, to ail, egJe, 
troublesome; Goth, agio, aflflic- 
tion, aglus, difficult. 
Agon, gone, 78. A.S. agdn. 
Agon, again, 77, 958; against, 
438; backwards, behind, 1119; 
towards, 1009, 1438. 
Agrisen, terrified, alarmed, 667. 

A.S. agrysan. 

Agt, \ property, po88ession,wealth, 

Agte,) 742, 783, 857, 910, 924, 

1858, 1867, 2017, 2090. A.S. 

' dgan (pret. ahte, dhte), to own, 

possess. A.S. a^ht, property. 
I Agte, owned, 2309. 
I Agte, ought, should, 525, 1671, 

; Agte, fear, 33g4. It Hterally 
signifies thought-, anxiety, sor- 
' row. Ger. acht, care, atteution, 
achten, to mind, regard; A.S. 
j eaht, estimation, eahtan, to mili- 
tate, devise. See Ilagte. 
I Agtes, oughtcst, 1762. 
I Agtes, monies, 2224. 
I Ai, ever, aye, 451, 1105. 



Ail, hail, 3066, 3183. 

Al, all, 36, 37; entirely, quite, 

3059, 3098. 
Al-abuten, all about, 96, 136. 
Aldre, of all; 'hure aUre bale,' 

the bale of us all, 322 ; ' here 

aldre heuedes,' the heads of 

them all, 2926. 
Algen=halgen, to hallow, keep 

holy, 918. A.S. halgian, 
Alle, aU, 874, 896. 
Al-migt-ful, powerful, 2694. 
Almigten, ) almighty (« J.) 9, 3405, 
Ahnigtin, j {adj.) 30, 572, 3727, 
Als, J also, 867; as, 1773, 1785, 
Alse, ) 1787, 2650; so, 1412. 
Also, as, 475, 643, 1238, 2212; 

so, 3436. A.S. aUiba, 
Als wile, I even as, 4108. A.S. 
Alsswilc, ) al8wilc=eattswile,eYeji 

as, likewise. 
Alt=halt, holdeth(?), 924. 
Alter, altar, 758. 
Al^er best, the best of all, 3390. 
Al^eme^er, beneath all, 3997. 
Amigdeles, almonds, 3840. Or. 

afivySaXfj ; Lat. amygdula, 
Amonge, among, 700. 
AmoDgus, amonges, amongst, 1 620. 
An (before a cons.), a, 680, 938, 

951; '<z»time,' 1435, 1487; *an 

busk,' 2105; 'an kire,' 2451; 

*an wis man,' 2649; *an sel,' 

2769; 'an stcuene,* 2780; 'an 

swerd,' 2843. 
An, in, 1605, 2789, 3086. A.S. 

and O.S. an ; South Prov. E. an. 
An, and, 206, 221, 647. 
And = an, a, 3463. 
And==an, in, 1470. 
Andswcre, answer, 3081. 
Andsworedc, answered, 4 1 09. A.S. 

andswerianj to answer. 
Anger, grief, 972. 
Ani, any, 48, 2181. 
Anog, enough, 600, 3365, 3876. 
Answerede, answered, 2728, 3605. 

Answeren («&.), answer, 2673. 

Ant, and, 485. 

Apples, 1129. 

Arche, ark, 560, 561, 580. 

Arche-wold, aik-boanl, 576, 614. 

Arches, ark's, 602. 

Aid, hard, 1228. 

Arled, ring-streaked, 1723. A.S. 
orl, rim, welt, bolder. 

Am, ) are (pi.), 16, 815, 3606, 

Aren, ) 3882. 

Arsmetike=arsmetrike, arithme- 
tic, 792. 

Arwe, arrow, 478. 

As, hast, 1760. 

Aske, ask, 1668. 

Askede, asked, 1391. 

Askeden {pi) asked, 2672. 

Askes, ashes, 3024. 

Astronomye, astronomy, 792. 

At, to, 554 ; of, 2697 ; in, 8790. 

At, ate, did eat, 337, 342, 3409. 

Ate, hate, 373, 3638. 

Atter, poison, venom, 372. A.S.dier. 

Atte^ = hatted, is called, 818. 

At-wond, ceased, 3058. A.S. at- 
icindany to wind off, escape, flee 
away (pret. a^wdndy p.p. tet- 

At-wot, disappeared, departed, 
1049. A.S. wUan^ to depart; 
a^-=A.S. (tit as mat-wondf etc. 

Aucter, altar, 612, 625. 

Aufer, altar, 1297, 1325. 

Aue, have, 2388. 

Auede=hauede, had, 1251. 

Auen=hauen, have {inf.)^ 1505, 
1505, 1512; (|?/.) 3680. 

Aue«=haue«, hath, 2425, 2469. 

Awai, \ away, 616, 810, 858, 860, 

Awei, I 861. 

Aweiward, away, 3168. 

A wold, avail, be successful, 1671 ; 
signify, 1944, 2727 ; cause, 
2054. A.S. awaldmf to rule, 
fcenldany to govern (p. wealdj 
p.p. wealdm). 



Ay, every, always, 5, 87, 155. 
Ayne=ane, one, a, 2639. 

Bad, commanded, 41, 57, 441, 572, 

618; prayed, 1462; 'had me^c,' 

besought mercy, 3011. A.S. 

hiddan (pret. W, p.p. heden\ to 

ask, pray, command. 
Bad, gave, offered, 2653; 'had 

bede,' offered prayer, 1 375,298 1 . 

A.S. heodan (pret. head, p.p. 

Bade, bad, 2436. 
Bak, back, 1333. 
Bale, sorrow, misery, calamity, 

destruction, 68, 322, 850, 1122, 

1 166 ; death, 1984. A.S. heala. 
Bannede, summoned, assembled, 

3213. A.S. hannan, honnan, to 

Bar, bore, took, 209, 338; gave 

birth to, 418, 428, 722 ; carried, 

Baren, to disclose, 1912. 
Barg (pret. of hergen), preserved, 

1330, 3477. 
Bargt=barg, preserved, 898. 
Bat, bad, 53; restored, 882 ; offered, 

gave, 1015. See Bad. 
Be, shall be, 784. 
Bead, bad, invited, 1056, 1059, 

2494, 2768 ; offered, 1069 ; pre- 
sented, 3340. 
Bead = ahead, endured, suffered, 

Beames, trumpets, 352 1 . A. S. &ym^, 

a trumpet. 
Beas = b^ast = beest, art, 365, 366. 
Bed (pret. of hidden)^ commanded, 

bad, 258, 1292. See £ad. 
Bed (pret. of heden\ offered, gave, 

presented, 909, 1014, 2017, 

2047; {imp,) present, 2073. 
Bede, prayer, 631, 1375, 2981. 

A.S. hid. 
Beden {ph pret.\ offered, 2273 ; 

prayed to, 2498. 

Beden, commanded, 2212. 
Bedes, prayers, 495, 3888. 
Boge, ring, 2140. A.S. heah, hch, 

hedg {g.hedges), a crown, bracelet, 

Beges, bracelets, 1 390. A.S. hedget. 
Bem, beam, 'houcne-^m' = the 

sun (?). 
Ben, to be, 15, 101, 164 ; are, 107, 

139, 630. 
Bene, prayer, petition, 2511. A.S. 

Ber, bore, 1701. 
Berdes, beards, 3584. 
Bere, bier, 2481. 

Bere(t«/.),bear, 1465; (wi^*.) 35 13. 
Bered = berc^, beareth, 326, 2705. 
Berem - tem = bem - tem, family, 

race, 3903. 
Beren (in/,), bear, carry awav, 118, 

120, 787; (pi pres,) 8,'^1187, 

2084, 2557; to show, 1044. 
Beren-tcm, family, descendants, 

Beres («^.), bears, 191. 
Bcre^, beareth, 326; bear, {imp.) 

2243, 2248. 
Berg (# J. ), defence, protector. A.S. 

Berge, ) to protect, 1060 ; {opt) 
Bergen, ) 2529. A.S. heargan, 

(pret. hearh, p.p. horgen). 
Bergles, shelterless, improtected, 

Beries, berries, 2062, 2064. 
Bering, bearing, behaviour, 2178. 
Bern-team, descendant, 3748. A.S. 

heam-team, posterity, from hearny 

a child, and te^miany to generate. 
Best, art, 2884. 
Beste, beast, 194. 
Bet, beat {pret), 483, 3958. A.S. 

Bet, better, 1713, 2.'^66, 2\):'S, 

3753. A.S. 
Betendc, beating, 2713. 
Betes, beatest, 3974. 



Bctre, ) better, 948, 1585, 1957, 

Bettrc, ) 2820. 

Bettcn=beten, amend, 3637. A.S. 

Be^, is, 182, 1156, 1589; shaU 
be, 386,4122; (t;»p.)2263,3231. 

Be^en, bathe, 2447. A.S. hejfian. 

Be^cn=r=bedeii(?), entreat, 2498. 

Bi, by, 141, 1586. 

Bi, be, 1195. 

Bi-aften, beliind, 1333, 3377. A.S. 

Bi-agt, ought, should, 924. 

BicaUe^, calls after, accuses, 2314. 

Bicara, became, befell, happened, 
996, 1404, 2007, 2023, 2148; 
went, 1744. 

Bicrauen (iw/)> ^^> crave, 1388. 

Bicumen (m/) become, pass, come 
into, 960, 1577; {p.p.) be- 
fallen, 2227 ; become, 3839. 

Bid, intreat, pray, 2509. 

Bidde, intreat, 1569; command, 
3451, 3454. 

Bidden (tw/.), pray, beseech, 1802. 

Biddi= bidde, offer, 27. 

Bide^, biddeth, 3451. 

Bofcl, befeU, 963. 

Bifore, ) before, 47, 219, 253, 

Biforen, ) 451, 665, 905, 907, 

Bigan, began, 188, 236, 448, 921. 

Bigamie, 448, 449. 

Bigat, begot, 708, 709, 711, 1590 ; 
obtained, 796. 

Bigen, to buy, i2l66, 2246. A.S. 
hygany hycgan. 

Bigute, winnings, spoil, 896. 

Bigctol, purchase, 1992. 

Bigcten (tV//.) obtain, 1532; beget, 
2180; require, 1666; prevail, 
2021 ; {p.p.) begotten, 906, 
1151, 1376, 1377, 2006; ac- 
quired, obtained, 911, 2706. 

Biggede, dwelt, 1137. A.S. h/g- 
gan ; Icel. bgggia ; O.Sw. bggga, 
to build, inhabit. 

Bigging, j sojourn, abode, dwel- 
Bigginge, ling, 718, 762, 847; 
Biging, ) house, 3163. 
Biginned = biginne^, beginneth, 

Biginning, ) beginning, 32, 89, 
Biginninge, ) 521. 
Bigote, begotten, 2618. 
Bigimnen {pi. pret.), began, 536. 
Bihaluen = bihalwen, murmur 

against, cry out against, 3355. 
Bihet (pret. of hihete)f promised, 

1884. A.S. hehdtan (pret. he- 
hit ; p.p. hehdten), to promise. 
Bihoten, promised, 3132. 
Bi-hu[f]lik(?), neeclful, necessary, 

4108. A.S. hehojlic. 
Bilagt, taken away, 773. A.S. 

ge-laccan (pret. gel^ehle), take, 

catch, seize. 
Bileaf, remained, 1332, 2776 ; left, 

Bilef, remained, 671, 1346, 1516, 

1791,1801. A.S. Wi/o«(pret. 

heleafy helaf), 
Bilefben {ph pret.), dwelt, abode, 

Bileph= bilef. remained, 2662. 
Bileue, should remain, 1716. 
Bileue, quickly, 4128. 
Bileuen, to iximain, stay, 1766, 

Bileuen, remainder, 3154. 
Bile wen, to remain, 2233. 
Bilirton, deprive of by fraud, 316. 
Biloc, surrounded, 2684. See 

Bilong, belong, 2058. 
Biluk en, enclosed, shut up, 104. A.S. 

helucan (pret. heleac; p.p. heloceti). 

Sen;, ) '=°"'Pl'»'"t' '^' 2894. 
Bimenc^, benioaneth, 2226. 
Bimening, mourning, bemoaning, 

Biment, ) complained, 1217; be- 
Bimente, ) wailed, bemoaned, 



2202,4150. A.^.hemfvnan(j^ret 

Binam, used, 1706. ^eo Binimm, 
Binden, to blind, 2193, 3193. 
Bine^e, \ beneath, below, 10, 66, 
Bine^en, { 126, 3526, 4082. A.S. 

Binimen, to take away, 1 764. A. S. 

heniman (pret. hendm, p.p. be- 

Binnen, within, 1032, 1731. A.S. 

Binumen, bereft, taken away, 198, 

772; be taken, 1578; rescued, 

2876; placed, 376. 
Bioft, behoof, 1408. A.S. he-hofan, 

to behove. 
Bioue^, behoveth, 1159. 
Biquuad, ordered, appointed, 117. 

See Quuad. 
Bique^en, bewail, 2448 . See Que^e, 
Bird=bir^, birth, 2591. 
Biri, city, 2257. A.S. hirt^, hjri. 
Biried, buried, 256, 735, 2517, 

Birielo, ) tomb, sepulchre, 2488. 
Biriels, ) A.S. hyrgeh, 
Birien, to bury, 2424. 
Birigeles, burial, interment, 2474. 
Bir^e, \ birth, 441, 1177, 1187, 
Bir^ehe, ) 1484, 1497. 
Birien, to be bom, 1471. 
Bir^he, birth, 368. 
Bir^heltre, fruit bearing tree, 119. 
Bise, rule, govern, 4107. 
Bisek, {imp,) beseech, 3093. 
Biseke, {imp,) beseech, 4155. 
Biseken, to beseech, 2492, 3600. 
Bisen, to provide, 1313 ; ordained, 

1411; govern, direct, 2141; 

3414. A.S. heseon, 
Biset, {p.p.) beset, surrounded, 

Bisette, {preL) beset, compass, 

Bisetten, surroimded, encompassed, 


Bisne, blind, 472, 2822. K,^,liBen, 
Bisogt, {p^p^ besought, asked, 3080. 
Bisogte, {pret,) besought, 3236 ; 

intercedwl, 3693. 
Bispac (= bespoke) gain-said, con- 
tradicted, 1444. 
Bispeken, to blame, condemn, 

1855. A.S. hcspracan, to ac- 
cuse, blame. 
Bistod, lamented, 3857. 
Bistoden, {pi,) bewailed, wept for, 

716, 1456. A.S. histanden, 
Biswiken, betrayed, deceived, 356 1 . 

A.S. heswican. 
Bit, biddeth, 2238. 
Bitagt {p>p,) delivered, given over, 

assigned, 774, 1677. 
Bitagtc (pret. of hitahen or hitechen) 

gave, 212, 782, 1185; appointed, 

assigned, 923, 965, 1663, 2622, 

3621. A.S. heUcan (pret. he- 

Bitagten {pi,) delivered, consigned, 

Biteg, accomplished, 2878. 
Biten {pi,) accomplished, 3626. 

See Ten, 
Biter, bitter, 3300. 
Bithowte, bethought, 2735. 
Bitid, befallen, 357, 1194, 1876, 

1978, 2358. 
Bitidde, befell, 3861, 
Bitime, betimes, 1088. 
Bitogen, befallen, had happened, 

1771, 3406; guided, directed, 

3796. See Ten. 
Bitold, rescued, 920. 
Bitterlike, bitterly, 1115 ; angrily, 

2030 ; severely, sharply, 3896. 
Bi^hogte, ] bethought, devised, 
Bisogt, I 36, 37, 1183. A.S. 
Bi^ohte, ) he^encan^ to consider, 

Bitwen, between, 8, 251, 760, 

1168, 1601, 2406. 
Biue^, trembleth, 2280. A.S. hi- 

fiany heofian. 



£i waken (/?/.) keep awake (or vigil) 

for the dead, 2444. A.S. wcBcan^ 

to watch, wake. 
Blast {ph!) 'Hues hlatt,' 201; 

'homes hUut,' 3464. 
Ble, colour, hue, 457 ; appearance, 

749. A.S. hleo. 
Blein, blain, 3027. 
Bles (g. sing, of ^/I^), of colour, hue, 
Blessede, turned aside, ceased, 

3653, 3803. ^qq Blmen. 
Ble«, timid, fearful, 2590, 3520, 

3907. A.S. hUdt^ miserable; 

hled^y gentle. 
Blinne, j to cease, 289, 1963. 
Blinncn, ) A.S. hlinnan,, 

Sejwiss, 382, 748, 3518. 

Blisced {p.p.), blessed, 1552, 1616. 
Bliscede {pret), blessed, 163, 897, 

Bliscing, ) blessing, 1508, 1532, 
Bliscinge, ) 1556, 1563, 1568, 

Blisse, bliss, 11, 241, 2068. 
Blissen, to lessen, 553. Du. 

hluascheny to quench. 
Blisses {g. sing.) of bliss, 19, 383 ; 

pi. happiness, joys, 2350. 
Bli^e, blithe, joyful, 1343, 1653. 
Bli^elike, blithely, joyfully, 1424, 

Bio, blue, 637, 638. A.S. hUo\ 

O.Du. hla. 
Blod, blood, 1074, 1452, 1661, 

Blod, woman, 1192. See Gloss. 

to Allit. Poems, s.v. Blod. 
Blodes, of blood, 2956. 
Blomede, bloomed, flowered, 2061. 
Boc, book, 523, 2522. 
Bode, (*wJ;*.) tolerate, endure, 1594, 
Bode, word, message, command. 

395, 621, 939, 991, 1008, 1286, 

1973, 2383, 2859. A.S. hod, 

gehodf a command, message ; 

biodan, to command, order, bid. 

Boden {pl.pret.\ bad, oommazided, 
1067, 1096, 1971, 8544; aaked 
for, 3169; p.p. bidden, 1430, 
4116; bidden, 3111. 

Bodes, command[8, rules, 3526. 

Bodeword, ) commandment, pro- 

Bodewurd, ) hibition, 213, 218, 
361, 2280 ; message, 396, 2494, 
2882, 2913. See Bode. 

Bofte =Biofte, behoof, 1388. A.S. 
he-hS/an, to behove. 

Bog, bough, 608. 

Boge, bow, 483, 1238. 

Bogt {p.p.), bought, 1994, 8683. 

Bogte {preL), bought, 1996. 

Boken, book ; ph. ^on hook,^ 4. 

Bokes, books, 3635. 

Bold, bad, 323; stubborn, 1917; 
boldly, 2728. 

Bolen. See To-bollen. 

Bond, ) prison, 2076, 2693 ; force, 

Bonde, ) power, 763, 2114, 2716. 

Bondes, bonds, 344, 2230. 

Bone, prayer, petition, boon, 2980. 
O.N. ^dn; A.S. iAi. 

Booc, book, 4124. 

Bor (pret. of b&ren\ bore, 425. 

Borde, table, board, 1210. 

Boren (pi. pret. of beren, to bear), 
bore, 684, 1725, 1730, 1798; 
p.p. bom, 8, 84, 220, 648, 666, 
666, 1144; borne, 2512, 2618. 

Borgen (p.p. of bergen), protected, 
saved, 1102, 1105, 2686. Bee 

Borwen (p.p. of berge), preserved, 
saved, 886, 3044. 

Bosum, bosom, 2809. 

Bot, (pret. of biUn), bit, 2926. 

Bot, j salvation, deliverance from 

Bote, j evil, forgiveness, atone- 
ment, 24, 3598, 2926, 2957. 
A.S. b6t, b6tu; bUan, to«mend. 

Bo^en, both, 328, 350, 899, 1276, 

Brae, broke, 3100. 

Bras, braas, 467. 



^rast (pret. of hresten\ burst, 

Bred-lepes, bread-baskets, 2078. 

A.S. leap, a basket, hamper. 
Bred, ) bread, 364, 1013, 1225, 
Bread,) 2079. 
Bred, (p^p^) roasted, 1013, 3147. 

A. 8. hrddan Tp. hrt^de\ p.p. 

gebri^f to melt, roast. 
Bredde {preL) melted, 3342. 
Bredes, of bread, 894, 1246. 
Bred-wrigte, a baker, 2077. 
Broken, to break, 3147. 
Breke%, brcaketh, 3062. 
Brend {p.p.) burnt, 3685. 
Brende(^tf^.) burnt, 1108, 2668, 

2778, 2779. 
Brend-fier-rein, rain of burning 

fire, 1110. 
Brennen, to bum, 1077, 2775, 31 54. 
Brennen => Brenjiende, burning, 

Brenninge {$h.) burning, 3654. 
Brent, T burnt, 754, 1114, 1336, 
Brente, ) 2656. 
Bresl^ breast, 343, 370. 
Brewen, to brew, produce, 4054. 
Bre^ere, brethren, 823, 1911, 

2217; brothers, 530, 2213. 
Brictest, brightest, 1910. 
Bridale, wedding, 1674. 
Brigt {adj\) bright, 132, 951; 

beautiful, 1058; clear, 2780; 

(«3.) brightness, 143. 
Brigte {adv.) clearly, 3763. 
Brigtlike, clearly, brightly, 3491. 
Brimen, to become fertile, teem, 

118; bear fruit, 1128. A.S. 

hremaHy to have in honour. 
Brimfir, burning-fire, brimstone, 

Brinfires, burning-fires, brimstones, 

Bringen, to bring, 312, 738, 1067; 

* bringen on ' = to bring against, 

Bri^ere=bre^ere, brethren, 2271. 

Broctc, brought, 237. 
Brod, brood, 3712. A.S. brod, 
Brogt {p.p.\ ) brought, 62, 124, 
Brog^ IpreL), ) 219, 608, 847, 

870, 874, 882, 2634. 
Brogten {pLpret.\ brought, 1008, 

Broker, brother, 420, 1394. 
Bruo {imp.\ enjoy, 1831. A.S. 

hrucan (p. hreao ; p.p. gehrocen), 

use, enjoy, eat. 
Buges, boughs, 2060. 
Bunden {p.p.\ bound, 2216. 
Burdene, burden, 1467. 
Burg, ) city, 812, 833, 1110, 
Burge, ) 1837. A.S. hurh, burgh. 
Burgos folc, townsfolk, 1854. 
Burges, cities, 746, 840. 
Burges ig.iifig.), of the city, 1053, 

Burgt=burg, city, 727, 744, 879. 
Burgt-folk= burg-folc, townsfolk, 

people, 1063. 
Busk, bush, 2779. 
But, send out (?), 3075. It may 

represent the A.S. Bute, hutUy 

But, ) unless, 3017, 3616 ; only, 
Bute, J 4000. A.S. huUf. 
Bute-if, unless, 4059. 
Buteler, butler, 2092, 2115. 
Buten, about, 566. A.S. hutan, 
But-if, unless, 1713, 2698, 2949. 
Buttcre, butter, 1014. 
Buxum, obedient, 980, 1299. A.S. 

hocsum, from hugan, to bend. 

Cald, (p,p,) called, 1700, 3367, 

Calde, {pret) called, 1446, 1631, 

Calden {pl,pret.\ called, 685. 
Calles, callest, 3237. 
Cam, came, 114, 158, 416. 
Can, know, 309 ; did, 2872. 
Canticle, 4124. 
Carf, cut, carved, 2700. A.S. 



ceorfan (pret. cearf-j p.p. corfen\ 

to cut, engrave. 
Cast, a shadow, 3463. 
Care, sorrow, 775. A.S. cdru. 
Cartc-hird, collection of carts 

(chariots), 3215. 
Cai-tcs, carts, 2362. 
Cauen, a cave, 1137. 
Chat; chaff, 2889. 
Cliafare, chaffer, 1951. 
(Jhare, turn, go, 2390. 
Charen, to turn, depart, journey, 

1712, 2436, 3010, 3055, 3704, 

3986. A.S. cerran, cirran, to 

turn, pass over or by. 
Charite, charity, 1016. 
Chartre, prison, 2043. A.S. cwar- 

tenif a prison. 
Chasthcd, chastity, 2022. 
Che, she, 1227. 

Cherl, churl, man, fellow, 2715. 
Ches (pret. of chesen), chose, se- 
lected, 433, 805, 807, 1 250,3672 ; 

took the way, 2736; {imp.) 3665. 
Chesen, to choose, 3429. A.S. cedsan 

(pret. ceas, p.p. c6ren), to choose, 

Chidden {pretpL ),chided,rebuked, 

('hidon, to chide, 2722. 
Childe, child, 966, 974. 
Childes, cliihVs, 1965, 1972. 
('hildhede, childishness, 2652. 
Childlcs, childless, 930. 
Childrc, children, 656, 715, 722. 
Chircho-gong, church-going, 2465. 
Chirches, churches, 511, 3197. 
Chosen (^/.), chose, 543. 
('ircumcicioun, circumcision, 992. 
Circumcis, circumcised, 999, 1002. 
Circumcise, circumcision, 2848. 
Circumcised, circumcised, 1200, 

Cistemesso, pit, cistern, 1960. 
Clone, clean, pure, 605, 611, 627, 

777, 3454, 3637. 
Clensc, cleanse, 3453. 

Cleped, )caUed, 1198," 1274, 
Clepede, ) 2631, 4099. A.S. 

ckopian, to cry, call. 
Cleped, caUeth, 3330. 
Clerkes, clerks, learned men, 2993. 
Clipping- time, shearing time, 1 740. 
Cliued, felt, 1963. 
Cliuen, to stick, fasten, 372. A.S. 

Cliued, adheres, remains, 2384. 
Cloven, to clothe, 2630. 
Colon, coals, 2653. 
Com, came, 130. 

Comb, top, crest, 2564. Du lam. 
Come, coming, arrival, 2267. 
Come, should come, 464. 
Comen {p.p), come, 344. 
Comen {pretpL), came, 1979, 

2611, 2940. 
Coren, com, 2104, 2237. 
Conine, crown, 2638. 
Corunes, crowns 3789. 
Cost, nature, kind, 3327. Icel. 

hoatr, habits, character. 
Costfol, trying, dangerous, 3880. 

A.S. costian, to try. 
Craflik, craftily, 2849. 
Crauede, craved, asked, 1418. 
Crauen, to crave, ask, demand, 1 320, 

1408, 1667, 1718, 2366, 3171. 
Crop (pret. of crepen\ crep^ 2924. 

A.S. creopan, to creep (pret. 

creapj p.p. cropen). 
Crcpcn, to creep, 610, 2560. 
Crisme, chrisom, the anointing oil. 

O.Fr. cresme, from 'xpurjua. 

Saj Christ' ^.^^- 

Cropen, crept, 2974. 

Crune, crown, 2642. 

Cude= cu^e, could, knew how to, 

470, 878, 2594, 2674; showed, 

1659, 2747. 
Cuden = cu^en, {pi.) could, 875, 

3224; knew, 2996. A.S. eunnen, 

to ken, know (pret. cu^e, p.p. 




Cum, (imp,) come, 2791. 
Ciime, {\st pera. sin^,) come, 1037. 
Cnme, [p.p.) come, 1432. 
Cume, (pi) come, 2171. 
Cnmen, (inf.) come, 305, 505, 

Cumen, {pl.pret.) came, 1065. 
Cumen, {p.p.) come, 365, 410, 

570, 1141, 2316. 
Cume%, {itnp, pi.) come, 3485. 
Canen, [pi.) can, are able, 4054. 
Cuppe, cup, 2310, 2318. 
Cursen, to curse, 4005. 
Cursing, {sb,) curse, 3920, 4037, 

Cu^en, knew, 2996. 
Cuuel-staff, a pole for carrying 

two-handled vessels, 37 1 0. A.S. 

eeqfl, cawel, a basket. 

Dage, day, 'of doge brogten,* put 

to death, 3545. 
Dagen, to dawn, 16, 91. A.S. daeg, 

a day ; dagian, to shine ; dagian^ 

to dawn; dagung, a dawning, 

Dages, days, 3297. 
Dai, day, 83, 88, 93. 
Daiening, \^ ^^ 

Daigemng, 3^^^ 
Daning, ) 
Daiges, day's, 3294. 
Daiges, days, 12455, 2471. 
Dain = ^ain(?), a man, 1116. 
Dais, day's, 113, 114, 157, 158. 
Dais, days, 590. 
Dale, dale, vale, 'sorwes dale^^ 19 ; 

*werldes dale^^ 142. 
Dalen, dale, 1931. 
Dalf, buried, 2718. SeeDeluen. 
Dan==^an, 411, 613, et passim, 
Daning, dawn, 1808. See Daiening 

and Dagen, 
Dat=^at, 224, 232, 342. 
Dead, | death, 312,392,402,421, 
Deade, ) 2573, 3120. 
Dead, deed, 2983. 

Deades, death's, 268, 714, 3396. 

De = «e, the, 167. 

Deai, day, 862. 

Ded = dede, did, 3830. 

Ded, \ death, 214, 265, 257, 

Dede, ) 261. 

JJ;;^;^ j dead, 217, 750, 2465. 

Dede, deed, 355, 502, 1150; deeds, 

Dede, did, 24, 118, 224; put, 

placed, 42, 576; made, 762, 

•2291 ; showed, 2757. 
UedvTiy {pl.pret) did, 1059, 1153; 

made, caused, 1522, 2100, 2560 ; 

put, 2555 ; fixed, 3442 ; gave, 

Dcdes, death's, 344, 484, 2716. 
Dedes, deeds, 2459. 
Dcdes, deeds*, 551. 
Dei, day, 78. 
Deie«, dieth, 751. 
Deigen, to die, 3127. 
Del, a part, a whit, bit, 230, 1092 ; 

-what, -thing, 353, 567, 1062 ; 

parts, 3239. A.S.df^l, a part. 
Del, {imp.) divide, 3239. A.S. 

ddlan, to divide, distribute. 
Delen, {pi. pres) divide, 151. 
Delt, divided, scattered, 670, 3243. 
Delte, {pret) divided, 941. 
Deluen, to bury, 2452. A.S. del/an^ 

to dig, delve (pret. deal/, p.p. 

Dempt= dempt, condemned, 2038. 

A.S. d6man, to deem, doom. 
Denede = dinede, shook, quaked, 

Dep, deep, 1942. 

Die^p,' j ^^^P^y^ ^^^^> 2^^^' 2770. 

Der=^er, there, 3200. 

Der, deer, animal, 169, 178, 187, 

299, 4020, 4025. 
Dere, noble, precious, 271, 2247; 

dear, beloved, 403, 1569. 
Dere, to harm, annoy, 1588, 3514 ; 




to injure, 4047 ; destroy, 3566. 

A. 8. derian. 
Dcre, («J.) harm, hurt, 2970, 3214, 

3742. A.S. rf^rtf, (far, rfara, hurt, 

Dered, i harmed, hurt, 242, 2596, 
Derede, ) 3052. 
Deren, to hurt, annoy, 788, 1188, 

'1271, 2348. 
Deren, {pLpres.) hurt, annoy, 187, 

Derer=dere, dear, beloved, 2399. 
Deres, injuries, 3088. 
Deres, animals, 4032. 
Deres-kiBi m^imnk, 556. 
Dere^, hiirm&, hurts, 3818. 
Derke = der^e, dearth, feunine, 

2237, 2345. 
Deme, secret, 1950. A.S. deam, 
Derre = dearly, 3683. 

DeS 1 "^^^^^ 1227,2737,2770. 

Dew, 3325. 

l>hogt - ^hogt, thought, caro, 1 153. 

Dewea, dew'i, 3327. 

Digere = divert, dear precious, 

3483, 3484 ; dearer, 3903. 
Dik, dike, ditch, pit, 281. 
l>ike*i, ditcliea, 2560. 
Dim, dull, 286 ; ignorant, 3673. 
Dine, din, noise ^ 3467. 
Dinede, Boundedj 3464. 
Difl = ^is, 63. 
I>isenl» deecrt, 975. 
Do, take, put, 2781, 3604, 3819, 

Doa = ^oa = ^o, then, 4130 : see 

Dogtres, daughters, 1090, 1094. 
Dole, part, 152. 
Doles, parts, 151, 3243; pieces, 

952 ; shares, 1512. See Dele. 
Doluen, {p.p.) buried, 1895, 3200, 

Doluen, { dug, 3189. 
Domesdai, | doomsday, 105, 505, 
Domesday, ) 645. 

Domme, dumb, 2821. 

Don, {inf.) to do, cause, 194, 534, 

1146, 3608. 
Don, (pl.pres.) do, cause, 180, 31 1. 
Bon, (p^p^) done, 345, 3012; 

placed^ putj 267, 381, 383, 

2586, 3206. 
Dor = ^or, there, 668, 897. 
Dor-bi = ^or-bi, thereby, 1637. 
Do«,(i'w/?.)^^Ti^o 2^^} ; do, 3727. 
i Do%, doth, causes, 2702, 2883. 
Dowter, daughter, 1847, 2147, 

2599, 2601, 2603. 
Dowtres, a.:.u-iuvis 2743. 
1 Dragen, (p.p.) drawn, compiled, 

13; 'to dead iragen,' 

put to death, 3458; 'of liue 

dragen,^ slain, 3806; 

withdrawn, 598; led, drawn, 

2046; sprinkled, 3156. 
Dragen, {inf.) to draw near to, 

2360, 2378. 
Dragen, {adj.) drawn, 2843, 3980. 
Dragt, plan, 8624; way, course, 

Dragun, dragon, serpent, 2924. 
Drake, driigon, 283. 
Dranc, drank, 1660. 
Drcchede, delayed^ 2835, 
Drechen, dekj; 1420, 946. A.S. 

dricany to trouble, oppress. 
Dred, dread, fear, 179, 660, 694, 

Dreddc, dreaded, feared, 767, 

1868, 3008. 
Drcdes, dread's, 2806. 
Drode^, (im/?.) dread, 2343, 3129. 
Drcdful, fearful, 3520; dreadful, 

Drt-di, afraid, 872. 
Dref, trouble, 4144. See Drew. 
Dreful, sorrowAil, 2590. SeeDrv- 

Dreg, suffered, endured, 429, 666, 

Drege, \ (j9/.) endure, suffer, bear, 
Dregcn, ] 512, 2208, 3235. A.S. 



dredgan (pret. dreag^ p.p. drogen) 

to sufPer, bear. 
Brem, ) dream, 953, 2095 ; * on 
Dreme, ) dremy in dream, 1179. 
Dremen, to dream, 2067. 
Drempte, {vh. impers,) dreamt, 

1941, 2049, 2059, 2078, 

Dremes, (^/.) dreams, 1918, 2086; 

(^.j9/.)2112, 2114. 
Dreue, to trouble, 3 1 8. A S. drefan, 

to trouble, disturb. 
Dridde = ^ridde, third, 129. 
Drie, dry, 616. 

J)ne^ = deried, (?) killed, 3681. 
Drige, dry, 3910. 
Drinc, drink, 1149, 1246. 
Dinkelen, to drown, 2768. 
Drinken, to drink, 2065, 3582. 
Drinkilden, {pL) drowned, 492. 
Dririhed, dreariness, 1122. 
Driuen, (pres.pL) drive, 1647; 

{pretpL) drove, fell, 4096; 

{p.p.) diinen, 307, 574, 1125; 

practised, 1681. 
Drof, draflF, dregs, 3582; Dan. 

drav ; Icel. dra/j dregs. " Drafe 

or drosse, or matter stamped, 

pilumen." — (Prompt. Parv.) 
Drof, assemblage, 102. 
Drog, ) drew, 478, 1746, 1844, 
Droge, ) 3909. 
Drogen, (pL) drew, 1077 ; {p-p.) 

drawn, 1772. 
Drogen = drogende, suffering, 977. 
Drogen, (p-p-) suffered, 2402, 

2404, 2786, 3648. See Dregen. 
Drope, drop, 1018. 
Dropen, killed, 2648. A.&.drepan 

(pret. drop, p.p. drepm), to 

strike, wound. 
Drug, drew, 2717. 
Drugen, {pL) drew, 3197. 
Dmgte, drought, dryness, 2107, 

2348. A.8. drugo^. 
Drunken, drunk, 871, 1154. 
Dun, down, 484, 714, 1303. 

Dun, ) hiU, 19, 587, 1101, 1295, 
Dune, ) 3380. A. 8. dun. 
Dun-cumen, to descend, 1608. 
Dunes, hills, 599, 644, 855, 1100. 
Dunis, down's, hill's, 1295. 
Dure, door, 1082. 
Duren, dare, 2239. 
Dure-pin, door pin, bolt of the 

door, 1078. 
Dure-tren, door-posts, 3155. 
Durste, durst, 2593, 3968. 
Dursten, (pL) durst, 1863. 
Dus=^U8, thus, 3007. 
Duuc, dove, 605, 944. 
Dwale, heretic, apostate, 20, 67; 

deceit, fraud, 4055. A.S. dwala, 

an error ; dwelian, to deceive. 
Dwale, grief, complaint, 1037, 

1 220 ; strife, contest, 3404. O.E. 

dule, dole. Sc. dool. 
Dwellede, dwelt, 1106, 

E = he, 2341, 2708. 

E = he, they, 4094. 

Ear, ere, before, 36, 47, 250, 284, 

1757; formerly, 1089, 2562, 

3080; *ear ^anne,' ere that. 

A.S. ear, ar. 
Eares, ears (of com), 2104, 
Earuermor = eauermor, evermore, 

Ebrisse, Hebrew, 73. 
Eddi, pleasant, good, 2086. A.S. 

Eddi-sel = happy (pleasant) time, 

prosperity, 2582. A.S. eadig ^ 

happy, blessed; sml, time. 
Ef=eft, again, 2337. 
Eften, \ 

again, 77, 291, 320, 365, 
1169, 4032. 

Ege8t=hegest, highest, 143, 1224. 
Egte, to wound (?), 470. A.S. 
ehtan, to annoy, afflict. 
1349,. •^'>. 

lighth, 1199, 1202, 

Egte, eight, 1349,. •^'>. 
Egtenede, ) 

Egtende, ) ei( 



Eige, awe, fear, 2550, 3043. A.S. 

ege, fear, terror. 
Eilden = f//tfwrftf, ailing, sick, 2892. 

A.S. eglian, to ail, feel pain. 
Eld, ( age, 579, 705, 707, 740, 
Elde, ) 900, 1283 ; on elde, in 

age, 1197. A.S. eld, yld, age. 
Eldes, of age, 1528. 
Eld = held, 2999. 
Elles, Hell»8, 4157. 
Elles, else, 3072 ; others, 4096. 
Elmesse-giftc, alms-gift, 2466. 
Elne, ells, 563, 565, 586. 
Elten, old, aged, 2892. Sec JEld. 
Em, uncle, 1758. A.S. earn. 
Endede, eaded, 166. 
Endsi^, destruction, death, 3777. 

A.S. ende, end, 8p6y adversity. 

End^^PS may be an error for ««- 

8p6, from. A.S. unsPS, mishap. 
Ending, \ death, 487, 1506,2420, 
Endinge, ) 2439. 

Erd, (land, abode, 210, 383, 11 31, 
Erde, ) 2094 ; lands, 2406. A.S. 

eard, province, country. 
Erdes, abodes, lands, 956. 
Erdfolc, people, 1880. 
Erdne, \ =em(f^, errand, petition, 
Erdene, ) 787, 1372, 1400, 1402. 

A. S. arendf arende, message, 

Erc==here, of them, 2855, 3773. 
Ereward-riehe, inheritance, 1512. 

Du. erfrijk. See Enoard. 
Erf, cattle, 183, 195, 910, 2746, 

3018. A.S. arfe, erfcy orfe, yrfe. 
Erf-kin, cattle, 3177. 
Ermor=eaucrmor, evermore, 306. 
Emeste, necessity, 411. 
Er^e, earth, 40, 116, 118, 122. 
Er^c-dine, earthquake, 1 108, 3196. 

A.S. eor^e-dyne, 
Er^es, earth's, 124, 1547, 1573. 
Erue, cattle, 169, 174, 803, 1948, 

2751. See Erf, 

Eruerilc = tftf^iTr, every, 160. 
Erward, heir, 934. A.S. yrfe-weard, 

an heir. 
Es=i«, them, 135, 1535, 1700, 

2176, 3025, 3097. 
Est, an error for eft, 607. 
Est, east, 829, 1449. 
Estdede, kindness, 2758. A.S. eiU^ 

mild, favouring. 
Esten =<?/)?<?», afterwards, 1264. 
Esteme, Easter, 3290. 
Et, it, 590, 3899. 
Eten (/?./>.), eaten, 329, 364 ; (m/.^ 

to eat, 1531, 1538; {pL pres.) 

eat, 1779. 
WSc-modes^e^e-mod^d (easy mind- 
ed), kind, gentle, 2249. A.S. 

id^, easy, gentle, mild; ed^e- 

mddy easy-minded, humble. 
'E^e-mo^ed^^e^e-moded, appeased. 

'E^Qn = he^en, hence, 2188. 
E^^ede, softened, alleviated, 1439. 
Euen, evening, 1675. 
Euene, even, 331. 
Eui, heavy, 2559. 
Euerilc, every, 68, 69, 121, 2407 ; 

each, every one, 2214, 2355. 
Euerilc del, every whit, 567. 
Euerilc on, every one, 185, 609. 
Euerilk, every, every one, 582, 941 . 

Fader, father, 29, 1148, 2293. 
Faderes, ) father's, 1536, 1586, 
Fadres, ) 1749. 
Fagen, glad, joyful, 15, 510, 854, 

1331, 1343, 1551. A.S. /ff^«, 

fagen, glad ; fedgnian, to rejoice, 

be delighted with. 
Fagnede, welcomed, 1410, 1441, 

Fagt, fought, 3386, 3390. 
Faier, ) {adj.) fair, beautiful, 126, 
Fair, 127, 769, 1058, 1192; 

Faire, ) {adv.) 1061. 
Faiemesse, fairness, colour, 1233. 
Faiger, {adj-) fair, beautiful. 1440, 



2636, 2659 ; good, 3244 ; {adv.) 

1396. A.S.fager. 
Faigere, {pi.) fair, 3547. 
Faigered, fairkood, beauty, 2666. 
Fdire, {adv.) decently, honourably, 

2393, 3193. 

fSS' I ^''"*^' '^'^' ''''■ 

Fallen, to fall, 2734. 
Fand, temptation, strife, 3737. 
See Fonden, 

F^e, I (*'^^-) ^^' S^' ^3^' ^288. 
Fare, course, journey, 1434, 1989 ; 

departure, 3179; welfare, 2771. 

A.S. /<fr, faru. 
Fare, {inf.) to go, 2389. 
Fare, {Ut pera, sing.) go, 930. 
Faren, (in/.) to go, 137, 1418, 1596, 

2238 ; (^/.jt?rM. ) pass away, 2 1 53 ; 

{P'P') goJic, 3705, 4145. A.S. 

farany to go (pret. /or, p.p. ge- 

far en), 
Fastede, fasted, 3611. 
Fe, goods, 439; cattle, 783. A.S. 

feohy cattle, money, goods. 
Fear, far, 253, 2616. 
Feble, weak, bad, 1072. 
Fechen, ( {inf) to fetch, 1363, 
Fechin, ) 1530, 2363. 
Fedde, fed, 2630. 
Fei«, faith, 2187, 2678. 
Feger, far, 764. 
Fel, fell, 72, 484; 'fel wel,' 

prospered, 1521. 
Felage, fellow, companion, 1761. 
Felde, field, 440, 1437. 
Fele, many, 2371, 3197, 2400. 
Fele, defile, dishonour, 3498, A.S. 

falany to defile. 
Fellen, {pi) fell, 65, 287, 1854, 

Felte, felt, 1466. 
Felten, {pi.) felt, 350. 
Fen, mud, dirt, 490, 2557. 
Fendes, fiend^s, devil's, 25, 401. 
Fendes, devil's, 512, 292, 2929. 

Fendes- wise, devil wise, 2961. 

Fer, far, 36, 47, .1238, 1256. 

Fer, sound, whole, 2812, 3469. 
Dan. for ; O.N. foerr. See Sir 
Gawaine and the Green Knight, 
1. 103. 

Ferde, want, 810, 1598, 1739, 

Ferden, (/?/.) went, 2306; acted, 
2921. A.S./<?ra», to go. 

Ferding, army, 842. A.S. ferd, 
army ; ferding, an army, expe- 

Fere, companion, 338 ; companions, 
3783. A.S. /<?rtf, ^<f/<?rtf, a com- 

Feren, companions, fellows, 1275, 

Feren, afar, 2601. Jl.H, feirran. 
far from. 

Feres, companions, 659, 888, 2478. 

Ferli, wondrous, 2774. A.^.fr^rlic, 
sudden ; ft^rlicey suddenly, from 
fffr, sudden, fearful, strange. 

Ferlike, marvellously, 2799. 

Fer^e, fourth, 130, 131, 156, 

Fest, fastened, 2703, 3797; loaded. 



Festlike, convivially, 3407. 

Fet, feet, 3151. 

Fet,(«/w^.) ) fat,2098,2100,2101, 

Fette, (^/.)) 2104,2110. 

Fetchden, {pi.) fetched, 2889. 

Feteles, \ vessel, 561, 1225, 1247, 

Fetles, ) 2595, 2801. K.^.feteU, 

Feten, an error for Uten, set, built, 
2553 (?). It may =^ fett-le, 
O.Fris. fitia'j Goth, fetjan, to 

Feten, fetch, 2744. 

Fetto, fetched, 1535. 

Fetthed, fatness, abundance, 1547. 

Fier, fire, 103, 464, 1140. 

Fier-isles, fire ashes, 1130. A.S. 
yile, ashes. 

feast, 1689, 2470, 3552. 



Fieres, fire's, 1142, 3786. 
Fif, five, 527, 746. 
Fifte, fifth, 158, 159, 165, 166. 
Fiftene, fifteen, 415, 417. 
Fifti, fifty, 578, 657. 

FiuT' 1 ^^®' ^^^' ®^^' ®^^' ®^^' 
Figer, fire, 3522. 

Iig«n, 1 f*'' 3519. 3904. 
Figt, fight, 870, 886; straggle, 

1317, 1470. 
Figten, (««/) figH 3227; {pi) 

Figti, warlike, 546. 
Figures, forms, 1006. 
Fild, filled, 1247, 1225. 
Fillen, fulfil, perform, 1463. 
Filt, filled, 1247, 2213, 2307. 
Fin, ending, death, 3852. 

Findes, findest, 1768. 

Fir, fire, 99, 3338. 

Firmament, 95, 135. 

Firme, first, 39, 43, 59, 75, 76, 

78, 172. 
Firmest, ) first, 1472, 1682, 1826, 
Firmeste, ) 4086. 
Fis, fish, 162, 221, 299, 752. 
Fisses, fishes, 2945. 
Fled, put to fiight, subdued, 3396. 
Fledde, fled, 3384. 
Flep:, fled, 430, 1136, 1745,2806. 
Flcgen, to fly, 479, 610. 
Fleges, flies, 192. 
Fleges, flies', 3012. 
Fleges-kin, flies, 3004. 
Flegt=fleg, fle<l, 3643. 
Flois, flesh, 591, 1013, 2089. 
Flei^ing, instigation, 692. A.S. 

Jlitf strife, offence. 
Flemd, banished, 1265. 
Flemede, banished, 1223. A.8. 

flyman, to banish. 
Flen, {inf.) to flee, 1086, 2685; 

to put to flight, 1513. 

Fles, flesh, 3316. 

Flesses, flesh's, 349. 

Flet, flowed, 644; floated, 3187. 

A.S.Jleotan, to flow. 
Fligt, I flight, 137, 161, 277, 
Fligtc, ) 3012. 
Fliten, strive, 3689. A.S. JRUm, 

to strive (jpretjldtf p.p. ge/Uten). 
Flitten, to remove, 1522. Dan. 

flytUf to remove. 
Flod, ) flood, 596, 644, 1112, 
Flode, ) 3186. 
Flodes, flood's, 2096. 
Flogcn, (;?/.)flew, 861, 3677; {p,p.) 

fled, flown, 1750, 3795. 
Flotes, swimming's, floating's, 162. 

A.S. Jldtan, to swim, float ; f6t^ 

a float, raft. 
Floten, {pi.) floated, 2946. 
Flum, flood, 490; river, 806, 2486; 

sea, 1123. 
Flures, flour's, 1013. 
Fo, few, 2403. A.S. fedwy fed. 
Fode, food, 176, 3146. 
Fodme, productions, 124, 125. A.8. 

Fol, fuU, 211. 

Folc, folk, people, 697, 770, 894. 
Folckes, folk's, 4034. 
Folged, ) {prtU) followed, 204, 
Folgede, ) 1866; (j>.^. ) followed, 

Folgen, to follow, 28, 3272. 
Folkes, folk's, people's, 2785. 
Folkes-kin, people, 1864. 
Folwede, followed, pursued, 880, 

Folwede on, pursued, 1751. 
Fol wen, to follow, 401. 
Fon, foes, 2010, 2693. 
Fond, trial, 336; need, want, 3150. 

Cf. Du. vond^ scheme, device. 

See Fonden. 
Fond, \ found, 440, 1280, 1397, 
Fonde, ) 2324 ; could find, 1933. 
Fondeden, {pL) tempted, 3368. 
Fonden, to try, 2938; to seek, 



8476, 3946. A.8. fandian, to 
try, tempt, seek, search out. 

For, {preU of fare) went, 743, 763, 
1337, 2709. 

For, whether, 2651. 

Forbead, ) forbad, 213, 311, 1329, 

Forbed, j 2932, 2984. 

Forbi, against, 3988. 

Forbode, prohibition, 324. 

Forboden, forbidden, 325. A.8./or- 
heddan, to forbid, prohibit. 

Forbone, an error iorforhode^ com- 
mand, law, 3341. 

Forbrac, broke down, 3049. A.8. 
for-hrecan, to break in two. 

Forbrende, burnt up, consumed, 

Fordede, killed, 426. k,^,for-don, 
to destroy. 

Fordred, afraid, 1557, 1763, 2191. 

Fore, departure, 2984. A.8. /(5r, 
foru, faru, a way, journey. 

Foren, before, 3541, 3866. A.S. 
foran^ before. 

Foren, {pL) went, 2482. 8ee Fare. 

For-fare, ) to perish, 1087, 1134, 

For-faren, ) 3018. K.^.far-faren, 

Forfrigtcd, afraid, frightened, 35 19. 

Forgaf, forgave, 2499. 

Forgat, forgot, 2092. 

Forgeten, (m/.) to forget, 912,1400, 
1806, 3128; {p.p.) forgotten, 
1152, 2179. 

For-hadede, consecrated (by burn- 
ing), 3338. A.S. A«M/>an, to con- 

For-held, withheld, 2026. 

For-hele, {imp.) hide, 3512. 

For-helcn, {inf.) to hide, 2593. 
A.S. for-helan, to hide, conceal. 

For-hid, hidden, concealed, 1875. 

For-hirked, tired of, 3658. A.S. 
ear^t slothful, dull, timid ; yrh^, 
sloth, fear. 

For-holen, ) {p-p*) concealed, hid- 

For-olen, ) den, 1747, 1759, 
1870, 2817, 2331, 3446. 

For-hugede, rejected, 3S14. A.S. 

for-hugian, to despise. 
Forles, lost, lost,. 189, 259, 502, 

808. A.S. for-leoaan, to lose. 
For-leten, {pi.) forsook, 4068. 
For-listede, deceived (?), 1851. Cf. 

Ger. listy craft, deceit. 
For-loren, {p.p.) lost, 241, 1886, 

25 1 1, 3468 ; accursed, reprobate, 

546; destroyed, 1143. 
For-numen, taken away, 2228. See 

For-quat, wherefore, 1657, 2053. 
For-red, deceived, 2 1 92. A. S.far- 

radan, to mislead, deceive. 
For-sake, deny, 1767. 
For-saken, refused, 3811. 
For-sanc, sank entirely, 1 1 14, 1 1 17. 
For-soc, reftiscd, 1833. 
For-swe^en, bum up, consume. 

O.N. «i?t%a, to bum, consume. 
For^, forth, away, forward, 249, 

262, 578. 
For-^an, therefore, 1190, 1261; 

because, 1996 ; thereupon, 3162. 
For^-do, utter, 3993. 
For^e, an error for for^ere (?), 

ftirther, promote, 1372. 
For^en, to promote, further, ac- 
complish, 341, 4080; follow, 

4059. A. S.ff/r^rian, to further, 

For^ere, further, 1304, 3488. 
For^-for, departure, exodus, 3158. 

A.S. for^'faru. 
For^-geden, {pi.) passed, 1755. 

See Oede, 
For^-glod, passed away, 113, 129, 

157. See Glod. 
For^-gon, extended, 835 ; passed, 

845; gone, 2819. 
For^i, therefore, wherefore, 1581, 

1591. AS.for^i. 
For^-nam, forth went, 3351. See 

For^-nimen, proceed, 2676. 
For^-numen, passed, 3640. 



For^-wexen, [pi.) passed, 1211. 
For-tokcD, token, sign, 2994. 
Forward, covenant, agreement, 
1719, 1992, 3014. X.?>.fonceard. 
Forwerti = fowertie^e, fortieth, 

For- went, changed, 1121. See 

For-weried, fatigued, 3894. 
For-wrogt, accurscid, 266. 
Fostre, fbster, nurse, 2620, 2624, 

Fostred, fostered, brought up, 2618. 
Fot, \ foot, 376, 1303, 1474 ; * to 
Fote, ) fot,' at the feet, 2497. 
Foueles, fowls, birds, 570, 947. 
Foure, j four, 559, 814, 816, 852, 
Fowre, ) 2991. 
Fowerti, fourty, 583, 589, 601, 

Fowrtende, fourteenth, 3143. 
Frame, profit, advantage, 133, 173, 

626; benefit, 2540. 
Frame, | to profit, serve, 1642, 
Framen, ) 1837 ; use, 3146. A.S. 
framian, to avail ; freme, profit, 
Fre, free, 623, 3244. 
Freinen, to question, 1047, in- 
quire, ask, 1426, 1643, 1792. 
A.S. fregnauy to inquire, inter- 
Freinede, enquired, 2759. 
Frclike, freely, 2800. 
Fremen, to strengthen, aid, com- 
fort, 173, 1245. K.^. fretnian, 
to profit, prosper, do well. 
Fremo^e, force, lust, 349. A.S. 

freomy strong. 
Fren, to deliver, rescue, 2787. A.S. 

freon^ to set free. 
Frend, friend, 1084, 3587. 
Frond, friends, 1775. 
Frendes, friend's, 1270; friends', 

1392, 1597. 
Frcnkis, French, 81. 
Fretcn, to eat, devour, 371, 4027 ; 

(/?./?.) devoured, 2101. A. 8. 
fretan, to eat, frety (pret. frmtj 

Frigt, fright, fear, 1234. 
Frigted, * feared, 1861, 3978 ; 
Frigtede, ) frightened, 1757. 
Frigtful, timid, 3459. 
Frigti, timid, frightened, afraid, 

667, 1162, 1331, 2849; for- 
midable, 984. 
Frigtihed, fear, awe, 542, 2222. 
FrigtiHke, ) timidly, 1617, 2163, 
Frigtlike, j 3870. 
Fri%, protection, safety, 681, 683, 

Fri^e, ) preserve, protect, 786, 
Fri^en, ) 1070, 2335 ; deliver, 

3094; prosper, 1520. A.S./ri«, 

peace ; /r»%ifl», to make peace, 

protect, defend, keep free. 
Fro, for, 3206. 
Fro, from, 89, 261. O.N. /rd ; 

j>h. fro ^an, from that time, 188; 

from that place, 1247 ; fro^a 

^fro'San, 1264. 
Froren, frozen, 97. Cf. frore 

Froskes, frogs, 2969, 2977. A.S. 

Fro^er[ed]e, comforted, 893. A.S. 

freo^ian, to protect, give peace 

Froward, fix)m, 3322. 
Froure, comfort, consolation, 54. 

A.S. frofer, comfort ; frofrtan, 

to comfort. 
Fruit, 216. 

Fuel, fowl, 160, 161, 1124. 
Fueles, fowls, 16. 
Fugel, foul, 2556. 
Fugel, fowl, bird, 221, 299. A.S. 

Fugelcs, fowls, 2081, 2089, 3323, 

Fugel-fligt, fowl-flight, 3321. 
Ful, fuU, 109, 110, 111. 
FulfiUen, perform, 1222. 



Pnlfilt, accomplished, 1950. 

Fulsam, rich, plenteous, abundant, 
748, 2153. 

Fulsum-hed, abundance, 1548, 
2128, 2297, 3320. 

Fultum, aid, help, 2824, 3929. 
A.8./m//ww, help. 

Funde, \ {pi) found, 1973, 2948, 

Funden, ) 3298, 3299, 3666. 

Funden, {p.p.) found, 3190; dis- 
covered, 3301. 

Funden, to go, 2831, 2958. A.S. 
fundian, to go forward. 

Fundend =/Mm?tf» et^ found it, 

Funt, font, 3290. 

Gad, a rod, 3185. A.S. gad. 
Gaderen, gather, 2134, 3335. 

Gamen, pleasure, 41 1 , 20 1 5 ; sport, 

3498; tricks, 1214. k.^.gamen. 
Gan, did, 91, 1417, 1421. 
Gare = y<irtf, soon, quickly, 390, 

2866, 3180. A.S. gare, gearo. 
Garen, prepare, get ready for a 

journey, 1417, 1595; exhibit, 

show, 138; to hasten, 3168. 

A.S. gearwan, ggrwan, to make 

ready, prepare. 
Garkede, arrayed, 3261. 
Garknede, prepared, 3240. O.E. 

gark; A.S. gearciarif to prepare, 

make ready. 
Gast, ghost, 202, 2428. A.S.gdst 
Gastes, ghost's, 1486, 2994. 
Gat, ) granted, 635, 1574, 2477, 
Gatto, [ 2513; gave, 659. AS. 
Gatten, ) geatan, to grant. O.N. 

Ge = ghe, she, 1024. 
Ge, ye, 329, 330. 
Geald, requite, 2581. See Qelden. 
Gede, went, 618, 1236, 1947, 3057. 
Geden, {pi) went, 1034, 3195; 
passed away, 1673. 

Gef, if, 311. 

Geld, {pret.) performed, 1884, 

2758 ; {imp.) requite, 2152. 
Gelden, to requite, reward, 6 ; give, 

offer, 1628. A. S. geldan, to pay, 

yield, restore (pret. geald, p.p. 

Gelus, jealous, 3495. 
Gem, heed. A.S. ge^mf, gynie, 

Geming, care, protection, 2783. 

A.S. ggnian, to take care of, 

Ger, year, 150, 152. 
Ger, years, 415, 419. 
Gerde=:ytfr(f, rod, 2851, 2987. 

A.S. geard, 
Gere, an error for dere, precious, 

Geren, set in order (for burial), 

2441. See Garen. 
Geres, years, 2153. 
Gerken, prepare, 2255. See Oark- 

Gerneden, yearned, 3657. 
Geste, guest, 1054 ; guests, 1070. 
Gestning, feast, festival, 1507. A.S. 

ggst, a guest; gystenllCf hos- 
Get, {pret.) poured, flowed, 585; 

{imp. ) pour, 2815. A.S. giotan, 

to pour, ])our out, shed; (pret. 

geot, p.p. gegoten). 

Gete, obtain, get, 1497. 

Geten, melt, cast, 3648. See 

Qetcno6= gef enes, giants, 545. A.S. 

eoten, a giant. 
Getenisse, gigantic, 3715. 
Gette, poured, 582. 
Geue, given, 301. 
Geuelic, like, 282. A.S. geefenltf,- 
cany to be like. 
I Geueleng^he (of equal length), 
I equinox, 147, 149. 



Geuen, to give, 1508, 2398 ; giyen, 

Ghe = 8he, 237, 337, 339. 
Ghe =ghet, yet, 1477. 
Gif, {imp.) give, 1492. 
Giftes, gifts, 1416. 
GMes=cild€8, child's, 2624. 

GUte, I ^*' 22^2' 2'*^^- 

Ging, king, 2547. 

Ginge, young, 4049. A. 8. ging. 

Ginges, kin^s, 3932. 

Girt, ^ed, 3149. 

Gisanne, pike, axe, 4084. 

Gisce, covet, 3515. 

Giscing, covetousness, 1874, 3432, 

3516. A.S. giUung, desire. 
Gisse, covetest, 3517. k.^.gkUian, 

to desire. 
Gister-dai, yesterday, 2732. 
Giuen, to give, 11, 1613. 
Gla^, ) = glade ; glad, 1779 ; 
Gla^e, ) 2297, 3671. 
Glente, looked affrighted, stared in 

astonishment, 1029. It signifies 

originally merely to shine, look. 

** Pys pcreone lay and lokcde ftirth 
Vntyl a cofre yn )»e florthe ; 
par-to )»e frerc gaf gode tente 
Whyderwarde hys eyjcn glente.** 
— (Robt. of Bmime's Handlj-ng Sjune.) 

Glow, music, 459. A.S. gleo, 
Gliden, {inf.) to glide, go, 370, 
952 ; {p.p.) passed, 7i53, 3460. 
Glod, glided, passed, 76, 113, 129. 
Gnattes, gnats, 2988. 

G^de, js^^^'^^^^'^^^^'^^^^- 
God, went, 2030. 
Gode, *togode,^ gratuitously, 2890. 
Gode-frigtihed, ) god-fearingness, 
Godes-frigtihed, j the fear of God, 

495, 542. 
Godfiilhed, godhead, 56. 
Gol =golde, gold, 1872. 
Godun, {ace.) good, 1430. 
Golhed, lust, 534. A.S. gdl, wan- 
ton ; gdlnes, lust. 

Gon, {inf.) to go, 643, 845, 2561 , 

{pi.) go, 3124; {p.p.) gone, 639, 

835 ; departed, 4128. 
Goren, darts, 3458. A.S. ^drm, a 

spear ; gar, a dart, jaTelm. 
Got, goat, 940. 
Go^, {imp.) come, 3585. 
Go«, God, 4132. 
€h)ue, should gire, 3941. 
Gouel, tax, tribute, 844, 846, 848. 

A.S. gaf el, gaful, tax, tribute. 
Gouen, (pi) gave, 844, 2922, 

Grantede, consented, 1423. 
Grapte, felt, grasped, 1544. A.S. 

grdpian, to feel, grope. 
Gram, fierce, 1228. A.S. gram, 

furious, fierce. 
Grauen, (in/.) to bury, 3778 ; {p.p.) 

dug, 1 138; buried, 2431 ; carved, 

2701, 3186, 3624. 
Grauen, an error for grauen, con- 
trol, 276. A.S. yrafian, to urge, 

Graunte, grant, 2536. 
Gred, {sh.) cry, clamour, 3230, 

Gredde, cried, 3585. A.S.gradan, 

to cry, call. 
Gredi, hungry, 1494. A.S. gradig, 

greedy, from gradan, to cry, 

call for. Goth, gredage, hungry. 
Grei, grey, 1723. 
Greim, grievous, hard, 392. A.S. 

gremian, to make severe or cruel; 

grim, rage ; grim, sharp, bitter. 
Grei^et, hastens, 1738. O.N. 

greP6a, to make ready. 
Grene, green, 608, 2775, 2776. 
Gres, grass, 3049, 3088. 
Gresseoppes, grasshoppers, 3065. 

A.S. gar8h(^a,, grasshopper, a 

Gret, great, 2098, 3226. 
Gret, grit, earth, 3774. A.S. 

grM, dust, earth. 
Gret, {eh.) weeping, 3888. 



Gret,wept, 1975,2287, 2341. A.8. 
^atan, to weep (pret. gret ; p.p. 

Grete, (pi) great, 2892. 
Greten,(i?/.) wept, cried, 3207, 3659. 
Grete^, greeteth, 2382, 2864. 
Greue^, grieveth, 3818. 
Gri^, protector, safety, security, 

469, 560, 682, 1397. A.S.yrrS, 

peace, protection; grPSian, to 

protect, defend. 
Grot, mourning, lamentation, 1577, 

1978; weeping, 2289, 3717. 

See Orete, 
Groten, to bewail, 1984. 
Grucheden, murmured, 3354. 
Gruching, murmuring, 3318. 

G^4, j ground,21 10,2640,3278. 

Grunden, {p-p.) ground, 3339. 
Ghiisnede, groaned, 481. O.N. 

Grijsen, grijusen^ to snarl, grin. 

Ger. grauseUj to shudder, grun- 

zen, to grunt. 
Gu, you, 325, 399, 2260. 
Guglond, kingdom, 1264. 
Gulden, {pi, ) requited, 1 062 ; {p.p.) 

requited, 927. 
Gummes = ^iVnm^, gems, 2700. 

A.S. gimm. 
Gunc, you two, 2830. A.S. inc. 
Gund, j to, 1101; there, 3851. 
Gunde, ) A.S. geond. 
Gune, {pi) did, 3135. 
Gungcre, younger, 158, 1510. 
Gunge, young, 2281, 2756. 
Gungest, ) youngest, 1909, 2160, 
Gunkcste, ) 2190. 
Gunker, of you two, you two, 

398. A.S. ineer. 
Gunne, ) {pi) did, 218, 534, 540, 
Gunnen, [ 592, 1344, 1953, 2378, 
Gunen, ) 2492, 2755. 
Gur, ) your, 404, 2178, 2260; of. 
Gure, ) you, 2318, 3471. 
Gu^, youth, 2665. A.S. gugd^, 

a youth. 

Hadde, {pret.) bad, 193, 3392. 
Hadden, {preLpl)had, 413,2930. 
Hagte = ^^0, possession, wealth, 

431,2582. BeeAgte. 
'RsLgt=agt, sorrow, grief, care, 

486, 2044, 2082. See Jgt 
Haigre, hair cloth, 1977. See 

Allit. Poems, C. 373. A.S. hara, 

Halge, hallow, 3501. 
Halle, all, 2340. 
HaH, holy, 54; 'halt day,' 3501 ; 

* halt gast,' 202, 2438. 
Halp, helped, succoured, 26. 
Ham, am, 926. 
Hangen, hanged, 4075. 
Hard, obstinate, 3061 ; strong, 

Harde, trouble8ome,difficult, 2054 ; 

severely, 3355. 
Hardi, fearless, 2121. 
Hardnesse, obstinacy, 3022, 3067. 
Haswed, spotted, variegated, 1723. 

A.S. haso, hastae, livid, dusky, 

dark, rugged. 
Hatte, called. See Het 
Haielf severe, cruel, 2544. A.S. 

hHol\ S.Sax. hatel 
Haue = sorrow, grief, from A.S. 

hedf, a groan, mourning. If 

we read hane^ torment, oppres- 
sion, it is from the A.S. hgnan, 

to hurt, vex ; hean, i)oor ; A^ph^, 

want, 3354. 
Heg, ) high, 2011 ; loud, 2780, 
Hege, ) 3380, 4100. A.S. hege, 

Hegere, higher, upper, 3392. 
Hegest, highest, 30, 2142. 
Heilnesse, health, 2068. A.S. 

hdlneB, wholeness, health. 

Side, H'^'^'-^S^''*"' 1^27. 

Heled, healed, 229. 
Helden, {pi) held, 285. 
Helden, an error for holden^ to hold, 



Held-for«, took, 165. 

Heli, holy, 51, 204. 

Helid, covered, 1636. A.S. helan, 

to cover, conceal. Prov.E. heUj 

Hclle,hell; *W/<?.dik,' 281; 'helU- 

bale,' 2525 ; * ^W/<?.dale,' 1983; 

' A^//^-pine,' 2530. 
Helles, hell's, 22. 
Helpe, {rh.j help, 2528 ; >*.)help, 

assistance, 496, 1802. 

Helped, helpeth, 4062. 
Helpeles, helpless, 3558. 
Helpen, to help, 176, 1272. 
Hel^e, health, safety, 2344. 
Hem, an error for himy 180. 
Hem, them, 392, et passim, 
Hem-seluen, themselves, 537, 2889. 
Hem ward, to them, 2726. 
Hende, | near, 3361, 3370. O.E. 
Henden, ) i-hende; A.^,^e-hende, 

Heng, hung, 3899. 
Hente, seized, beat, 2715. A.S. 

henian, to seize. 
Her, here, 170, 175, 177, 184. 
Her-after, here-after, 243. 
Her = here, of them, 2258. 
Her, hear, 3535. 
Her=^r, before, 801. 
Herberge, lodging, 1392. 
HerbergcKl, lodged, 1602. A.S. 

here-hergan^ to lodge, harboui-, 

from here, an army. 
Hi.Tbergen, to lodge, 1057. 
Her-by, hereby, 3572. 
Herdes, abodes, lands, 2410. 
Herdes-folc = erdes-folc, land-folk, 

people, 3372. 
Herde, {pi) hoard, 1283, 1611. 
Herden, {pi) heard, 1139, 3492, 

Hero, theirs, 1920. 
Hero, army, host, 1787, 2679, 

2470. A.S. here. 

Here, bear, 3426, 3473 
Here-gonge, invasion, 848. 
Here'"n], expedition, 2479. Sei 

' Heren, to hear, 1370, 2531. 
Herf=<fr/, cattle, 2990. 
Herte, heart, 518, 520, 1302; y.«. 

of heart, 2936 ; courage, 3253. 
Herte-bren, heart-burning, lost, 

Hertedin, encouraged, consoled, 

Hertes, hearts, 1917. 
Herting, consolation, 1982. 
Her^e, an error for herUj heart, 

B.vT^e = herde =erde, land, 806. 
Het, promised, 2365, 2954 ; called, 

2588, 2589, 3333. A.S. hdtan, 

to command, promise (pret. hitj 

p.p. hdten) ; hdtan, to call (pret 

I Hete, heat, 1228, 1229. 

Hotcn, (pi) promised, 3450. 
■ Ho^o, Thence, 1644, 2508. O.N. 
Ho^en, i he^an, 


Heuedes, heads, 2926. 

Heued-welle, spring, 868. 

Heuenc, ) heaven, 40, 270; *heuene 

Heuone, ) hem ' (the sun ?), 1 606 
'heuene dew,' 1547, 1573 
* heuene gate,' 1620; ^heuone hil, 
281 ; ' heuone ToV (heaven-roof), 
firmament), 101. 

Houcne-ward, heaven-ward, 3025. 

Heuerilc, every, 368. 

Heui, heavy, 2565. 

Heuones, heavens, 287. 

He we, form, 4051. 

mc^ic, I, 34, 2783. 

Hicte = A?^/^, called, 713. See 

Hidden, {pi) hid, 3028. 

Hidel-like, secretly, 2882. 

Hiden, to hide, 352. 



Hider, hither, 2344, 2895. 
Hiegt, threatened, 217. A.8. Mhty 

pret. of hatan, to promise. 
Higte, called, 747. 
Hil, hiU, 1290, 1293. 
Hiled=Ai7^^, covers, encloses, 102, 

3184. SeeJIelid. 
Himseluen, himself, 1338. 

^°J^ I him, 47, 3004, 3468. 

Hine-folc, servants, 3655. A.S. 

hina, h'lne, a domestic. 
Hines-kin, servants, 3776. 
Hinke = m^, fear, dread, 432. 

A.S. inca, doubt. 
Hird, flock, 2988 ; host, 3222, 326 1 , 

3263, 3266; male servants, 1001. 

A.S. heord, herd. 
Hird, hurt, 3962. 
Hirde, shepherd, 456. A.S. hirde. 
Hirde-men, shepherds, 2395. 
Hirdes, shepherds, 1643. 
Hirdnesse, herds, flocks, 1664, 

1732, 1930, 2771. 
Hire, wages, 1718, 1722. 
Hire, her, 238, 322 ; hers, 2035. 
His = is, 2935. 

51^ j his, 44,45,46; its, 125. 

Hogt, called (?), 2119. See Jliegt. 

Hoi, whole, 1835, 2776, 2812. 
A.S. hdl. 

Hold, old, 429, 424, 1453. 

Hold, kind, attentive, 1389 ; true, 
faithful, 2704, 3284. A.S. AoW, 
faithfcd, friendly, true. 

Hold, (<wfr.) truly, 3941. 

Holden, {pi) hold, 1201, 2236; 
{p.p.) held, 1425, 2040; es- 
teemed, 1518. 

Holdet, holdeth, 1132. 

Holdlike, faithfuUy, truly, 1544. 
A.S. hoUlice. 

Holocaust, I J3J ^32^ 

Holocaustum, ) ' 

Holpen, {pi) helped, 3382, 3674. 

Hol%e, possession, property, 1772. 

Horn, home, 1711, 2376. 
Homward, homeward, 1431. 
Hond, hand, 104, 959. 
Hondes, hands, 3383, 3385. 
Hor = or = before. See Or, 
Hore, whore, 4082. 
Horedom, whoredom, adultery, 

Hore-men, adulterers, 4072. 
Hore-plage, adultery, 530, 4067. 
Homes, horns, 3464. 
Hostel, lodging, 1397. O.Yv.hoatel, 

Hot, promise, 935. 
Hoten, ) {p-P') called, 101, 506, 
Hotene, j 2522 ; promised, 2508, 

3704, 4098, 4118. See Ret. 
Hote^, {imp.) promise, 2510. 
Hu, how ! 3077. 
Hu, how, 244, 295. 
Hun-frame, disadvantage, evil, 554, 

1566. A.S. unfreme. 
Himger, famine, 1513, 2150. 
Hungur-bond, force of hunger, 

famine, 763. 
Hungri-geres, famine years, 2136. 

K^.^o'^^'y' 2788. 3340. 

Hunkinde, unnatural, 534. 
Hunne, grant. A.S. unnan, to 

grant, 2249. 
Hunte, delay, 314. 
Huntere, hunter, 1481. 
Hun-wreste, wicked, 537. A.S. 

tvrasty good; untonBsty base. 
Hure, our, 322, 2206. 
Hus, house, 1619, 2010. 
Huses, houses, 1602. 
Hus-folc, household, 3139. 

jjj I I, 309, 314, 315, 317. 

Idel, * in idely^ in vain. 
Ideles, idols, 3197. 
Idelhed, vanity, 28. 
Iglic, ugly, 2918. See Ujsflike. 
Ik = ilk, same, 73. 



He, each, 68, 119, 134. A.S. «fo. 

Ilc-on, each of, 1379. 

jj^^ I same, 258, 313, 1184. 

IUe,'iU, wicked, 1916, 4038, 4063 ; 

badly, wickedly, 1706, 4029. 
In = hin = him, 3887. 
In-gon, entered, 1068. 
In-wis = iwis, truly, indeed, 1515, 

2521. A.S. gewiu. 
Iiin, iron, 467. 
Is, his, 482, 483, 1737. 
Is = his, its, 327. 
Is, an error for ^M=thid, 341. 
Is, them, 1702, 1767, 1769, 1770, 

1833, 1873, 1877, 2654, 2655, 

3115, 3831, 3832. 
I8t=i8 it, is there, 1121. 
It, they, 298, 1920. 
It, there, 2808. 
lumes, journeys, 1291, 3696. 
lusted, allied, intermarried, 1589. 
luel, \ (»i.) evil, 328; {adj.) bad, 
Iwel, I evil, 310, 502, 3718; 

{adv.) wickedly, 374. 


I-wreken, avenged, 1856. 
I-wrogt, wrought, 3215. 

Kagte, pret. of catch, drove, 949. 
Kalues, calves', 1013. 
Kamel, camel, 1398. 
Kameles, camels, 1365. 
Kenned, taught, 216. A,S. <w*n««, 

to adduce, to vouch the truth. 
Kep, care, heed, 939, 946, 1333, 

2602. A.S. cepafij to keepy heed. 
Kepen, to keep, look to, 2453, 

Kcpte, kept, 2625. 
Keptcn, {pL) kept, 2772. 
Kid, made known, 2357. 
Kidd, showed, 1394, 1654. 

Kides, kid's, 1535, 1967. 

Kin, family, kin, 652. 

Kinnes, kin's, 756, 828. 

Kinde, natural, 78; native, 1279. 

Kinde, kind, nature, 185, 250, 
457, 1279. 

Kinde, kin, fsunily, 488, 650. 

Kindelike, kindly, with natural 
affection, 2500. 

Kinderedes, kindreds, 4127. 

Kindes, kinsmen, 1389, 1549; <in 
kindei wane,' kin- wise, natur- 
ally, 1345 ; < aftre kinder wane,' 
after the manner of relatives, 
1652; fanuly's, tribe's, 3824. 

Kinge-riches, kingdoms, 2789. 

Kipte, seized, 3164. O.N. kippa. 
8ee Allit. Poems, B. 1510, and 
Gloss., s.y. Kyppe. 

Kire, purity, 451 ; choice, 1536 ; 
custom, 1693, 2451. A.S. ^yrtf, 
choice ; Ger. kiiren, to choose. 

Kiste, kissed, 1652, 2356. 

Knape, male child, boy, 1151; 
man-servant, 477, 482, 2585. 
A.S. cnapa, a man. 

Knapes, boys, 2573. 

Knaue, male child, 1151. 

Kne, degree, 444. A.S. en$o, 

Knewen, {pL) knew, 2904. 

Knigt, kni^t, 283. 

Knol, knoll, top, 4129. A. 8. 

Knowen, know, 2872; known, 

Komen, {pi.) came, 2577. 

Kude = (rtt^tf, could, 2114, 23661 

Kuglond s= kunghnd, kingdom, 

Kumeling, stranger, 834. 0.H. Ger. 
chomeling, 0.£. eomding. 

Kumen, to come, 399, 984, 1007. 

Kumen, {p.p,) come, 902, 1556. 

Kuppe, cup, 2047. 

Ku%, renowned, 2666. A.S. cm\$, 

Ku^e, could, 289. 



La, lo! 3113. 

Lage, marriage, 538 ; ' in lage^^ in 
marriage, 2764. Cf. Goth. /tw^aw, 
to many, liuga^ wedlock. 

Lagt, seized, 2082, 2621 ; caught, 

3141. AS. Idhte^ pret. oileUean^ 

to seize. 
Laken, to fail, lack, 1231. O.E. 

lac, laky fault. Du. lack^ want, 

fault; laecken, to decrease. 
Laten = fo^tf», to let, 3071. 
La^es, bams, 2134. Ban. lade. 
Lay, law, 1201. 
Leate, (m/?.) leave, 1811. 
Leate^, {imp,) let, 8726. 
Leaned, leafy, 3839. 
Lecher-crafte, lechery, 776. 
Lecher-faro, lechery, 1064. 
Lecherlike, lecherously, 770. 
Lecherie, lechery, 3510. 
Lechur-hed, lechery, 1997. 
Led, song, 27. A.S./^^. Qter.lied. 
Led, (^.j».) brought, 649; {imp,) 

lead, 3607. 
Ledde, {pret) led, 89, 92. 
Leddede = /<w^, led, 3995. 
Ledden=:^i^, led, 2845. 
Ledden, {pi) led, 858, 1990. 
Jjeded = lede^f {imp,) lead, pass, 

Leden, tobolead, 2193; pass, 304 ; 

take up, 699 ; act, 2301, 2304. 
Ledder, ladder, 1607. 
Leet, left, 1280. A.8. ytan, to 

leave (pret. l<it, p.p. letm). 
Lef, agreeable, pleasant, 340, 2664 ; 

dear, precious, 793, 1774, 3431 ; 

joyfol, 4136. A.S. leof. 
Lefful, dear, precious, 155, 2524; 

faithful, 3447. 
Lege^, lies, speaks falsely, 1281. 
Leid, {p,p,) laid, 817, 2426, 2427. 
Leide, {pret) laid, 943, 2693. 
Leiden, {pi.) laid, 1969. 
Leigen, {pi,) lay, 1920. 

Leiste, least, 198. 

Lei^, layeth, 3994. 

Leman, wife, 782. A.S. Uofman. 

Len, reward (?), or left (?), 2838. 

Lene, lean, 2099, 2101, 2106. 

Lene, grant, 2532, 4159. 

Lened, leaned, 1610. 

Lenen, to grant, 3170. A.S. Idcnian, 


Lentil, 1488. 

Lep, leapt, 2726. 

Lepre, leprosy, 3690. 

Lered, learned, 4. 

Lerede, taught, instructed, 791, 

2300; informed, 1383, 2963. 
Lereden, {pL) learned, 3137. 
Lcren, to learn, 354. A.S. Idran, 

to teach, inform. 
Lere^, {imp,) learn, 3486. 
Les, less, 3595. 
Les, delivered, loMed, 2874. 
Les, falsely, 3498. A.S. leas, false. 
Lese, lie, 3514. 
Lesen, loosed, 2152; delivered 

from, 2897. 
Losing, lies, 2578. 
Lesse, less, 994. 
Leste, least, 189. 

SSeJl'^'^OO' 2952, 4147. 

Lested = leete^, lasteth. 111. 

Lested = lested ^ {i^P') listeneth, 
2510. A.S. hliitan, to hear, at- 
tend to. 

Lesteful, everlasting, 304. 

Lesten, {inf.) to last, 12; {pi) 
last, 4119. 

Lesten, to perform, 2906. Ger. 

" And tbei ben false and traiterons and 
kuten not that tbei bihoten."— (Man- 

Let, 'let hen' =let he, 1809. 
Let, pretended, 2168. A.S.Z/^toii, 
to pretend (pret. Ut, p p. Uten). 
Let, left, 725, 809. 



Let, (p.p.) led, 476. 
Lete, {sub.) permit, 2796. 
Leten, {in/,) to let, permit, 3056; 

lose, 767. 
Letcu, {inf.) forsake, 4142. 
Leten, {pi.) left, forsook, 542; 
{p.p.) allowed, permitted, 629, 
2610, 2574. 
Letten, to leave, 2612. 
Letting, hindrance, 1076, 3204. 
Lcttre, letter, 993, 2527. 
Le^, diminution, 3348. 
Leunes, lions, 191. 
Leue, dear, precious, 90, 2421, 

2868. A.S. leof, dearly, 49. 
Leue, leave, permission, 784, 805. 
Leuede, believed, 935. 
Leuedi, lady, 968, 980, 2616. 
Leueless, without leave, 1848. 
Leuelike, kindly, 2275 ; gladly, 

joyfully, 3434. 
Lcuene, lightning, 3265. 
Leuenes, lightning's, 3046. Norse 

Lfdrif Ljiin. 
Leuerd = louerd, lord, 33. 
Leues, leaves, 352. 
Lewse, pasture, 1576. A.S. Item 

(ace. Ia8we)f lastviariy to pasture. 
Ley, lay, 4113. 

Lich, \ body, corpse, 2441, 2488, 
Liche, ) 4140. A.S. lie. 
Liches, bodies, 2447, 3206. 
Licham, ) body, 200, 350. A.S. 
Lichame, ) Uchamay the (living) 

Licheless, corpseless, 3164. 
Liderlike, ) treacherously, 3562, 
Li^erlike, j wickedly, deceitfully, 

1563. SceLi^er. 
Lif, Ufe, 176, 267, 504; 'in/*/,' 

alive, 1364. 
Ligber, Lucifer, 271. A.S. lig-lx^^ 

Ligi^, lies. 

Ligt, light, 44, 53, 57. 
Ligt, descended, come upon, 2787, 


Ligt, soon, 2252. 

Ligten, to descend, 1969, 1983. 

Ligtlike, likely, 1218. 

Ligtness, insight, knowledge, 1559. 

Lik, like, 223. 

Tikede, pleased, 2299, 4029. 

Likeless, dissimilar, 1726. 

Likenes, \^^^^^^^^ 202, 678, 

I iknessf' ^®^' ^^^' ^^®' ^^^^' 
Likenesses, 2701. 
Liket=likeit, 205. 
Lim, lime, 2552. 
Limed, cemented, 562. 
Limes, limbs, 348, 352. 
Lin, lie, 942, 3851. 
Lire, loss, 2920. A.S. lyre. 
\A^t=lmt, desire, want, 978, 1230. 
List-en, to listen, 1220. 
Liste^e, {imp.) listeneth, 3814. 
Listnede, \ listened, 1597, 2137, 
Listenede, ) 2222, 3403, 3538. 
Lit, stain, 1968. O.N. lita, to stain. 
Li^, lieth, 735, 812, 1916, 3892. 
Li^, Umb, 1804. A.S. /*«. 
Li^er, bad, vile, 369. A.S. ly^er. 
Line, life, 265, 629, 3806. 
Liue-dai, life, 652; liue-dages, 

life-days, life-time, 4119. 
Liuede, lived, 777, 908. 
Liuen, {inf.) to live, 308, 573, 

Liuen, {pi.) live, 2496. 
Lines, life's, 201, 496. 
Lines, alive, 1477, 3042; *of 

Hues,' alive, 2834 ; living, 3802. 
Liue^, liveth, 503. 
Liwe, life, 3884. 
Liwen, live, 4097. 
Loac = he, gift, 1798. A.S. lac, 

Loar, loss, 177, 181. A.S. /or. 
Loc, look, behold, 3331. 
Lockende, looking, seeing, 2822. 
Lodelike, loathly, 3030. 
Loder-man, leader, 3723, 4110. 

A.S. lad-man \ O.E. lodesman, 



from A. 8. Idd, Iddu, a way. Cf. 

Eng. loadstar, 
Logede men, laymen, 2; 
Logen,an eiTorfor«o^tfn=saw,8329. 
Loke, limp,) look, take heed, 3511 . 
Loked, kept, guarded, 193. 
Loked, awarded, decided, 3810. 
Loken, to look, 2600. A.S. I6eian ; 

look to, take care of, 2771. 
Loken, to keep from, abstain from, 

Loken, to enclose, 3193. A.S. hcan 

(pret. Uac] p.p. hem), 

L^nJeJ^d'lO^, 208. 1843. 

Londes, lands, countries, 3700. 
Londes-speche, (native) language, 

Lond-speches, languages, 669. 
Londe-weige, land- way, path, 268 1 . 
Lore, learning, wisdom, 3635. A. S. 

Lordehed, lordship, 196. 
Loruerd, an error for louerd, 2029. 
Lote, cheer, face, 1162, 2328. 

S.SaxJoUylate, O.^.lati, A.S. 

Loten, features, 2258. 
Loten, to fail, 3131. 
Lo%, loathsome, 369 ; displeasing, 

1216, 1736. A.S. W«. 
Lo^t=/o^, displeasing, 340. 
Leslie, loathsome, horrid, 749. 
Louerd, ) lord, 29, 275, 282, 
Louered, ) 997. A.S. Ma/ord. 

Louerding, /ore^m^, lord, ruler, 833. 
Louerdes, lord's, 1388. 
Louerdis, lord's, 2272. 
Louerd = /<m^rf, lord, 3563. 
Lowe, flame, 643. O.N. %. 
Lude, loudly, 3585, 
Luked, locked, closed, 3276. 
Luken, {p,p,) enclosed, 94, 104, 
8779 ; shut, 362 ; beset, 2886. 
Luket = luke%, encloseth, 98. 

Luten, to bow down to, 1926. A.S. 

lutan, to bow down to (pret. 

sing, leat ; pi. luton ; p.p. loten). 
Lutten, {pret.pL) bowed down to, 

worshipped, 2163, 3550, 4070. 
Luue, love, 8, 35, 51. 
Luue-bond, power of love, 2692. 
Luuede, loved, 770, 1174. 
Luuen, {eh,) love, 635, 1517, 

2002, 4081. 
Luueden, (pi) loved, 549, 2152. 
Luuen, to love, 1, 5, 9, 2042. 
Luuen, {pL) love, 49, 3586. 

Ma = mai, may, 295. 
Mao, (imp,) make, 3541. 
Mad, lp,p.) made, 122, 184. 
Maden, (pi,) made, 1992, 2960, 

Magnie = manige, many, 877. 
Magti, mighty, 584, 3797. 
Mai, may, 371. 
Maidenes, maidens, 1145, 1153, 

Maidenhed, maidenhead, 1852. 
Maked, mahrS, maketh, 1591. 
Maked, made, 2470, 2515. 
Maken, to make, 278, 1269, 1312. 

Male, 'heVLemale,^ hell's mail, 22. 
Malt, melted, 1017, 3337. 
Man = mante, many, 1488. 
Man, one, 1, 3, 1130. 

^^;^ } many, 696, 836, 1362. 

Manige, many, 413, 428, 437, 2392. 
Manige-fold, many fold, 2502. 
Manigon, many one, 630. 
Mankin, manHnd, 240. 
Manliched, manhood, 23. 
Manne, man, 366. 
Mannes, man's, 141, 327, 501, 763. 
Manslagt, manslaughter, 485. 
Mat, foolish, doted, 1589. Du. 

mat, exhausted, overcome ; Ger. 

matt, feeble, faint. 
Mattilike, faintly, 1493. 




Mayden-childre, girls, 2574. 
Mcde, reward, meed, 1419. 
Mcde8, rewards, 39-10. 
Meidcnes, maidens, 1139. 
Meister, (adj.) master, chief, 664, 

3412, 3881, 3886 ; {sh.) master, 

2729, 3422. 
Meistres, chiefs, 3756, 4072. 
Mel, mealy food, 1020, 1246, 1484, 

Molten, to melt, 99, 3579. 
Men, one, 750, 1127, 1293. 
Mono, company, fellowship, 501. 

A.S. ffe-mdna, a company, mar- 

*' Forr drilihtin haffde )>anne sett 
Amang ludiwken jK'ode, 
putt nan no shoUdc filedd ben 
purrh ha»)»enn macchess mtBne** 
— (Orm. i. 65.) 
Mengde, mixed, 3581. 
Mengen, to mix, 468. A.S. meridian. 
Mengt, mixed, 1592. 
Mengten, (pi.) mixed, 544. 
Montel, mantle, 2026. 
Morci, mercy, 1241, 3602. 
[Merkc, character, mark, 457 ; sign, 

Gierke, boundary, 440, 3455 ; me- 
morial stone, 1887, 3490. 
Messe-song, mass -song, 2466. 
Mestcr, arts, devices, craft, 532, 

536, 3826 ; duty, office, 3826. 

Lat. ministerium ; ^\}fm.niene8tr$. 
Met, {sh.) measure, 439, 3333. 
Mete, meat, food, 573, 1487, 1492. 

Mcten, devised, formed, 2701. Cf. 

metedil, painted (Orm. i. 34, 36). 

A.S. me tan J to measure, paint. 
Meten, meat, 363, 2255, 3657. 
Mcten, to meet, 2828. 
Mett, {pp.) met, 888. 
M(^tten, [pi) met, 1790. 
Me^, ) mercy, pity, 195, 1044, 
Me^e, I 2498, 301 1, 3601, 4076. 

A.S. wi<5^, measure, modenition ; 

ma^ian, to use gently. 

Me%ede,pitied,compa8sioned, 1242. 
Me^elike, mildly, kindly, 1758. 
Me^cn, to have mercy upon, to 

spare, 1046. See ifa%. 
Michel, I great, 1209, 1366, 1671. 
Michil, ) A.S. my eel, 
Mide, with, 2478, 2963. 

™;j middle, 98, 288. 

Middellcrd, middle-earth, eaith, 

Middlched, {sh.) middle, 522. 
Middes-werld, the earth, 42. 
Midel, middle, 3159. 
Midelerdes, middle-earth's, 521. 
Middlest, middle, 427, 710. 
Migt, 54, 56, 584. 
Migte, mighty, 3038. 
Migten, {inf.) might, 578, 1147; 

{pi.) might, 876. 
Migtftd, {adj ) mighty, powerful, 

100, 2902, 2916, 3464, 4008, 

4025, 4026 ; {sh ) mighty ones, 

Migti, mighty, 546, 983. 
Mikol, great, 26, 389, 486, 1252. 

See Michel. 
Milce, mercy, 3728. A.S. milUe. 
Milche, milk, 2788. 
Milche = Milce^ mercy, 3732 ; 

merciful, 2903, 3603. 
Milde, kind, merclM, 128; meek, 

gentle, 1306, 1441. 
Mildelike, meeUy, 1321, 1371, 

1423; gently, kindly, 2778. 
Min, mine, 1566, 1567. 
Mind, quantity, 3676. 
Mire, dark, mirhy 286. O.N. 

myrkr, dark ; myrhaj to darken. 
Miri, I merry, pleased, 212, 294 ; 
Mirie, ) cheerful, 2258. 
Miries, an error for mirier pleasant, 


Mirknessc, darkness, 3104. 

Mis, {sh.) wrong, 206. 

Mis-chcs = mi««AoM, sinned, 190. 



Misdede, misdid, sinned, 1847, 

Misdedes, misdeeds, 3637. 

Misdon, misdone, 1680, 2642,3054. 

Miserlike, indistinctly, 2658. A.S. 
misiS'liCj dissimilar, various. 

Misfaren, to misbehave, 1911. 

Misleuede, disbelieved, 3906. 

Misliked, ) displeased, 1728, 

Mislikede, ) 4011. 

Misnumen, (p.p.) sinned, 3091. 
See Nimen, 

Missen, to miss, lose, 3336. O.N. 
mina. Du. missen, 

Mistagte, misdirected, misled, 475. 

Mistc, missed, 3872, 3874. 

Miswiaen, to miswive, marry un- 
lawfully, 540. 

Mi^e, cease, remain quiet, 3807. 
Du. mtjden, to avoid, shun. ' 

5^J more, 354, 414. 

Moal = w/i/, speech. Du. maal. 

O.K mdl, 

" For Icsua o Grickisslie mal 
Onn Enng^ch iss, Haelennde." 
— (Orm. i. 147.) 
Mod, ) mood, mind, 36, 128, 
Modd, I 333, 717, 3577. A.S. 
Mode, ) mdd, 
Moder, mother, 122, 1421. 
Moderes, mother's, 1434. 
Modi, tnoodi/, angry, 2660, 2712. 

A.S. modig. 
Modiliko, cruelly, 2584. 
Mog, male relative, 1761. A.S. 

nueg, (w.) a relation, kinsman; 

mtBge, (/.) a kinswoman. 
Mogen, may, 3227. 
Moned=m(?«^^, month, 597, 615. 
Mone, moon, 132, 139, 141. 
Monen, to moan, bewail, 180. 
Mones, moon's, 144, 145. 
Mone*, month, 145, 152, 619; 

months, 2592. 
Moo, more, 428. 
Mor, more, 511, 993. 

Morgen, morrow, morning, 247, 

1161, 1428. A.S. nwrgm. 
Morgen-giwe = morgen-giue, nup- 
tial gift. A.S. morgen-gifu, 
Morge-quile, ) morning while, a 
Morgen-quile, j short space of 

time, 3275, 3443, 3461. 
Morgen-tid, morning time, 59. 
Morwen, morrow, morning, 2305, 

Moste, most, greatest, 189, 198. 
Mot, ) may, might, 1304, 1621, 
Mote, ) 3488 ; should, 2465. 
Mo^ed = f»od^e?, minded, 1584. 
Monies, aunt's, 1651. Du. moeij 

aunt. See Mog. 
Mount, 2853. 
Mugen, to be able, 1818, 2090, 

3017. A.S. magan, 
Mune,(«mj».)bearinmind,45, 2422. 
Mune, ) to bear in mind, remcra- 
Munen, ) ber, 197, 972, 1622; 

conunemorate, 687, 3138. A.S. 

ge-munan, to remember, call to 

Munen, (;;/.) bear in mind, 558, 

Munendai, Monday, 72, 
Mune*, remember, 2409. 
Muniging, ] commemoration, roe- 
Muning, > morial, 678, 1623, 
Muninge, ) 3344, 3394. 
Munt, mount» 1744, 2773. 
Muntes, mounts, 3487. 
Mumen, to mourn, 2053. 
Muming, mourning, 2908, 3206. 
Musike, music, 460. 
Muste (pret. of mot), might, 2624. 
Mu*, mouth, 2655, 3971. 
Mu*es, mouth es, 2216. 
Muwcn, may, 3316. See Mugen. 

Nagt, night, 1678, 3142, 3832. 

ISTaild, naikd, 564. 

JSTam, took, 85, 200 ; seized, 482, 
673; listened to, 1218; bore, 
1177; came, 698, 1402; came 



upon, 1490 ; went, took the way, 
744,745, 1247, 1436. SeeiVtm^n. 

Namen, name, 3497. 

JSTarwere, narrower, 3965. 

ISTe, not, 554, et passim, 

ISTe-gate, no-gate, no-wise, 3224. 

Ned, ( necessity, 2161, 2165, 

Node, ) 3165. 

!N'eddre, adder, serpent, 823, 369, 

ISTeddres, adders, serpents, 2930. 

Nedful, grievous, 2130. 

Neg, nigh, 833, 1234, 3320. 

Negt = n/'^ tY, nigh it, 3964. 


'^cmcldi z=nemendy assigned, 3533. 
JSTemnen, to name, call, 82 ; number, 

4085. A.S. ntf/;2;i^», to name, call 

Ner, near, 478, 1395. 
ISTest, nearest, next, 3791, 3921. 
Nestes, neighbour's, 3515. A.S. 

nesta^ a neighbour. 
Net, ) neat, cattle. A.S. nyterif 
JSTeet, ) nktetiy cattle, beast. O.N. 

naut, an ox, 2097. 
Notes, neat's, 3712. 
Ne-^e-les, nevertheless, 3853. 
Ne^er, downwards, 370. 
Ne^er-ten, to descend, 3567. See 

Neue, I nephew, 724, 799, 1761. 
Neve, ) Fr. neveu\ O.Fr. neve, 
Neuere, never, 230, 1240. 
Newe, new, 694, 1286. 
Newes, anew, 250. 
Newelike, anew, 293. 
Nifte, niece, 1386. A.S. nift, 
Nigt, night, 43, 76, 79. 
Nigtes, nights, 590. 

NUe, will not, 1806. 
Nim, for nam, took, 1720. 
Nimen, to take, 1042, 1739, 2362. 
A. S.ntman (pret.nam, p.p.nom^n). 

Ni^, envy, 373, 1916. A.S. «•«, 
wickeiiiess; Ger. neid\ O.N. 
wWa, to abuse, disgrace. N\dkngr^ 
a niggard, cowaid. 

Ni^ede, envied, 1521. 

Ni^ful, envious, 369, 1917. 

Nixing, niggardliness, 3432. 

Nogt, not, 330. 

Nogwcr, nowhere, 1271. 

Nolden, {pi) would not, 3029. 

Nome, [si.) hostage, pledge, 2268. 
See Nimen, 

Nome, should take, 3341. 

Nomen, (^.^.) took, accepted, 1016, 
1965; come, 3039. 

Non, no, none, 223, 275. ^ 

Noten, to serve, be sufficient for, 
3144. A.S. notian, use, enjoy. 

Nov, now, 749. 

Nu, now, 356, 379. 

Nuge = nog, now, at once, 1328. 

Numen, {p,p^) taken, 343, 366, 
400, 409, 1316; smitten, seized, 
2107, 2826 ('sorge numen,^ sor- 
row-smitten); kept, 2268 ; passed, 
gone, 579, 594, 1142, 2485, 
2753, 2769 ; practised, 1382. 

Nunmor, no more, 788, 1118, 1420. 

Nutes, nuts, 3840, 

Ny^, envy, 273. See Ni^. 

0, of, HI, 353, 674, 1196, 2330, 

2556, 3577. 
= on, in, 81. 
Oc, but=O.E. ac, 187, 213, 862, 

861. A.S. ac. 
Oc, also, 54, 465, 488. Ban. cy. 
Oc = o^ = oM^, ought, 197. 
Of, in, 1355, 1901; from, 2390. 
Of-dred, afraid, 3955. 
Offerd, afraid, 2844. 
Offiz, office, 2071. 
Offrande, ) {sh,) offering, 1298, 
OflErende, 1309, 1312, 1314, 
Ofrende, ) 3631 ; {adj,) 1603. 
Offreden, {pi.) offered, 3619. 



SSfs? j '^'^^^ 1^27, 8551. 

Ofeigt, \ afraid, 2050, 2225, 3652, 

Ofrigt, ) 3692. 

Of-slagen, slain, 4077. 

Og> {pres,) ought, 1, 197. 

Og, owe, 2187. 

Ogen, {pres. pi.) ought, 15;]woiild, 

2054; own, 884. 
Oget, ought, should, 324. 
Ogt, aught, 1793. 
Ok, also, 944. See Oc. 
Olde, old (ones), 3852. 
Olie, oil, 1548, 2458. 
Olige, oU, 1624. 
Olike, alike, 2024. 
Oliues, olive's, 608. 
On, after, 1751. 
On, an error for o/=from, 649. 
On,in,4, 14,38, 151, 161, 162, 164. 
On, one, 56, 185, 454, 642, 665; 

'on and on,* singly, 1639, 2323. 
On-dreg, {imp.) endure patiently, 

3319. See J>reff. 
One, alone, 134, 308, 974, 2015. 
Ones, once, 3288; of one, 1720, 

1725, 1730. 
On-felde, afield, 1437. 
On-kumen, invaded, 841. A.S. 

an-cuman, to enter in. 
On-liue, 2417, 3105, 3595. 
On-morgen, ) a morrow, in the 
On-morwen, ) morning, 1093, 

1161, 1417, 1680, 2305, 3162. 
On-nigt, ) hy night, 869, 1781, 
Onigt, j 2049, 2123, 3293. 
Onon, anon, at once, 1067, 1145, 
On-ro8, arose, 1936. A.S. on-man, 

to rise up. 
On-rum, aside, apart. A.S. rum, 

room, space, pkce, 4000, 4021. 
On-sagen = unsagen = unsaw, re- 
proach, 2045. 
On-seken, (pi.) attack, 851. 
On-sel, i in time, hetimes, timely, 
On-sele, ) 1537, 2051. See Sel, 


On-^rist, athirst, 1229. 

Oo, ever, 111. 

Ooc, oak, 1873. 

Opelike, openly, publicly, 2583. 

Opnede, opened, 3773. 

Opperes, hoppers, locusts, 3096. 

A.S. hoppere, a hopper. Cf. 

Eng. grasshoppers. 
Or, ere, before, previously, 48, 

490, 645, 649, 658, 905, etc. ; 

*or ^an,' ere that, 2435; first, 

88, 490, 658, 905, 2930. 
Or, than, 1510, 2928. 
Oreste, first, 2061. 
Orf, cattle, 795, 883, 1642. See 

Mf, JErue. 
Orgel, presumptuous, 3767. A.S. 

orhel, argel. Fr. orgueil. 
Origt, aright, rightly, 1299, 2226. 
Ostel, lodging, 1056. See Ho%Ul. 
0-sunder, asunder, apart, 58, 116, 

0\/en=hoten, called, 1131. 
O^er, second, 93, 705. 
O^er, or, 1940. 

0«ere, \ others, 1187,2132,2199, 
O^re, j 3613. 
O^er sum, * other sum,' 686. 
Ougt, aught, thing, 121. 
Ouer-cam, passed over, 1633. 
Ouer-cumen(^.^.) overcome, 2108. 
Ouer-flet, overflowed, 586. See 

Ouer-flowged, overflowed, 556. 
Ouer-gon, passed, 1 1 86, 1 903,303 1 . 
Ouer-man, ruler, 3424. 
Ouer-meten, passed over, elapsed, 

Ouer-pharan = over -faren, over- 
fare, pass over, 2487. See 

Ouer-take^, overtakes, 2313. 
Ouer-toc, overtook, 1756. 
Owe, should, 1944. 
Owen, own, 120, 348, 1838. 



Owold, ) signify, 324 ; happen, 
Awald, ) 525. See Atcold, 

Paid, {p.p.) 2215. 
Pais, peace, 8, 2535. 
Palme-tren, palm-trees, 3305. 
Paradis, Paradise, 291, 406. 
Tert = apert, open, clear, 3292. 
Pilches, garments of skin, 377. 

A.S. pt/lce. 
Piler, pillar, 3293. 
Pilt, thrown, put, 2214. O.E.^iJ^ 

Dan. putte, to put into. 
Pine, {vh.) torment, plague, 177, 

179, 8094. 
Pine, {sh.), sorrow, torment, 244, 

955, 2530, 2785. 
Plage, play, lust, 537. 
Plages, plays, amusements, 3575. 
Plaigen, to play, 2016. 
Plates (of silver), 2370. 
Pleide, played, 1214. 
Tlente^ =pletitS, plenty, 3709. 
PHgt, pledged, 1269, 1275, 1776, 

Pligt, sin, oflEcnce, *to pit fftf'= for 

the offence, 361 1 . A.S. pliht 
Pedes, toads, 2977. O.N. padda, 

a toad. 
Polheuedes, tadpoles, 2977. Does 

it signify spade-headed, from 

O.N. pdlj a spade, as in pole- 
axe ? 
Pore, an error for ff ore =^ure, your, 

Preige, prey, 4028. 
Prenes, brooches, 1872. A S.preoHy 

a clasp, needle. O.N. prmia, 

to sew. 
Present, 1831, 2273. 
Prest, priest, 3886, 3922. 
Prike^, pricks, spurs, 3964. 
Pris, honour, 292, 326; value, 

worth, 2247,2700; riches, 2690. 
Prisun, prison, 2040. 2046, 2070. 
Pri8uues= prisun^res (?), prisoners, 


■ Prud, proud, 858, 1414; pride, 
I 1966. 

Qaad= quead, bad, evil, 536. 
Quad = quoth, spoken, 755, 929, 

1041, 1045. 
Quake = wake^ watch. The ihyme 

requires j'iki^^= wait, 1064. 
Quamede, pleased, 1019. See 

Quam, whom, 1768 ; which, 696. 

&o,) 708,721,930. 

Quan, since, 1817. 

Quar, where, 1311. 

Quase, whose, 2870. 

Quat, what, 171, 324, 857, 634; 

which, 4160. 
Quat, quoth, 171, 324, 357, 634. 
Quatso, whatso, 270, 1324. 
Quatsoever, whatsoever, 270. 
Qua^, {pret.) quoth, 1311, 1371; 

(imp.) speak, 3988. 
Quoad, wretch, wicked one, 295, 

4063. Du. kwaad, bad. 
Quede, promise, 1463. A.S.ewede, 

a saying ; cwiddian, to speak. 
Quemed, beloved (ones), 86. A.S. 

cwenian, to please, satisfy. 
Quemede, satisfied, 978, 1880. 
Quemest, most pleasing, 8764. 
Quemed, easeth, lightens, 408. 
Quer, where, 762. 
Quer-of, whereof, 366. 
Qm{P6q=^ quede , word, 4011. See 

Que^en, to speak, 3525, 4002 ; to 

promise, 2788 ; to enquire, 1792. 

A.S. ctoPSan (pret. cwd^, p.p. 

Quezon, {p.p*) promised, 1496, 

Quezon, whence, 1401. O.N, 

Que'Scr, whether, 340, 491, 8272 ; 

which (of the two), 1471. 



Quhu, how, 20. 
Qui, why, 1759, 1760. 
Qui = quile, awhile, 4000. 
Quider, whether, 2600. 
Quil = quilc, which, 3631. 
Quilc = what, 1572; how, 3212. 
Quile, while, whilst 205, 1104, 
1106, 2041. 

&, 1 ^^^' '^^' 204, 574. 
Quilke, {pi) what, 2080, 2350. 
Quilum, whilom, formerly, 801, 

1139, 1171, 1464. 
Quit, white, 2810. 
Quo, who, 359, 2821, 2822, 2823. 
Quor, where, 856, 714. 
Quor-at, where to, 3237. 
Quor-bi, whereby, 573. 
Quor-fore, wherefore, 1632. 
Quor-of, whereof, 1314. 
Quor-80, where-80, 924, 943, 3107. 
Quo^en, {pi) spake, 2993, 3267. 
Quow, how, 1560. 
Q\mad = hiquad, ordained, 64. 
Quuad, quoth, 1021. 
Quuam, which, 696. 
Quuan, ) when, 190, 206, 991, 
Quuanne, ) 2311. 
Quuat, what, 1310. 
Quuat-80-euere, 270. 
Quuen, queen, 296. 
Quuo, who, 1003. 
Quuor, where, 2428, 2430, 2431. 
Quuow, how, 2732. 
Qwel= qiiele=quiley which, 170, 

Rad, hasty, 61 7, 2730 ; expeditious, 
2481 ; eager, 3617 ; readily, 
quickly, 998, 1783. A.8. rdd, 
ready, quick. 

Kaken, to scatter, 2132. Sw.raka. 

Eaken, to gather, 3324. A.S.r<^ran, 
to reach. Du. rdken, to handle. 

Rwic = wrang (?) = was wrung 
(with pity), 1658. 

llano, strong, 2105, 2108. A.8. 

Eansaken, to search, 2323. O.N. 

Eansakes, searchest, 1773. 
Rapede, hastened, 1221. Du.rap, 

nimble. O.N. rapa, to hasten. 
Eapen, to hasten, 2376. 
Eape%, (imp,) hasten, 2349. 
Ra^e, quickly, soon, 1784, 2313, 

3664. A.8. hra^e. 




counsel, advice, 401, 659, 
1222, 1737, 2547, 3663, 
3808; instruction, 1515, 
2830 ; device, plan, 309, 3663, 
4059, 4064 ; remedy, help, 
2996. A.S. rt^d, counsel, ad- 
vice, opinion. 
Reade se, Red Sea, 2670. 
Rechede, interpreted, 2124. 
Rechen, to interpret, 2086, 2122. 
A.S. reccan, to explain. 
I Reclefat, censor, 3782. 
I Redde, advised, 3436. 
j Redden, {pi) consulted, 1145; 
advised, 2861. See Read, 
Rede, read, 34. 

^J| j red, 637, 640, 1256. 

Rede, advise, 3118. 
Reden,tocounsel,1534. K,^.rtidan, 

to counsel (pret. rid, p.p. raden). 
Redes, advisest, 2934. 
Redi, readily, 998; ready, 1066. 
Redles, foolish, wicked, 3574. A.S. 

radlMs, rash. 
Ref=n>, loud, 3726. 
Reflac, robbery, 436, 3512. A.S. 

red^flac, spoil, rapine. 
Rein, rain, 3265, 3326. 
Rein-bowe, rainbow, 637. 
Reke-fille, April, 148, 3166. 
Rekelefat, censer, 3761, 3880. A.S. 

ricelSf incense; recek-fat, a 

Reklefates, censers, 3787. 
Rem, cry, outcry, 1962, 2613; 

weeping, 3858. A.S. hream. 
R- n, story, discourse, 1. A.S. run. 



Ren, swift, 32 1 8. A. S. r«w^, ryney 

course, race. 
Reste, ) {sh.) rest, 11, 249, 252, 
Eestcn, ) 400. 
Restede, {pre'..) rested, 257. 
Resten, to rest, 1369. 
Reu, I was grieved, 1166; sor- 
Rew, ) rowed, 1828. A.S. hreo- 

toan, to rue, grieve (pret. hreaw) ; 
Reuli, ) sorrowful, mournful, 
Reulike, ) 1162. A,S.hreowUc; 

sorrowfully, 3106. A.S. kreow- 

licey mournfully. 
Reuen, bereave, 2802. A.S. redfian, 

to rob, spoil. 
Rew, bitter, 3151. A.S. hreoiv, 

raw, fierce. 
Reweli, ) = piteous, sorrowful, 
Rewli, ) 1968,2328. ^cc Eeuli, 
Rewde, ) sorrow, grief, 2339 ; pity, 
Rew'Se, ) 2608. 
Reyn, rain, 582. 
Riche-like, richly, 2442. 
Richere, richer, 1280, 3937. 
Ride, road, way, course, 3950. 
Rif, widely known, renowned, 232 ; 

wide-spread, 1252. A.S. ry/, 

rife, prevalent. 
Rigesses, rushes, 2595. A.S. m^, 

Hxey a rush. 
Rigt, right, justice, 52, 451 ; 

rights,3714; rightly, 885, 1565; 

mode, wise, 1270. 
Rigted, set right, 3427. 
Rigten, to righten, set right, de- 
cide, 3421, 3423, 3426. A.S. 

rihtan, to govern, rule, righten, 

Rigtwise, righteou8,418,516, 1045. 
Rigtwished, righteousness, 936, 

Rimes, rhyme's, 1. 
Rim-frost, rime, hoar firost, 3328. 

A.S. rim-forsL 
Ringes, rings, 1872, 2703. 
Risen, to rise, 4039. 
Roche, rock, 256, 1138. 

Rode, cross, 386, 388. A.S. r6d. 
Roke, reek, smoke, 1163. A.S. 

Ros, rose, 261, 1055. 
Rospen, to rwp, diminish, 2132. 

Du. rospen, to grate. 
Rotede, became rotten, 3342. 
Ru, rough, 1539, 1544. A.S.ruh. 
Run, discourse, conversation, 991. 

A.S. riin. 

Sacles, without strife, willingly. 
916. A.S, 8acUj strife ; soc-Um^ 
without contention. 

Sacrede, sacrificed, 612, 626, 938. 

Sad, separated, divided, 58, 116, 
266, 1784. See Shad, set apart, 
208 ; scattered, 672. 

Safgte, an error for soffte, cure, 
heal (?), 470. 

Saft, a pole, 3899. AS. Bceaft^ 
iceft, a shaft pole. 

Safte, making, work, 3628 ; crea- 
tures, 127. A.S. %eeaft, a crea- 
ture, created, made, formed, 
from scapan, to form. 

Saftes, of form, 349. 

Sag, saw, 26, 127. 

Sage, words, sayings, 4153. A.S. 
soffu, a sawing, speech, saw. 

Sagen, saying, 14. See so^e-eagen. 
A.S. sagen, a saying. 

Sagt, an error for sag, 1301. It 
may = sag + it = saw it. 

Saken, sake, 1392, 3731. 

Sal, shall, 12, et passim. 

Sal = salt, shalt, 1815. 

Salt, shalt, 1042, 1043. 

Salte, salt, 3280. 

Saltes, of salt, 1131. 

Saltu, shalt thou, 1041, 1813. 

Same, shame, 234, 302, 349, 351. 

Sameden, (pi.) assembled, gath- 
ered, 434. A.S. samnian, to 
assemble, collect. 

Samen, together, 40, 398, 412, 



Samening, assembling, matching, 

458; intercourse, 1442. A.S. 

samnung^ a congregation. 
San, infamy, shame, 373. A.S. 

Mcdnan^ to destroy ; scand^ dis- 
Sane, sank, 1108. 
Sarp, sharp, 2989, 3577. 
Sat, set, 943. 
Sat, treasure, money, 795, 881, 

3169. A.S. «<?^a^, treasure, gift, 

Sca^e, harm, ruin, 302, 2314. 

A.S. acea^anj seea^ian, to hurt; 

8ea^]^ey injury, loss. 
Schad, separated. A.S. scddan, 

to separate, divide. See Shad, 

Sche, she, 235, 2619. 
Schet, shot, 475. 
Scheten, to shoot, 474. A.S. 

sceotan, to shoot (pret. iceat), 
Schilde, shield, 2525. A.S. scyldan, 

to shield. 
Schinen, {pL) shine, 153. 
Schir, sheer, sincere, 1835. 
Schoren, cut. See Ahuten-schorm* 
Scit^, city, 2415. 
Scka%e, destruction, 850. See 

Sckil = sJcil, reason, 203. See 8kil 
Scri^, entreaty, 1419, 2021. 
Scri'Sed, urged, 1715. 
Scro^, urged, solicited, entreated, 

339, 1055, 1834, 2023, 2695. 

A.S. scrk^an, to go (pret.<^d^.) 
Scro^t, an error for «<?ro^, 339. 
Se, sea, 1123. 
Seek, sack, 2309. 
Seckes, sacks, 2213, 2223. 
Sed, seed, 121, 1613. 
Sedes-kin, Seth's kin, 4042. 
Segen, {pL) see, 3222. 
Sege^, cometh, falleth, 2232. A.S. 

sigan^ to fall. 
Sei, {imp.) say to, 3445. 
Seid, {p.p.) said, 2425. 

Seide, {pret.) said, 277, 323. 

Seiden, {pi.) said, 903, 1083. 

Seien, to say, 1139. 

Seigen, to say, 917, 2494. A.S. 
segany secgan, to say. 

Seilede, sailed, went, 3389. 

Sei^, says, 1127, 1293, 1295. 

Sei^, {imp.) say, 2350. 

Sek, sick, 1175. 

Seken, to seek, 3598. 

Sekenesse, sickness, 775. 

Sel, time, season, 417, 928, 1032, 
1184, 1224, 1375, 1503, 2541, 
2769, 3159; 'in w/,' quickly, 
opportunely, 1095; *al swilk 
#^/,' at such time, 1204; ^on 
aely^ *on sele,* in time, timely, 
1537,1545. A.S. «<c/, «^, time. 
Prov.E. seel. 

Sel, {imp.) sell, 1495. 

Selcu^, marvellous, 3972. A.S. 
«^/-<?i^ = seldom known, won- 
derful, rare. 

Seldum, seldom, 2181. 

Seles = Meliey good, 1542. See Seli, 

Self, own; *Self his kinde'=hi8 
own kin, 1806; very, 2610. 

Seli, blessed, righteous, 266, 1532, 
1986; nourishing, 2412; good, 
2782, 4079; fortunate, 1244; 
propitious, 31 ; happy, blissful, 
64. A.S. aely good ; sdlig^ happy, 
blessed, prosperous. 

Seli-red, an error (?) for ^seli-sped^^ 
bliss, happiness, 2514. 

Seli-si%, prosperity, 2546. 

Seli-sped, bliss, happiness, pros- 
perity, 240, 2138. 

Selku'S, strange, 1286. See Selcu^. 

Selku^like, greatly, wondrouflly, 

Scllic, a marvel, 3260. 

Sellic, rare, wondrous, 466 ; mar- 
vellous, 1026 ; strange, 3957. 
Sellik, ) wonderfully, miraculously, 
Sellic,) 1315,1316. A.S.«^»w, 
sillicy wonderful. 



) loads, 1365, 
) 1368, 2373, 

Scl^e, ) blissyluck, fortune, 1341, 
Seiche, ) 1404,2001; * [in] sel^e,' 

in bliss, blissfully, 1023. A.S. 

sf^l^, ffesal^, happiness, felicity. 
Sol^heUke, successfully, 1372. 
Semelen == to assemble, 3865. 


Seme^, {=8enies) 

A.S. seam. 
Semet, socmcth, 2169. 
Sen, (i»/) to see, 279, 956; to 

look, 394, 2664; appear, 1923; 

to look after, take care of, 298, 

1663, 2628 ; choose, take, 3723, 

Sen, (pi) see, 16, 140. 


Se, ! (♦"'^•) «^°^ 2820. 
Senden, to send, 1683. 
Sendet, sendeth, 1412. 
Senkede = schenkede, poured out, 

822. A.S. scene J drink ; seenean, 

to pour out, give to drink. 
Sent = sendeth, {imp.) send, 2825. 
Senten, {pi) 1970, 1973. 
Senwe, sinews, 1804, 1805. A.S. 

Sep, sheep, 1337. 
Serf, {imp.) serve, 1685. 
Seri, sorry, 408, 1850. 
Serue, to serve, 1715. 
Serue, should serve, 3816. 
Seruede, served, 1692, 2051. 
Seruen, (pl.subj.) serve, 4126. 
Seruen, to serve, 5, 1670, 1694, 

Seruen, to deserve, 1686. 
Seruise, service, 1672, 1714, 3754. 
Set, made, 562. 
Sete, seat, 278. 
Sette, planted, 1278. 
Setten, ( pi.) set, placed, 2598. 
Se«, seeth, 181, 196. 

Se'S, sod, 1487. A.8.««»%afi,toboil, 

seeth (pret. sed^ ; p.p. iodm). 
Seue, seven, 489, 1825. 

leuent )*«»*»>' ^^«' «»»'«"• 
Seuendai = seuend dai, seyenth 

day, 247, 607. 
Seue nigt, ) se'nnight) a week, 
Seuene nigt, ) 609, 1687, 2952. 
Seuenti, seventy, 706, 8665. 
Seweden, {pi.) followed, 2661. 
Sewen, seen(?), 1195. 

Sexe, i '^ ^^^' ^^^' ^^®- 
Sexte, sixth, 167, 199, 531. 
Sextene, sixteen, 1907. 
Sexti, sixty, 663, 1475. 
Sey we, let us say, 4162; teU, 

gy^^'j say, 1445, 3561. 

Sge, she, 1444, 1447, 1698. 

Shad, separated, 148. A.S. seeddan 
(pret. sceodf p.p. $eedden)j to se- 
parate, divide. 

Shauen, shaved, 2120. 

She, 1925. 

Shent, destroyed, 754. A. 8. setn- 
dan, to shend, disgrace. 

Sheren, to reap, 2347. 

Shetten, {pLpret.) shut, 1078. 

Shewed=shewede,(jE?/.pr^.) 1971. 

Shiftede, changed, 1732. 

sSmo, ) «"^ld. 4157. 2626. 
Shire, \ make clear, 2036 ; pore, 
Schir, sincere, 1835. A.S. 
Scir, ) 8cir, $heer^ pure, clean. 

Sibbe I ^"^» ^^^' ^^^^' A.S.tiJ. 

Sibbe-blod, blood-relatives, 1468. 

Sid, side. 

Siden = si^en, since. See Si^Sm. 

Sigande, sighing, 1436. 

Sighe = sig^he, sight, 518. 

Sighteles, blind, 1528. 



Sigt, sight, 1626, 2774. 
Sig^he, sight, 335, 360. 
Sik, sighing, 1239. A. 8. aican, to 

sigh. Prov.E. sike. 
Siker, secure, safe, 869, 876, 1269. 

O.Fris. sikur ; Gr. sicker. 
Sikerlike, certainly, surely, 1500; 

with confidence, boldly, 2319. 
Silden, to shield, 214, 1788. 
Sinfiilhed, sinfulness, 180. 
Sile, an error for vn-sile, un sele, 

misery, 2978. A.S. utis(el, un- 
" pryde comes all his unwU." 

—(Met. Horn. p. 67.) 
Singe, sing, 34. 
Singede, sinned, 4066. 
Singen, to sing, 27. 
Singen, to sin, 172, 1188. A.S. 

Sinigeden, {pL) sinned, 2205. 
Sinne, sin, 182, 186. 
Sinnes, sin's, 553. 
Sinne- wod, sin mad, 1073. 
Sir,«A^^r, pure, 518, 3580 ; clearly, 

3045. See Shire, 
Sire^, enlighteneth, 327. A.S. 

8cir, clear ; scyrian^ to divide. 
Sitten, to sit, 279. 
Si^, course, conduct, 274. A.S. 

si^y path, way. See Seli «^. 
Si^e, time, 3093. A.S. ««. 
Si^e, \ since, 84, 262, 2405 ; af- 
Si^cn, ) terwards, 237, 509, 609, 

1928. A.S. sk^'^an, 
Si^en = »iV^<?», sides, 1295. 
Si^es, times, 1731, 1825. 
Skie, cloud, 3294, 3643. 
Skies, cloud's, 3463. 
Skige, sky, cloud, 3255. 
Skil, \ reason, discretion, wisdom, 
Sckil, i 193, 203, 1425; 'with 

skily^ reasonably, 52. 0.!N. akil. 
Skipperes, locusts, 3087. 
Skiuden, {pi.) shifted, changed, 

1989. See Skyfte in Gloss, to 

Allit. Poems. 

Slagen, {p.p.) slain. 509, 591. 

Sleckede, slaked, satisfied, 1230. 
A.S. sleaeian, to slacken; Sw. 
slockeUf to Blake; 4^^, to droop. 

Slen, to slay, 2837. A.S. siedn. 

Slop, slept, 967, 1605, 3466. 

Slepi, sleepy, 871. 

Slo, {imp.) slay, 1939, 3505. A.S. 
sledn ; O.E. (N?.) sla. 

Slog, \ slew, 483, 3474, 4081, 

Slug, ) 2668, 2685, 8913. 

Sloge, {pL) slew, 3048. 

Slon, to slay, 1328, 1752, 3729. 

Slo^, slays, 3964. 

Sluge, would slay, 3976. 

Slugon, {pi.) slew, 3916. 

Smaken, to scent, 2443.' A.S. 
smaecaUf to savour, taste. 

Smale, small, 18, 656, 2107; 
* wordes sniale,* easy words ; 
*speche smale j^ flattery, 4056. 

Smere, fatness, 1573. A.S.smeru, 

Smered, anointed, 2454, 2457. 

Smerles, anointing, 2454. A.S. 
smirels, ointment. 

Smercn, to anoint, 2442, 2448. 
A.S. smirian, to anoint. 

Smctte, smote, 2684. 

Smit, smiteth, 3970. 

Smit, {imp.) smite, 3360. 

Smite, plague, 2990. 

Smiten, to smite, 3867, 4040. 

Smiten, {pi.) smote, 2109. 

Smi^, smith, workman, 466. 

Smot, smote, 2925, 2943. 

Snake, serpent, 2805. 

So, as, 15, 57, 331, 332, et passim. 

Sod, shod, 3149. 

Softe, soft, mild, 335, 3061 ; plea- 
sant, 2057, 2412; lust, plea- 
sure, 3647. 

Softere, {adv.) softer, 3874. 

Sogen, saw, 3522 ; seen, 2785. 

Sogt, united, at peace, 1934, 2161. 
A.S. sdht. 

Sogt, {p.p.) sought, 3189; come 



near, 3130; * was %ogt ' = had 

come, 3707. 
Sogte, sought, 682, 848, 1533; 

found, 1947. 
Sogten, {pi) sought, 1081. 
Solde, sold, 1843 ; {pi) 1955. 
Solstices, 150. 
Bon, shoes, 2781. 
Son, shone, 3293, 3614. 
Sond, sand, 2718, 3473. 
Sond, shame, 2714. A.S. sceond. 
Sonde, messenger, 1414, 2313; 

message, 3931. A.S. sand. 
Sonde, dishes, 2295. A.S. sand. 
Sonder-man, ) messenger, 1410, 
Sondere-man, ) 2791, 2871. 
Sondere-men, messengers, 1792, 

Sondes, messengers, 1007, 1014, 

2165, 4052. 
Sondes, messenger's, 1434. 
Sone, immediately, soon, 329, 343, 

979; quickly, 1145, 1221; 'sone 

as,' as soon as, 1109. 
Sor, {adf.) grievous, unpleasant, 

1765; grief, heaviness, 512, 733, 

Sor, {sh.) 1048, 1239, 3650. A.S. 

Sor, sore, 3027. 
Sore, sorrowfully, 1166, 3223. 
Soren = shorn, reaped, 1919. 
Sorful, sorrowful, 2326. 
Sorge, sorrow, 68, 302, 362, 512. 

A.S. sorh. 
Sorges, sorrow, 360, 778. 
Sori, distressed, heavy, 974, 977, 

1974, 3520; wicked, 1074. 
Sort, kind of, 712 ; lot, 1186. 
Sorwe, sorrow, 179, 268. 
Sorwes, sorrows, 3742. 
Sorwos, sorrow's, 19, 716. 
Soth, fooUah, 3685, 3688. A.S. sot, 

a fool. 
So^, ) true, 17, 953, 1032, 1605, 
So«e, ) 2842, 3972 ; ' ben so'S '.== 

be accomplished, 2505. 

So^, ) truth, 74, 2034, 2086, 2091, 
So«e,j 2928. A.S. «o^, truth, 

So^e-sagen, sooth-saw, true story, 

SowlTs, ! --l'«' ««' «26. 

Sowen, saw, 3108. 

Sowen, to sow, 2347. 

Sowles, souls, 2920, 4166. 

Spac, spake, 925, 1753, 1758. 

Speeande, speaking, 2821. 

Speche, speech, language, 665. 

Speches, speeches, languages, 666, 

Sped, speed, success, 25, 1585 ; 
abundance, 122; *iwel tpedf* 
misfortune, 310; 'in sped,^ *wi% 
sped,' speedily, 935, 1083, 1221. 

Sped, succeeded, fared, 3314. 

Speden, to prosper, succeed, 2303. 

Spcrd, fastened, enclosed, shut up, 
imprisoned, 22, 94, 384, 564, 

Speken, to speak, 2016, 2027, 
2710, 2827, 2832, 3400. 

Speren, to shut up, 2194. A.S. 
sparran; O.N. sperra. See 
Hampole's P. of C, 1. 3835. 

Spice-like, with spices, 2443, 2515; 
spices, 2247. 

Spices- ware, spicery, 1952. 

Spien, to spy, 2172, 

Spies, 2169, 2174. 

Spile, ravage, 2977, 3462. A.S. 
spillan, to spoil; spild, corrup- 
tion, destruction. 

Spilede, scattered, 3183. 

Spilen, to play, sport, live joy- 
ously, 2532. A.S. spilian. 

Spirit, 203. 

Spoken, {plpret.) spake, 2918. 

Spot, place, 3280. 

Spotted, spotted ones, 1721. 

Spred, (j».jp.) spread, 650, 831. 



Spredde, (pret) 490. 
Spredden, {pLpret.) spread, 2567. 
Springe, spring, ^1. 
Sprong, spray, QQj 247, 2740. 
Sprungen,(^/.) sprang, 1804; {p.p.) 

sprung, 4023. 
Spared, spurs, 3970. 
Sren, an error (?) for fr en, to de- 
liver, save, 1103. 
Srid, {p.p.) ) clothed, 23, 379, 
Sridde, {pret.) ) 271, 1639. 
Sriden, to clothe, 351. A.S. scri- 

dan (pret. scn'dde), to clothe. 
Srifte, penance, 422, 3692. 
Sriden = sriden, to deck, 1878. 
Srud, clothing, vestments, 176, 

271, 795, 857, 2367. A.S. 

Sru^ =8rud, clothing, 3169. 
Staf, staff, 3149. 
Stal«e, theft, 1767. A.S. stdlu. 
Stal wur^i, stalworthy, strong, 665, 

864, 3714. 
Starf, died, 481, 658, 4183. A.S. 

steor/an (pret. stearf; p.p. stor- 

fen), to die. 
Stede, place, 117, 425, 433. 
Steden, places, 3441, 3552. 
Steden, place, 1114. 
Steg, ascended, 319, 3527. See 

Stele, steal, 3511. 
Stelen, to still, quiet, 2594. A.S. 

Stelen, to steal away (or to keep 

secret?), 1035. A.S. sUlan, 
Stere, rule, 3418; ruler, 3420. 

A.S. Stefan, to rule; eteora, 

ruler; steore, rule. 
Steres, rulers, 3413, 3415. 
Steres-men, rulers, 3417, 3429. 
Stering, rule, government, 3410. 
Sterre, star, 132. A.S. stearra, 

star's, 134. 
Sterres, stars, 1921. 
Steuene, ) voice, 355, 622, 1285. 
Steuone, ) A.S. stefen. 

Sti, path, 3958. A.S. %t\g, a way, 

Stig, {imp.) ascend, go up, 4100. 
Stigen, to ascend, 4130. A.S. 

stigan, to ascend, go (pret. stah ; 

p.p, gestigen), 
Stille, secretly, 2015, 2428, 2718. 
Stille, {imp.) be still, 3319. 
Stillen, to quiet, Btill, 3924. 
Stinc, stink, 2556, 2975. 
Stinken, stinking, 1164. 
Stired, stirred, 3680, 8961. 
Stirte, started, 2931. 
Sti%, stiff, stubborn, 1591 ; severe, 

3266. A.S.«<i«,«<y^,firra,etiff. 
Stiward, steward, 1991, 2266, 

2263, 2712. A.S. stiward. 
Stod, stood, 690, 1019. 
Stoden, {pL) stood, 3643. 
Ston, stone, 1120, 1604. 
Stonde, {imp,) stand, 3760. 
Stonden, to stand, 1607, 2639, 

Stonden agen, (pL) opposed, 438. 
Stondende, standing, 3149. 
Stondes, standest, 2782. 
Stonde^, stands, 392. 
Stong, stung, 3896, 4083. 
Stor, great, 842. A.S. %tor. 
Storue, should die, 1968. See 

Storuen,(^/.jwtf^)died, 2976,2982. 
Storuen, {p.p.) dead, 3162. 
Strekede, stretched, fell prostrate, 

481. A.S. streccan, to stretch. 
Strem, stream, 2096, 
Streng, J string, 479, 714. A.S. 
Strenge, ) streng. 
Strenge = streng%e, strength, 3728. 
Streng^e, | strength, 681, 673 ; 
Streng^he, ) harm, 1076. 
Strength-en, to make strong, 3410. 
Strif, strife, 373; toil, 176, 503 j 

grief, agony, 268, 716, 778, 779, 

Striuing, strife, 804. 
Strond, strand, 2717. 



Strong, unpleasant, 2057. 

Strong[e], (pi) ) strong, 1846, 

Stronge, j 3713. 

Stund, time, 41 ; 2041, 3277; a 
moment, 2109, 2639. A.S. a 
atoundf short space of time. 

Stunden, to wait, abide, 1 987, 32 1 1 . 

Stungen, stung, 3901. 

S^e^^^'M ^^^» ^^^' ^^^' ^^^^• 

Sulde, should, 172, 175, 194. 

Sulden, {pi) should, 958, 1320. 

Saldes,. shouldst, 3984. 

Sulen, {pi) shall, 308, 316, 318, 

Sum, {sinff.) some, 337, 690, 834, 
835 ; < o^er sum,* 686. 

Sumdel, somewhat, 380. 

Sumertid, summertime, 1224. 

Summe, (pi) some, 399, 401. 

Sunder, direrse, 991, 3808; 'sun- 
der bleSf^ party coloured, 1729. 

Sundren, to separate, 468. 

Siindri, separate, apart, 393, 1985, 
2354, 2414, 3239; diverse, 
1798; several, 2551. 

KncnJ «<'"' 46, 403, 1656. 


Sunen, sons, 2175, 2899, 3841. 

Sunen, to bear a son, 981. 

Sunen, to shun, 1864. 

Suncs, sons, 529, 540, 1251. 

Sunes, son's; *on sunes stede,' in- 
stead of a son, 723, 1984, 2629, 

Sungen, {pi) sang, 3288. 

Sunken, {p.p.) sunk, 754; {pi) 
sank, 3775. 

Sunne, sun, 132, 139. 

Sunnes, son's, 143. 

Sunne-sct, sunset, 146. 

Surium, ) ^^^®- 
8u^, south, 829. 

Su^en, south, 1167. 
Suuen, shoved f driven, 107. 
Swanc, toiled, laboured, 2014, 

2877; travelled, 1657. See 


tZ^^^:,}hl<^^.^86. A.8.,weart. 

Swem, grievous, afflicting, 391 ; 

grieved, 1961. 
Swep {lit stroke, force), meaning, 

2086, 2112. 
Swer, {imp,) swear, 3498. 
Swerd, sword, 1307, 1327. 
Sweren, {pi) swear, 1964. 
Swerdes, of tie sword, 3721. 
Swete, sweet, nice, 210, 382, 1484, 

Sweuene, dream, 224, 1753. A.S. 

Swidc = 8wi^ey quickly, 2726. 
Swike, unfaithful, 2845. A.S. swie. 
Swikedom, treachery, deceit, 2883. 
Swilc, such, 143, 407, 417; such 

as, whatever, 3620. 
Swinacie, quinsy, 1188. 
Swine, toil, labour, 268, 363, 2554, 

2555. A.S. swine, 
S wine-hire, labour- wages, wages, 

Swing =swincy toil, labour, 566. 
S winked, laboured, 4018. 
Swinken, to labour, 3778. A.S. 

swincan, to toil (pret. swdne, 

p.p. stcuncen). 
Swinkes, labour's, 175. 
Swi^e, very, 334, 1645 ; quickly, 

1009, 1086, 1 537. A S. swi^, 

stcy^, great, strong. 
Swiulc = sumilc = swilc, such, 632. 

A.S. swulc, 
Swogh, swoon, 484. 
Swolgen, {p.p.) swallowed, 1976. 

A.S. swollen, swelgan, to swallow. 
Swor, sware, 1338, 2483. 
Sworen, {p.p.) sworn, pledged, 

824, 1525. 
Swotcs, of sweat, 364. A.S. swdt. 



Swunken, {p.p.) fatigued, 1656. 
See Swine. 

Tabeles, tables, 3535. 
Tabernacle, 3174. 
Tac, {imp,') take, 1287, 3497. 
Tagt, {p.p.) taught, directed, 3623, 

Tagte, {pret.) taught, showed, 458, 

1243, 1954. 
Tagte, {adf. ) a8aigned,promised, 827. 
Tagten, {pi.) taught, 1096. 
Take, touch, 3456. 
Takel, tackle, furniture, goods, 883. 
Taken, to take, 1318, 1340, 3323. 
Tale, speech, language, 450 ; tale, 

story, 321. A. 8. tdl; reckoning, 

number, 141, 1673, 2891, 4092 ; 

heed, account, 548. A.S. tal. 
Tame, quiet, 1482. 
Tamehed, quietness, docility, 1485. 
Taune, {suhj.) should show, 3424. 
Taunede, {pret.) showed, 636, 757, 

Taunen, to show, 1022, 1290. Du. 

Taunet = taune it, should show it, 


S:Sl,) «^o-^' ^294, 4118. 

Tawnen, to show, 2034; explain 

to, 2126. 
Techen, to teach, 2792. 
Teding, tending, care, 1208. A.S. 

tiedrian, tyddrian, to nourish, 

Teen=^, to go, 1344. A.S. ^0on, 

to pull, go, lead (pret. sing, teah, 

pret. pi. tugan, p.p. togen). 
Te, the, 2756. 
Teg, went, 320, 1135, 3644. See 

Teld, tent, 3769. A.S. UU. 
Teldes, tents, 3442. 
Telled=^^//^«, telleth, 17. 
Tellen, to teU, 651, 2755; to 

reckon, 87 ; recount, 497. 

Tellet, {imp.) tell it, 3526. 

Tolled, tells, 414. 

Temple, 1296. 

Ten, {inf.) proceed, go, 934, 1238, 

1953; lead, 1913; draw, 3005; 

send, 4053. See Teen. 
Ten, {pi) go, 856, 3210. 
Tende, tenth, 597, 704, 3141. 
Tene, sorrow, grief, affliction, 

2992. A.S. tedna^ reproach; 

tedn^ injury; teonan, to anger, 

Ter, tar, pitch, 662. A.S. tearo. 
Teres, tears, 364, 2356. 
Teres, of tears, 2288, 2342. 
Terred, tarred, 2596. 
Teten, teats, breasts, 3480. 
Tette, teat, pap, breast, 2621. 

A.S. tite, titU. 
Tgeld=telt, tent, 2025. SeeTtfW. 
Tgelt, encamped, pitched tents. 

A.S. tealdian, to pitch a tent. 
Tgen, ten, 3413, 3418. 
Tgen, (inf.) = ten, to belong, 3824. 

See Teen. 
Thaunen, declare, shown, 3d. See 

Then, ten, 3305. 

Then = ^, go, 1514. See Teen. 
Tho = ^, two, 731. 
Tholen, suffer, 508. A.S. }6lian, 

to suffer, bear, endure. 
Tid, ) time, 59, 263, 1507. A.S. 
Tide,) tid. 
Tidi, in good condition, beautiM, 

2105. O.Sw. tidigy beautiful. 

Cf. Shakespeare's use of tidy =s 

plump, well-conditioned. 
Tidelike, soon, quickly, 2752. A.S. 


SS:) 407,1348,2907. 
Tidlike, quickly, 1231, 8353. See 

Tigel, tile, brick, 461, 662, 2552. 

A.S. tigel. 



Tigeles, bricks, 2891. 

Tig^e, tithe, tenth, 895. A.S. 

Tig^es, tithes, 1B28. 

Til, tiU, until, 85, 254, 255 ; to, 

towards, 879, 945, 1606. O.N. 

tilj to. 
Tile, prosperity, 1519. A.S. til, 

fit, good ; tilian, to honour, to 

get, obtam. 
Tilen, to earn, 363. A.S. tilian, 
Tiliere, tiller, 1482. 
TiUede, {pret,) cultivated, 1278. 
Timed, {p.p.) prospered, 4024. 
Timede, \pret.) prospered, 3392. 
Timen, to occur, happen, befall, 

1763, 3820. A.S. getimian, to 

happen, fall out. 
Timen, to prosper, 1023, 4010. 
Timen, {pL) prosper, 2361. 
Timen, to teem, bring forth, 982. 

A.S. t'lman, to teem. 
Time^, prospcreth, 4010. 
Timing, ) fortune, success, 1194, 
Timinge, ) 4016; welfare, 954. 
Timinge = ^iW ^^-j wait ye, 3762. 
Timinge, season, opportunity, 31 ; 

circumstance, occurrence, 1244, 

2644, 3394. 
Tin, thine, 926. 
Tines, losest, 3518. O.K tyna ,to 

Tiren = tuen = twen, between, 

Tis, this, 334. 
To, two, 423, 2653. 
To-bar, falsely accused, 2146. 
To-bollen, swollen with pride, 970. 
Toe, took, 723, 937; took up, 

1690; gave, 1416; considered, 

1751, 2654. 
Tockenes, t<>ken8, signs, miracles, 

To-dragen, to-draw, to tear in 

pieces, 191. 
To-fal in wis, fully, completely, 


Tog=tocy took, 1676. 

Tog (pret. of tm, to go), wenty 607. 

See Tem. 
Togen (p.p.of ^»,togo),gone, 3647. 
To-gider, ) together, 1898, 2352, 
To-gidere, ( 3779. 
Tok, took (notice), 945. 
Toke, {8uhj.) brought, 1531. 
Token, {pi.) took, 2200, 3174. 
Token, sign, miracle, 635, 646, 

2802, 2914. 
Tokenede, betokened, 248. 
Tokenes, signs, miracles, 2813. 

Tokenc^S, j ^tokeneth, 638, 640. 
Toknes, signs, miracles, 140, 163, 

Tokning, token, memorial, 1624. 
Tol, tool, 469 ; tools, 883. 
Told, {p.p.) reckoned, 1358, 2912. 
Tolde, {p.p.) told, 1403. 
Tolden, {pi) told, 2221, 3711. 
Ton, the one (first), 1010, 2704 ; 

eldest, 2196. 
To-samen, together, 2109. See 

To-teren, tear in pieces, 2089. 
To^, tooth, 4148. 
To^er, the other (second), 619, 

To^ere, {pi) the others, 1044, 

To-wis, truly, 3992. 
Trecn, trees, 1127, 1278, 3305. 
Tregest, disrcgardest, 3975. A.S. 

ge-tregian ; tregian, to disregard, 

Trew, tree, 3301. A.S. treow. 
Trowe, true, 720. A.S. treawe. 
Trewei^e, *wi^ trewei^e,* faith- 
fully, 2304. A.S. ^ewr^, truth, 

Trewed, ) believed, 1031, 2385. 
Trewid, | A.S. tredwian, to trust, 

Twewi^, believes, 2037. 
Trew^e, truth, 2468, 2459 ; troth. 



1524, 1776; fideUty, 1270; 

pledged word, 2336. A.S. treu^^ 

treow^f truth, troth, pledge. 
Tribuz, tribes, 3813. 
Trike, stream, 2947. 
Trimede, brought forth, 1198. 
Trimen, to teem, conceive, 1024. 

A.S. getrymianj to dispose, bring 

foward; trymian, to provide, 

Troken, to fail, 105. A.S. trucarif 

to fail, diminish. 
Troweden, (pi.) believed, 1092. 

A.S. triiwian, to trust. 
Trowel, believe, 2814. 
Truke, forlorn, 3508. See Troken, 
Trume, host, company, 1829. A.S. 

trufna, a troop, band. 
Tudered, begotten, 630. A.S. 

tyddriafiy to propagate, procreate. 
Tuderande, fruitful, 164. 
Tun, \ town, 713, 1102, 2311, 
Tune, ) 2570. A.S. tun. 
Tunde, surrounded, 866. A.S. ty- 

ftany to hedge in, enclose. 
Tunes, towns, 856. 
Tunge, tongue, speech, 372, 3158. 
Tunges, tongue's, 2656. 
Tur, tower, 661. 
Turles, {lit, doves) quails, 3676. 
Turn, course, 63, 79. 
Turtul, turtle (dove), 944. 
Twelfte = twel/ey twelve, 3829. 
Twelwe, twelue, 663. 
Twenti, twenty, 620. 
Twentide, twentieth, 3641. 
Twie, twice, 808. 
Twie-wifing, bigamy, 450, 485. 
Twin, two, 4020. 
Twin-manslagt, double homicide, 

Twinne, two, both, 2367, 3248. 
Twinne-del, twofold, 1510. 
Twired, perplexing, conflicting. 

A.S. twy-r(^d, of two opinions, 

Two, to, 1292. 

Da, then, 1264, 1901. A.S. fa. 
Da = «a^, that, 2190. 
Dad = ^ad, that, 311. 
Dag=^tf, then, 2254. 
Dagen = rfa^r», day, life, 4078. 
Dahankede, thanked, 3405. 
Dan, ) then, 9, 17, 144, 999, 
Dane, [ 1003, 2680; when, 
Danne, ) 182, 2072 ; that time, 

*bi ^fl»,' 'hi-'Sanney 1023,3706; 

* ear ^anne, or ^an,* 38, 2435 ; 

' fro «tfn,' 188, 3201 ; * til ^an,' 

471, 1870; 'to ««V 867; 'to 

^«w,' for that purpose, 2792. 
Dane, (imp.) give thanks to, 

Danno = ^«»»^, then, 2225. 
Dar6^dardf dared, 3778. 
Dat, {dem. adj.) that, 1, 43, 51, 

54 ; what, 2020, 2032. 
Dat-offe = ^rtr-o/^, thereof, 2422. 
Dauen, permit, allow of, 3139. 

A.S. jfajian, to suffer, permit, 

De, { which, who, 2, 269, 

et passim. 
De = «o, then, 1416. 
J)e=:the, 778, et passim. 
Dear=(^«r, beloved, 1090. 
Deden^deden, deeds, 2302. 
Deg, prospered, throve, 2012. See 

Def, property, quality, taste (?), 

3340. Is it an error for def, from 

A.S. dti/e, fit, meet? 
Def, thief, 1773. 
Defis, thief 8, 538. 
Defte, theft, 3512. 
Dei, they, 573. 

Delde=gelde, («w^'.) requite, 171 3. 
Den, thrive, 803, 1550; prosper, 

4007; grow up, 2645. A.S.j7^d» 

pret. jfeahf J7a^, p.p. gefogen^ to 

thrive, flourish, grow, increase. 
Dengen = ^e»A;^w, to think, 1571. 




|«J;j there, 337, 850. 

Der-fore, therefore, 747. 

Der-in, therein, 2068. 

Der-of, thereof, 1669. 

Der-on, thereon, 1778. 

DcB, this, 3967. 

Des, ) these, 941, 1643, 2199, 

Dese, ) 3697. 

De^en, thence, 65, 208, 725, 

1236. JS". «rt^a». 
Deuwe, custom, 1382. A,S,^edw, 

manner, habit, behaviour. 
Dewe, courtesy, respect, 2757. 
Dewed, behaved, conducted, 1914. 
Dewes, graces, virtues, 4159. 
Dgero=^^rtf, haste, 4052. 
Dhanc, tibanks, 1659. 
Dhauen, to tolerate, endure, 275. 

See Dauen. 
Dheg, ) throve, 1266, 2779. See 
Dhchg, j Deff, Den. 
Dhenken, to think, 393. 
Dhenke^, thinks, 2028. | 

Dherknesse, darlmess, 3102. 
Dhikke, thick, 3102. 
Dhing, ) thing, 301 ; things, 29, 
Dhinge, > 52, 297, 300 ; affairs, i 
Ding, ) 3378. 
Dhingcs, things, 280. 
Dhog, though, 3978. 
Dhogen, throve, increased, 1480, 

2567. Sec Den. 
Dholode, suffered, 778. See Dohde, 
Dhogt, mind, 2167; anxiety, 21 1 1 ; 

thought, 1029, 1149; purpose, 

Dhogt, \ seemed, appeared, 295, 
Dhogte, ] 319, 333, 407, 430, 
Dhowgte, > 438,401,1469,1765, 
Dhugte, I 1849, 2064, 3260. 
Dhute, / A.S. ]^inc(m (pret. 

fuhte), to seem. 

Dhowtes, thoughts, 3544. 
Dhre, thre, 55, 152, 563. 

ES'cH- «-^'-*- 

Dhrowing, agony, suffering, 1317. 

A.S. \r6wungj from ^rdwian^ to 

Dhu, thou, 362, 397. 
Dunder, ) thunder, 110?^, 

Dunerg=^«»<jr, ) 2900. A.S. 


Dfej^'^'^gl^' 588, 2192. 

Dhusant, ) thousand, 489, 577, 
Dhusent, ) 654. 
Dider, ) thither, 1068, 1366, 1402, 
Didir, ) 1844. 

Dikkc, I *^^^> ^^^^y* 2988. 
Dig=thick, 564. 

g|^;j thine, 397, 1764. 

Ding, affairs, 3378. 

Dinken, to think, 234. 

Dinke%, seemeth, 391, 2403. See 

Dinke^, thinks, 2407. 

Dis, Uhese, 1083, 2125, 2131, 

Disc, ) 2527. 

D istemesse = cisternesse, pit, 1942. 

Distemesse, darkness, 58. A.S. 
Yystre, daik, jfeoatemes, dark- 

Dit = ^w, this, 1233. 

Do, those, 305, 875, 2099. A.S, jfd. 

Do, the, 1303, 2110. 

Do,then, 424, 427, 717. A.S. >«. 

Doa, then, 840. 

Dog, ) though, nevertheless, 4, 

Doge, ) 1794, 1928, 2401, 2908, 
3807, 3808. 

Dogen, (j!?/.) throve, flourished, 

Dogt, ) thought, mind, 1558, 2298, 

Doht, ) 2013 ; purpose, inten- 
tion,.1672; anxiety, 1433; *kind 
^ogt,^ natural affection, 2254. 



Do^;, j '^^""^^ ^^®' 2015. 
Dogte, thought, 1089. 
Dogteful, anxious, 1437. 
Dole, forbearance, 3496. 
Dolcde, suffered, 1180. 
Dolen, {inf.) suffer, 3664; {imp.) 

3457; (ij/.)3445. A.S.>(5/taw, 

to suffer, bear, endure. 
Doo = >o, 3135. 

Dor, \ there, 261, 222, 279, 
Dore, ) 2270 ; where, 438, 757, 

Dor-agen, | opposed thereto, 2797, 
Dor-gen, j 3730. 
Dor-after, thereafter, 146. 
Dor-bi, thereby, 1458, 2106. 
Dor-buten, tliereabout, 566, 3625. 
Dor-fore, therefore, 1215. 

Dor Jj j ^^^^^^^^^^ 
Dor-in, ) therein, 42, 746, 1 104, 
Dor-inne, ) 3634. 
Dor-mide, therewith, 2656. 
Dor-mong, there among, 3265. 
Dor-of, thereof, 234, 329. 
Dor-offen, thereof, 2403. 


thereon, 196, 464, 

Tw^^^n \ 1116, 3398. 
lior-onne, ; ' 

Dor-quiles, whilst, 574. 

Dor-til, I thereto, 589, 2371, 

Dore-to, ) 3824. 

Dor-under, thereunder, 3184. 

Dor-uppe, thereup, 1609. 

Dor-vten, thereat, 3364. 

Dor-with, therewith, 379. 

Domes, thorns, 1334. 

Do^ = ^o^w, to^er, other, 2762. 

Dragen=rfr<T^(?», drawn, 3722. 

Dral, thral, slave, 2881. 

Draldom, slavery, bondage, 2322. 

Dralles, slave's, 971. 

Dralles, slaves, 3720. 

Dre, three, 647, 1006. 

Dreated, threatened, 4125. 

Dret, threat, 2021. 

Drette, {preU) threatened, 2023, 

g53J') third, 761. 1301. 

Drist=%m^e, {pret. pi.) thrust, 

Drist, thirst, 977, 3354. 
Drittide, thirtieth, 3311. 
Drosing, chaos, 43. A.S. J^rww, 

chaos, heap, smoke. 
Drowede, suffered, 1 1 80. Sec 'Dro- 

Du, thou, 363, 1084. 
Dugte, seemed, 1099. 
D\m^= guftdy over, above. 


Durg-vt, throughout, 3704. 
Durte, need, 234. A.S. ^earfan^ 
to need, behove (pret. \orfU), 

EhSt, ! *^""«"'*' *''' ''"• 

Dusse, thus, 308. 

Dwert, obstinate, contrary, 3099. 

Dwerted, thwarted, 1324. A.S. 

\vDeory \wer^ froward, cross, 


XJgging, fear, dread, 950, 2826. 
O.iN'. uggay to terrify. See Ham- 
polo's P. of C, 11. 6419, 6683. 

XJglike, ugly, horrible, 2805. 

XJnachteled, untold, 796. A.S. mU^ 
value, estimation. O.E. ahiU^ 
to estimate, endeavour. 

Vn-bente, unbent, 483. 

Vnbiwen, unbelief, 3777. See 
Wenen, Wen, 

Unbond, unbound, opened, 2223. 

Ynbuxumhed, disobedience, 345; 
helplessness, nnlithesomenees, 
rigidity, 346. See Buxum. 

Unc, us two, 1776. A.S, vno, 

Vncircumcis, uncircumcised, 2841. 

Unclene, unclean, 1867. 

Vndede, undid, opened, 681, 3971 ; 
removed, 2955, 3014. 



Vndon, undone, opened, 385. 

Xlnder-don, subdue, 4041. 

Xlnder-feng, received, 480. 

Vnder-fon, receive, 1679. A.8. 
under-fon, to take (pret. under- 

Vnder-gon, deceive, 1147; take 
up, 1160. 

Vnder-leiden, supported, 3388. 

Vnder-let, under-lay, lay under, 
3188. A.S. Iktan^ to stoop, lie 
at the bottom (pret. ledt\ 

Vnder-nam, perceived, 1 553 ; ques- 
tioned, 2728. A.S. und^'mman, 
to comprehend, take. 

Ynder-numen, taken unawares, 
surprised, 2135, 3221. 

Vnder-stod, bore, 1467 ; accepted, 
received, 2393, 3434; under- 
stood, 2210, 2275. 

Vndon, undone, opened, 603; re- 
moved, 3902. 

Vndon, to explain, 2114. 

Vndrcn = undertiy the time extend- 
ing from nine to twelve in the 
morning, 2269. A.S. undent, 

Vndrincled, undrowned, 3280. 
O.E. drinkle, to drown. 
»* AUe drenkled thorgh folie." 
—(Robt. of Bnmne, p. 241.) 

VneVe, uneasy, disturbed, 3924. 

Vnendede, everlasting, 3518. 

Vne^es, with difficulty, scarcely, 
2341. A.S. une(P6e. 

Vn-fer, diseased, 2810. See Fer. 

Vnframe, disadvantage, 1566 ; sor- 
row, 3037. A.S. un/retne, 

Vn-£ramen, displease, 1213. 

Vnfiigt, fearless, bold, 3713. 

Vngere = ungare^ unexpectedly, 
3047. A.S. un-gearUf un-pre- 
pared, sudden; 

ViSiileden, imcovered, 2976. 

VnhiUen, disclose, 1912. A.S. un- 
Mian, to unhele, reveal, uncover. 

Vnkinde, unnatural, 449, 1113, 

Vn-lage, wrong, 1762. A.S. im- 

lagu, wrong, injustice. 
VAlif, for uniikf unlike, 206. 
Vnlif, unleavened, 3153. 
Yn'like = onlike, alike, 1726. 
Vn-mad, unfinished, 671. 
Vn-mi^e, anger, 3973, from O.E. 

O.E. mi^ey quiet. A.S. wy^- 

giany to sooth, quiet. Vh-mi^e 

may signify truth, from A.S. 

tniian, to hide, dissemble. 
Vn-red, sm, 1906. A.S. unrdd. 
Vnreken, slow, unready, 2817, 

See Eeken. 
Vn-rigt, wrong, 1276. 
Vnrigtwis, unrighteous, 2014. 
Vnseli, wicked, wretched, 1073, 

2315. A.S. unsdlig. 
Vnsel^ehe, ) misfortune, misery, 
Vnsel^e, ] 2316. A.S. «n- 

Vnsene, unseen, secret, 2878. 
Vnskil, sin, folly, 3506. See Skil 
Vnslagen, unslain, 1332. 
Vn-spered, undid, spoilt, 25. See 

Vnsteken, disclose, 2828. See 

Gloss, to Allit. Poems, s.v. 

Vnswao, displeasing, offensive, 

Yntiming, misfortune, 1180. 
Yntuderi, barren, 964. See Tudered, 
Yn^cwed, extraordinary, 2555. 

Sec Deuwe. 
Vnwarde, ) unwarned, unawares, 
Vnwamde, ) 480, 2682. 
Ynwelde, unwieldy, 347. See 

Vnweder, storm, 3058. A.S. un- 

Vp, upon, 2320. 
Vp-dragen, destroyed, 1858. 
Vp-gon, (;?/.) ascend, 1608; {p.p.) 

departed, gone, 3081. 
Vp-reked, up-reeked, 3465. 
Vp-rigt, upright, 8248. 



Vp-spnmgen, up-sprung, grown 

up, 3050. 
Vp-stod, up-stood, 3247. 
Vp- waked, roused up, awoke, 3466. 
Vp-wond, up-winded, up-went, 

3026, 3084. 
Vr, ur, ] our, of us, 2172, 2261, 
Vre, ure, j 2262. 
Vt, ut, ) out, 18, 227, 362, 607, 
Vte, ute, ) 3703. 
Vt-comen, {pL) out-came, 2097. 
Vt-dragen, out-drawn, opened, 

Vt-drog, out-drew, 1327. 
Yten, foreign, strange, 956, 1741, 

2094, 2406, 2410; without, 653, 

2739, 3744; apart, 3691. 
Vt-fare, out-go, 2865. 
Vt-faren, depart, 3056. 
Vt-gon, depart, out-go, 2966, 3021. 
Vt-gong[e], out-go, 2800. 
Yt-lage, outlaw, 431. 
Vt-pharen =tJ^-/ar^, depart, 3017, 

Vt-sped, hurried away, 3178. 
Vt-8tal, stole out, 2882. 
Ut-suuen, out-shoved, aroused, 

Ut-ten, utter, 4004. 
Vt-^hurg, throughout, 2688. 
Vt-wrogte, brought on, caused, 

Uuer-slagen, lintel, 3155. A.8. 


Wac, weak, 1197, 1528. A.8. wdc, 
waac, weak, frail. 

Waden, to ford, 1799. 

"Waines, wains, waggons, 2362. 

"Waked, aroused, stirred up, 360. 
A.S. wacan, to awake, take 
origin. • 

Waked, (pret) kept a vigil or 
liche-wake, 2469; {p.p.) 2516. 

"Waken, to keep a vigil or liche- 
wake, 2449. A.S. waccoHf to 

"Waken, to watch, 2651. 

"Wakene, for walkene, firmament^ 
welkin^ 636. 

"Wal, ) choice, select, 3635 ;brave^ 91 

"Wale,] 888. Ger. waMenn to 
choose, select. O.N. wal, choice. 

Wale, prosperity, 809, 1355. A.S. 
tpala, weal, bUss. 

Walkeden, 'aren walkedeHf* have 
walked, 3882. Walkeden is evi- 
dently an error for walked, 

Walkene, welkin, 161. A.S. woleen, 
a cloud, air, welkin ; wealean, to 
roll, turn. 

Walkne, welkin, clouds, 96, 103. 
Walled, ) enclosed with a wall, 
WaUede, j 435, 2554. 

W^U "^^'^ ^^^' ^^^^- 

Wane, wanting, 1028, 3353. A.S. 
wana, wont, lack. 

Wanmol, uneloquent, 2817 (from 
wan=unf and mol, mal, speieoh). 
See Moal. 

Wonsum, sorrowful, 1099. A.S. 
wannan, to be wan, pale. 

Wante, should be wanting, 2244. 

Wantede, wanted, failed, 1233, 
2155, 2995, 3310. 

Wapman, man, 1 00 1 . A.S. tr^man, 
a man, from Wifpn, a woapon. 

Wapmen, men, 536, 2920, 3078, 

War, aware, 721, 1308. JL.B,wdry 
wary, prepared, ready. 

Ware =tt7ary, defended, 2876. A.S. 
wergan^ to protect, keep off. 

Ware, merchandise, 1990; pro- 
perty. A.S. wdruj ware, mer- 

Waren, to make secure, 1088 ; to 
provide for, 2154. A.S. wartan, 
to beware, to guard, ward off. 

Waned, cuiW, 644. AS. weri- 
gan, to curse. 



Wamede, warned, 1091. 
Wamen, to warn, 1581. 
Warp, (pret. of werpen) threw, 

2640, 2804. 
Wassen, to wash, 1116, 2291 ; to 

be washed, 2442. 
Waspene = iTM^wtf, form, 1910. 

A.S. wdstmy growth, form. 
Water, lake, 749, 1125. 
Wateres, water's, 638. 
Wateres, waters, 592, 2594. 
Wateres - springe, water - spring, 

Water-gong, water-outlet, 662. 
Watres, water's, 598, 638, 1246, 

Watres, waters, 108, 117. 


Wattrede, watered, 2751. 

Wa^ = ^t/a^, spake, 1666. 

Waxen, grow, increase, 1128, 

Waxen, {p.p,) increased, 831 ; full- 
grown, 2060. 

Wech-dede, watch-deed, vigil,2460. 

Weches, vigil's, 2467. 

Wedde, hostage, pledge, 2198. 
A.S. wed^ pledge (dat. wedde), 

Wedden, to marry, 1090. 

Wedding, marriage, 1428. 

Wede, garment, 1972. A.S. wt^, 
a garment. 

Weden, garments, 2368. 

Weder, weather, storm, 3055, 3059. 

Wei, )way, 1100, 1228, 1429, 

Weie, ) 1435. 

Weige, way, 1614, 2681. AS. 

Weiges, ways, 3240, 3244. 

Weilawei, alas! 2088. 

Weis, washed, 2289. 

Weken=tt7rtfilw*, taken, 3282. 

Wei, well, 229, 1521, 1541. 

Welcume, welcome, 1830. 

Welcumede, welcomed, 1396. 

Welden, to rule, 2143, 3418 ; take, 

enjoy, 916 ; possess, 3738. A.S. 

icealdran, to rule, direct, possess. 
Welden, {pi,) exercise, 50. 
Welded, influence, 274. 
Weledes=M'e'/^M, wealth's, 748. 
Weli, blissfully, prosperou8ly,2528. 

A.S. welig, rich, bountiful. 
Wclkede, withered, 2107. A.S. 

wealwian ; Ger. welken, to fade. 
Welken, {pi.) elapsed, 568. A.S. 

icealcan, to revolve (pret. weolc), 
Wellen, well, 2756. 
Welles, weUs, 3306. 
Welle-spring, well-spring, 1243. 
Welle-springes, well-springs, 3304. 
Welt, exercises, 54. See Welden, 
Welte, ruled, 3371. 
Welten, {pi) wielded, 532; ruled 

over, governed, 840. 
Wel^e, ) wealth, 796, 1268, 1355, 
Wel^he, ) 1404, 1550, 2374. 
Welles-ware, wealth, property, 

929. Cf. SpkeS'tcarey etc. 
Wen, belief, 73; doubt, 3271. 

A.S. w^n, hope, weening. 
Wen = wenen, believe, 3809. A. S. 

winarif to ween, think. 
Wend, {imp,) turn, 3510. 
Wende = weened, thought, 477, 869, 

1240, 1543, 2209. 
Wende (we), let us turn, 3267. 
Wended, ) — agen, turned back, 
Wende, ) 979, 1904. 
Wenden, ) (^/.) weened, thought, 
Weneden, ) believed, 869, 1141, 

Wenden, (in/.) 606, 692, 884, 

4057,4061. A.S. wendan, tarn, 

Wenden-agen, return, 1159, 3719, 

3724. A.S. wendan (pret. wende\ 

to tumf proceed, go. 
Wenden, {pi,) weened, 869. 
Wene, thiii, ween, 309, 315, 317, 

Wenen {pi) think, 3812. A.S. 




"Went, course, 136. A.S. tpend, a 

TVent, (p.p.) changed, 753 ; gone, 

1429, 2201 ; turned, 321, 289G. 
Wentc, turned, 321, 1121, 3950, 

3951; removed, 1619; took 

awav, snatched, 2613; went, 

TVent agen, returned, 606, 985, 

1048, 1343, 1356; («Miy.) should 

return, 1097. 
"Wente-agon, turned back, 1119. 
Wenten, {pL) went, 533, 623; 

turned, changed, 1149, 1967; 

returned, 2200. 
Wep, weeping, 2328, 3888. A.S. 

Wep, wept, 4149. A.S.wepan, to 

weep (pret. tpedp ; p.p. tcepen), 
Wepen, weapon, 3283. X.i^.wapen, 
Weph, web, 4096. 
TVerchen, to work, 3220. It may 

= tvrechen, to avenge. 
V^QTdQa = tC0rld^Sf worlds, 32. 
Were, protector, 2680. See Weren. 
Were, man, 3977 ; husband, 1587. 

A.S. wer. 
Were, war, 1788. 
Wereden, saved, protected, 2578. 

See Weren. 
Weren, were, 377, 570, 1468. 
Weren, annoy, 2898. A.S. tc^rian, 

to weary. 
Weren, to defend, protect, 851, 

1272, 1794, 1817, 2083, 2090, 

2564, 3714; spare, 1043. A.S. 

werian, protect, hinder. 
Weres, man's, 532. 
Werger, defender, guardian, 926. 

A S. wergariy to defend. 
Weri, weary, 975, 1493. 
y^Qv\i = wrek, plague, 3902. See 

Wrake, Wreck. 
Werken = tpreken, to take ven- 
geance, 2799. See Wraksy 

Werken, {pi) work, 850. 


Werlde, world's, 1318, 1594. 

Werldes, world's, 48, 102, 142, 

707, 2440. 
Werlde, world, 901. 
Weme, deny, 2797. A.S. wyrnan, 

to deny, forbid. 
Wemed, {p.p.) 3171. 
Wemede, forbad, 2966, 3000. 
Wemeden, {pi.) denied, 2207. 
Werp, {imp.) throw, cast, 2803. 
Werpen, to throw, cast, 3358, 

3794. A.S. weorpan, to throw, 

cast (pret. icearp ; p.p. tporpen). 
Werre, worse, 3951. 
Werren, were, 1089. 
Westen, west, 3096, 3915. 
We^er, wether, 3998. 
Wox, increased, grew, 273, 584, 

585, 1118, 1266, 3749, See 

Waxen. , 
Wex = M?^jr^, {pi.) grew, 1917. 
Wexe, should increase, 554. 
Wexen, {pi.) grew higher, 599; 

increased, grew, 2104, 2502, 

Wexem, for wexen, grew, increased, 

Wi, war, 1854, 3220. A.S. wig, 

uikf war. 
Wiches, (m.) witches, 2919, 2927. 
Wicke, wicked, 1072, 3952. 
Wid, an error for wi^, with, 79, 

86, 128, 168, 928. 
Wid, {adj.) wide, 60, 565 ; {adv.) 

Wid-held = wPS-keld, withheld, 

914, 3019. 
Wid-hin, ) =tt7i^-t», tri^-i«««i, 
Wid-innen, ) within, 555, 640, 

Wid-uten=M>?^-wf«i, outwardly, 

Wide, widely, 672, 831. 
Wif. wife, 231, 367. 
Wifes, wife's, 530, 



Wifes, \ wives, 453, 559, 624, 
TVifwes, ) 857. 
"Wif-kinnc8, woman-kind, 1177. 
"Wifuede, wived, manied, 1588. 
Wigt, bravo, 863. Sw. vtg, 
AVigte, war(?), or sliarpness (?), 

Wigto, weight, 439. A.S. wiht 
Wikke, wicked, 3574. 
AVil, {sb.) will, 194. 
Wil, homeless, astray, 975. See 

Gloss, to AUit. Poems, s.v. Wyl. 
Wil, bUndness, 1079. 
Wilde, lascivious, 2013j wild, 169, 

Wile, while, 371. 
Wile, {vh.) wiU, 191, 277, 1318. 

A.S. toillan. 
Wile, desires, likes, 206, 2020. 

A. 8. wtlian, 
WUen, {pi) will, 2304, 2531, 3723. 
Wimmun, woman^ 374, 375. A.S. 

mfmanf wimman. 
Wimmanes, woman's, 1426. 
Wimmen, women, 532, 653, 2570. 
Win, wine, 2295. 
Win, strife, 347, 4055 ; force, 598. 

A.S. wm, contention. 
Windcn, to enshroud, 2448. 
Windoge, window, 602. 
Wines, wine's, 894, 1542. 
Win grape, bunch of grapes, 3710. 
Winter, {pi) years, 567, 919. 
Wintre, vine, 2059. A.S. mntreatc, 
Wintres, winters, years, 1211. 
Wird, \ troop, host, 1786, 1790, 
Wir^, j 4140.^ro(?,male, 

host, army. 
Winn, ) reptile, 178 ; serpent, 
Wirme, ) 321,2925,3898. A.S. 

Wirmede, bred worms, 3342. 
Wirmes, reptiles, 2982. 
Wis, wise, 100, 260, 462, 617. 
Wisdam, wisdom, 35. 
Wise, (pi) wise, 331. 
Wise, manner, 2961. 

Wislike, wisely, 45, 1091 ; with 

wisdom, 520 ; properly, 3630. 
Wisse^, teacheth, sheweth, 2. 

A.S. iPisaiany to instruct, show. 
Wiste, knew, 779, 901, 961, 962, 

1154,1310. See Wot. 
Wisten, {pi) knew, 768, 2217, 

Wisten, wished, 801, 1060. 
Wistom, wisdom, 462. 
Wit, for wilt, wilt, 1084. 
Wit, we two, 1775. A.S. wU. 
Wit, wisdom, 460, 900. A.S. wit. 
Wit, with, 44, 52, 53. 
Wite, {pi) learn, know, 390. 
Wite, (r*) blame, 2035. A.8. 

witan, to blame. 
Witen, to know, 328 ; make known, 

1302; to learn, 2651, 8928. 

See fFbt. 
Witen, {pi) know, 74, 523. 
Witent=w>fVtfn, to know, 330. 

Wittenesse, ) ^*^^- 

Witter, \ wise, skilful, 168, 456, 

Wittere, j 1910, 2330, 3624; 

true, 2903 ; cognisant, 1308. 
Witterhed, wisdom, 3667. 
Witterlike, surely, truly, indeed, 

769, 791, 1322, 2320, 2425. 

Da. viterrli'ff, known, manifest. 
Wi^, of, 432; in, 1083, 1668, 

1915, 2094. 
Wi^-dragen, with-drawn, 596, 

Wi^-drog, with-drew, 599, 3808. 
Wi^er, hostne, 3386. A.S. wi'Se- 

rian, to oppose. 
Wi^erward, cruel, severe, 2935. 

A.S. wPSer-weard^ contrary, re- 
Wi^-stod, opposed, 2649; stood 

still, tarried, 3646. 

withheld, 11 78,2033, 



TVi^-^an, Tvdth tliat, therefore, 
481, 1409. 

"VVi^ - ^han - ^at, provided that, 
2019, 2335. 

AVi^-^ragen = toi'6 -draff en, with- 
drawn, 3983. 

"Wi'S-utcn, ) except, 557, 611, 

Wi^-vtcn, > 875, 910, 3739; 

Wi^^-ulen, ) without, 503, 639, 
875, 1317,2454; outside, 1080, 
1367. A.S. wi'S-iiton (adv.), 
m'6'ufan, (prep.) without. 

Wiue, wife, 2008, 2147. 

Wiues, wife's, 1219. 

AViues, ) wives, 994, 1858, 2363, 

Wiwcs, ) 543 ; wife's, 543, 2037. 

Wlath, bad, loathsome, 3300. A.S. 
wlattiarif to nauseate, loath ; 
wlath I take to be an error for 
tvlach. A.S. wlaCf warm, slack. 

Wlite, ) face, 2288, 2289, 2342, 

"Wliten, ) 3614,4055. A,S.wnte, 
form, person, countenance. 

Wo, ) woe, sorrow, grief, 216, 

Woa, ) 237, 353, 880 ; sorry, 
1833. A.S. wd, waa. 

Wooc, j ^^^^' ^^^'*- ^'^'^ ^'''' 
Woe, awoke, 2111. 
Wod, mad, foolish. 1073, 2959, 
3545. A.S. tvodj mad, insane. 

WodSd!^' 1 «^^°^s«' ^33, 3539. 

Wol, very, 1266, 1995. 

Wold, power, inclination, 1958. 

2000. A.S. icald, power. 
Wold, meaning, 2122. It literally 

signifies power. 
Wold, hill, 938, 3892. A.S. icald, 

Wold, ruler, 3412. A.S. waJda. 
Wold, sacrifice, 3116 A.^.cweliatty 

to kill (pret. cweald) ; cioal, 


Wold,'(l) killed, slain, 420; des- 

troyed, 526(?), or (2) flooded (?). 

(1) A.S. cwdian, to kiU. (2) A^. 

weallan, to flow. 
Wolden, {pi) would, 3756. 
Wond, wand, 2715, 2803, 2808. 

Du. raandf a switch. 
Wond, went up, 3782, 4136. A.S. 

windan, to move or be borne in 

a winding course, to wind. 
Wondes, wands, 2923. 
Wooc, weak, 1874. A.S. iodc. 
Wopen, weapon, 469, 3228, 4062. 

A.S. icapen. 
Wopcned, ) armed, 1787, 2479, 
Wopenede, ) 3373. 
Wopened-sum, armed host, 3376. 
Wordes, words, 18. 
Wore, were, 1170. 
Wore, {8uhJ) were, 768, 1 144, 1 148, 

Wore, {2per8, ning,) 1759, 1814. 
Woree = M>ortf, were, 2950. 
Woren, were, 347, 488, 790, 1207, 

Worn, were, 61, 147. 
Wor-of, whereof, 3530. 
Worpen, cast, 1943, 2923. See 

Wort, word, 73. 
Wor'Sed, honoured, 262. See 

Wot, know, 487, 1473; knows, 

353. A.S. witan (ic wdt^ Jju 

wdat, O.E. wosty he iodt\ we 

taiton; pret. wiate), 
Wrake, punishment, destruction, 

552. A.S. wrac, punishment. 
Wrech, ) vengeance, destruction, 
Wreche, ) 552, 641, 632, 634, 

1042, 1076, 1 142, 3396; plague, 

1176. A.S. wracu, vengeance, 

pain, punishment. 
Wrecches, wretches, 1074, 1080. 

A.S. icraccay an exile, wretch. 
Wreken, {p.p.) revenged, 2028, 

3067, 3281. A.S. wr^ean, to 




Wreken, (p.p.) taken, 3148. 
Wrestelede, wrestled, 1803. 
Wre^e, ) wrath, 482, 3793, 3863. 
"Wre^'Se, ) A.S. wriB^o, wrath. 
'WTe^ed=^fcre^e^f is angry, 1^84. 

A.S. tcne^iany to be angry. 
Wrigtful, guilty, 2204. A.S. 

wrdht ; Da. rt/gtff a crime. 
Wrigteleslike, guiltlessly, 2076. 

A.S. tPrdktUc, accusing. 
Wrim, reptile, 169, 187, 299. A.S. 

wyrniy a worm, reptile, serpent. 
"Wrim-kin, serpents, 3895. 
Writ, 1974. 
"Wri^el, herbs C?), from Du. tvor- 

tely an herb,^ 3153. The A.S. 

fvri^elsj a band, fillet, cover, does 

not help us to explain this sa- 
tisfactorily. Is tpri^el written 

for wrixel, change, alternation, 

"Wrocte, hurt, 230. A.S. tarecan, 

to afflict. Wrocte is the pret. 

of werken = wreketiy to hurt. 

Cf. wirm and wrim, werh and 

wreky etc. 
"Wrogt, \ wrought, did, made, 40, 
Wrogte, j 61, 249, done, 1150; 

bestowed, 1812. 
"Wrogten, (/?/.) wrought, struggled, 

1470 ; did, 529, 547, 4069. 
"Wroken, turned, 3193. A.S. tori- 

cany to banish, pour out, (pret. 

wriic\ p.p. wrecon), 
Wrong, squeezed, 2064. A.S. 

ioringan (pret. wrang\ p.p. 

wrungen) to wring, press. 
Wrot, wrote, 462, 523, 2524, 2527. 
Wrout, wrought, 156. 
Wro«, angry, 1215, 1735. A.S. 

Wro^ = «?or^, became, 3013. 
Wude, word, 476, 1306. AS. 

wude, umdu, 
"Wudes, woods, 473. 
Wukes, weeks, 2473. A.S. icucBy 

Wulde, would, 214, 846, 1195, 

Wulden, {pi.) would, 1071, 1075, 

Wuldet, would it, 969. 
"Wunded, wounded, 853. A.S. 

tpundiany to wound. 
Wunden, enclose, 2597. A.S* 

"Wunder, sin, mischief, 69, 3588^ 

3977. S.Sax. wundre, mischief. 
"Wunderlike, wonderfully, 585. 
Wune, {sh.) custom, 494, 971, 

1639, 1681, 1806, 3857; wise, 

manner, 969, 1345, 1405, 1652; 

practices, 676; abilities, 1910; 

privilege, 1501. AS. wune, 

practice, custom. 
Wune, abode, 513, 3370. See 

Wune, wont, 1504, 1530, 2066. 

Wune, to dwell, 785. 
Wune, (;;/.) dwell, 1156, 1254. 
WvLne = tpunede, dwelt, 1842. 
Wuned, ) abode, dwelt, 789, 811, 
Wunede, ) 825, 1133, 1167, 1249, 

Wuneden, {pL) dwelt, 3122, 3845, 
Wuncn, to dwell, 306, 367, 404, 

406. A.S. wunian, to dwell, 

Wunen, {pi) dwell, 300, 332, 932, 

1863, 1898, 2464. 
Wunen, custom, fashion, 688 ; wise, 

1655; laws, 3137; abilities, 

Wunen, accustomed, 2900, 3289. 
Wunes, abodes, 1480. 
Wunes, customs, usages, 2293 ; 

practices, 539; privileges, 1495. 
Wune^, dwells, 465, 2410. 
Wuniende, dwelling, 2742. 
_Wurd, word, 736. 
Wurd = f^Mr^, became, 995, 119T* 
Wurdes, words, 2818, 3726. 
Wurlike =WMr^ft'fe, worthily, 1456. 



Wursipe, worship, honour, 2757. 

A.S. wur^'scipe. 
"Wursiped, honoured, 511. 
Wurt, root, 119. A.S. tourt. 
"VVur^e, *wel wurS,^ well worth ! 

155. Cf. *woe worth the day,' 

Wur^, ) became, 67, 272, 283, 
^^ur^c, ) 284, 598, 634, 677, 

721, 993, 999, 1175, 1462, 

1494,3196; shall be,1564,1943, 

2057, 2058, 2074, 2218 ; let be, 

Wxir^c=wur^ede, honoured, 1826. 
Wur^ede, became, 1528, 2011. 
Wur^ed, ) honoured, 1012, 1629, 
Wur^ede, ) 1845, 1924. 
Wur'Seden, {pi.) honoured, 1922. 
"Wur^eden, {pi.) became, 2946. 
"Wur^elike, honourably, worthily, 

1518, 2760. A.S. wi/r'S'liCy 

tvur^lic, worthy. 
TVur^-en, {pi.) became, 286, 667, 
, 831, 2050, 2297 ; { 3559, 
• 3721. 
"Wur^eil, to be, become, exist, 41, 

53, 510, 641, 2411, 2427, 2816, 

p928. A.S. iPeor^an, wur^an, 

to become, to be, happen (pret. 

wear^ ; p.p. geworden). 
"Wurmen, honour, 2463. A.S. wur- 

^iariy wyr(>iany to honour. 
Wuj^-ful, honourable, 2678. A.S. 

wyr^'fully honourable. 
Wur^fulhed, honour, 3499. 
Wur^i, worthy, 1012, 1501, 3753. 
"Wur^ing, ) honour, respect, 83, 
Wur^inge, ) 133, 684, 892, 1550, 

1774, 2140, 3787. A.S. wwr- 

^inffy honour. 

Ybiried, 2520. 

Ydeles, idols, 1871. 

Ydolatrie, 695. 

Ymong, among, 3419. 

Ynog, enough, 3670. 

Ynug, enough, 2156. 

Y-oten, called, 2416. See Sbten. 

Yre, iron, 2452. 

Ys, ice, 99. 

Yses, ice's, 97. 

Yuel, wicked, bad, 1074, 1186. 

Ywel, evil, harm, 788; sickness, 

Ywis, certainly, truly indeed, 159 

A.S. gewU. 


Aaraon, 3063, 3082, 3379, 3387, 
3489, 3540, 3543, 3546, 3633, 
3750, 3785, 3799, 3837, 3864, 
3884, 3890. 

Abel, 419, 426, 430, 921. 

Abimalech, 1172, 1175, 1189, 
1267, 1525. 

Abiron, 3757, 3766. 

Ahraham =:Jmramf 2588. 

Abraham, 995, 998, 1006, 1008, 
1009, 1019, 1028, 1031, 1036, 
1047, 1161, 1184, 1189, 1196, 
1209, 1217, 1267, 1274, 1277, 
1285, 1299, 1307, 1313, 1323, 
1327, 1331, 1337, 1347, 1355, 
1359, 1386, 1403, 1445, 1448, 
1464, 1477, 1612, 2426, 3202, 
3477, 3479. 

Abram, ) 708, 710, 720, 721, 

Habram, ) 727, 730, 734, 736, 
737, 740, 741, 755, 757, 759, 
762, 773, 780, 781, 798, 809, 
811, 818, 822, 824, 825, 862, 
870, 872, 878, 880, 888, 892, 
897, 898, 913, 920, 925, 935, 
948, 961, 965, 966, 986, 988, 
995, 3534. 

Adam, 86, 199, 231, 238, 292, 
296, 353, 356, 390, 397, 410, 
412, 422, 424, 428, 429, 442, 
445, 493, 498, 502, 541, 818, 
1896, 3476. 

Adama, 838. 

Adda, 455. 

Adonay, 2902. 

Agar, 965, 970, 973, 1223, 1249, 

1265, 1446. 
Ai, 760, 800. 

Amalec, ) 3369, 3384, 3391, 
Amalech, ) 3395. 
Amon, 1157. 
Amonit, 1158. 

Amrame, 3472. 

Amorreos, 3911. 

Anel, 821, 865. 

Arable, 1254, 3322, 8879. 

Arabit, 1203, • 

Aram, 709, 711, 727, 735, 1599. 

Archim, 8881. 

Arfaxath, 701. 

Armenic, 595. 

Amon, 3914. 

Asaaroth, 3687. 

Babel, 671. 
Bal, 691. 
Bala, 838. 

Balaac, 3919, 3937, 3941, 3989, 

3995, 3999, 4011. 
Balaam, 1354, 3922, 3927, 3939, 

3957, 3962, 3975, 3985, 3989. 
Balim, 690. 
Basaan, 3916. 
Batuel, 1376, 1384, 1385. 
Bel, 689, 691. 
Beland, 690. 




Belus, 675. 

Belphegor, 4070. 

Beniamin, 1885, 2185, 2189, 2233, 

2240, 2281, 2296, 2309, 2335, 

Bersabe, 1274, 1291, 1344, 1523, 


l^''^]^ 1 \ 3533, 
Besseleel, ) ' 

Betel, 760, 800, 1883. 

Bozra, 1902. 

Buz, 1353. 

Buzite, 1354. 

Cabroth, 3686. 

Cadalamor, 841. 

Cade, 1168. 

Cades, 3707, 3854. 

Cairn, ) 416, 426, 430, 442, 446, 

Caym, ) 476, 529. 

Cddea, 713. 

Sph J 3^25, 3739, 4095. 

Cam, 558. 

c3k ) ^^^' 726, 743, 798, 

Cananeam, [ j^gg ^157 2391 

Caram, 1361, 1741. 
Cariatharbe, 813. 
Cariatht, 815. 
Cedar, 1257. 
Cedima, 1263. 
Ceturam, 1446. 
Chore, 3748, 3781. 
Cratonide, 1449. 

Damak, ] 

Damask, [ 207, 761, 879, 931. 

Damaske, ) 

Dathan, 3757, 3766. 

Dede Se, 750. 

Dirima, 1260. 

Duma, 1259. 

Ebron, 811, 1891, 1931, 2424, 
2487, 2520, 3715. 

Eb&e,j 2451,2540,2858,2950. 

Ebru, \ 919, 2607, 2657, 2674, 

Ebniis, ) 3051, 3220, 3609,4035, 

Eden, 433. 

Edom, 3877. 

Edon, 1901. 

Ef5raym, 2151. 

Egipte, ) 764, 785, 790, 797, 802, 

Egypte, ) 1953,1990,2374,2444, 
2469, 2489, 2545, 2611, 2646, 
2671, 2680, 2683, 2708, 2767, 
2802, 2857, 2872, 2951, 2990, 
3018, 3020, 3072, 3125, 3160, 
3163, 3167, 3170, 3178, 3195, 
3216, 3257, 3312, 3440, 3475, 
3560, 3720, 3724, 3736, 4088. 

Egypcien, ) 2723, 3103, 3271, 

Egipcien, ( 3278. 

Eleazar, 3885, 4091, 4111. 

Eleopolis, 2003. 

Eliab, 3622. 

EHezer, 931, 1359, 1383, 1396, 
1399, 1416, 1429, 1438, 2766. 

Elim, 3303, 3307, 3309. 

Eliopoleos, 2643. 

Eliv, 1354. 

Ely, 2904. 

Emor, 1843,-1853. 

Engle, 3158. 

Engleis, 14. 

Eno, 435. 

Enoch, 499, 503, 513. 

Enos, 442, 494, 498. 

Ercbis, 3359. 

Esau, 1472, 1481, 1491, 1499, 
1529, 1540, 1543, 1796, 1823, 
1836, 1899. 

Esdras, 4153. 

Ethan, 3209. 



EthiDps, 2875. 

Ethiopien, 2667, 2689. 

Eufrate, 1255. 

Eue, ) 86, 292, 296, 317, 321,333, 

Eua, ) 410, 412, 416, 418, 422, 

424, 428, 817. 
Excol, 821, 865. 
Exodus, 2538. 

Faga, 4013. 
Fegor, 4031. 
Faraon. See Pharao. 
Fasga, 4129. 
Finees, 4079. 


Genesis, 414, 2522. 

Geraris, 1167, 1432, 1516. 

Gerlon, 2766. 

Gersen, 2353, 2364, 2396, 2414, 

2709, 3006, 3051, 3121. 
Gibi, 826. 
Gomor, 3333. 
Gomorra, 839. 

Hamones, 2641. 
Heber, 702. 
Hur (Ur), 725. 
Hur, 3379. 
Hub, 1350. 

laboch, 3371. 

labok, 3914. 

lacabe^, 2589, 2623. 

lacob, 820, 1473, 1482, 1485, 
1487, 1491, 1494, 1539, 1551, 
1562, 1566, 1578, 1581, 1593, 
1595, 1597, 1617, 1631, 1643, 
1649, 1657, 1666, 1669, 1675, 
1679, 1688, 1709, 1724, 1727, 
1733, 1742, 1750, 1756, 1771, 
1783, 1797, 1811, 1814, 1891, 
1906, 1909, 1928, 1930, 1966, 
1970, 1974, 2158, 2220, 2226, 
2238, 2385, 2391, 2397, 2417, 
2474, 2784, 3564. 

lannes, 2959. 

laphet, 558. 

lareth, 499, 3908. 

Ihesus, I 85, 254, 260, 386, 388, 

lesus, ) 507. 

Jerusalem, 890, 3904. 

lericho, 3918. 

letro, 2741, 2833, 3399, 3401, 

lewes, 506. 

Ihesum (Joshua), 3375. 

lobal, 455, 459. 

Joseph, 1757, 1907, 1931, 1955, 
1961, 1996, 2002, 2008, 2009, 
2012, 2016, 2031, 2038, 2051, 
2067, 2085, 2092, 2093, 2117, 
2119, 2124, 2139, 2147, 2154, 
2162, 2167, 2191, 2198, 2210, 
2211, 2212, 2229, 2253, 2257, 
2283, 2298, 2310, 2312, 2329, 
2343, 2360, 2361, 2367, 2382, 
2393, 2421, 2433, 2489, 3182, 
3200, 3482. 

losephus, 1281. 

losu, ) 3568, 3571, 3725, 3739, 

losue, ) 4095,4109,4116. 

Iraab, 442. 

Israel, 2381, 2384, 3214, 3245, 
3268, 3373, 3376, 3381, 3406, 
3449, 4014, 4023, 4048, 4066, 

Issa, 233. 

yft ) ^^^^' ^^^^' ^^^^' ^2^^- 

lurdan, ) 806, 868, 1799, 2333, 
lordan, ) 2486, 3915. 

Laban, 1395, 1421, 1582, 1596, 
1655, 1658, 1663, 1674, 1676, 
1681, 1689, 1710, 1713, 1727, 
1733, 1735, 1739, 1749, 1756, 
1769, 1775, 1781. 

Lamech, 444, 447, 453, 465, 471, 

Lcui, 1696, 1862. 

Lia, \ 820, 1676, 1695, 1703, 

Liam, ) 1705. 



Lote, ) 711, 723, 730, 732, 799, 
Loth, ) 805, 859, 885, 919, 1053, 

1065, 1069, 1083, 1091, 1094, 

1099, 1133. 

Luzkn, ! ^«»3' 1«29. 

Madian, 2738, 3920, 3950. 

Malaleel, 443, 499. 

Mambre, 810, 821, 865, 1033, 

Mambres, 2959. 
Manaim, 1789. 
Manassen, 2151. 
Marath, 3299. 
Maria, 2601, 2615, 3687. 
Matusale, 443, 514. 
Melca, 1349, 1377. 

mSIJ '12. 719. 729. 

Melchisedeck, 891. 

Memphin, 2669. 

Mcsopotaniam, \ 

Mesopotbaniam, > 728,1360,1745. 

Mesopotonie, ) 

Metodius, 517. 

Michael, 3609. 

Moab, 3917, 3957, 3962, 3975, 
3985, 3989, 4041, 4133. 

Morie, 1293. 

Moy8en,x 1903, 2523, 2587, 2631, 

Moses, 2676,2687,2691,2706, 

Moyscs, ) 2717,2725,2729,2735, 
2750, 2769, 2781, 2806, 2831, 
2856, 2859, 2871, 2907, 2909, 
2916, 2979, 2981, 3001, 3011, 
3015, 3024, 3032, 3034, 3055, 
3057, 3063, 3075, 3082, 3083, 
3101, 3109, 3113, 3117, 3121, 
3133, 3180, 3187, 3230, 3231, 
3241, 3249, 3251, 3273, 3285, 
3302, 3317, 3331, 3343, 3355, 
3374, 3381, 3390, 3397, 3399, 
3401, 3403, 3407, 3428, 3444, 
3449, 3452, 3467, 3472, 3523, 
3527, 3537, 3542, 3553, 3557, 
3567, 3573, 3575, 3596, 3618, 

3629, 3653, 3671, 3689, 3698, 
3730, 3741, 3747, 3750, 3758, 
3768, 3770, 3771, 3792, 8799, 
3817, 3855, 3864, 3898, 4071, 
4085, 4091, 4093, 4099, 4105, 
4117, 4188, 4145. 

JS'abachot, 1253. 

Jl^achor, 703, 710, 719, 729, 734, 

1377, 1384. 
JS'cmboc, 4129. 
Nembrot, 659, 673. 
Nephtalim, 1700. 
Nilus, 676. 
Noe, 516, 557, 566, 575, 580, 

614, 621, 906. 
Nun, 3488. 

Oba, 879. 

Ortigie, Ortigia, 3675. 

** pe Bame Delon hatte Ortygia; for 
ortigie (}>at bee}> cotiirnicies, cur- 
ie wes,) beeb bcrynne greet plentfi."— 
(Higden's Polychronicon,voU., p.309.) 

Oswas, 3747. 

Pasche, 3157. 
Pentapolis, 747. 
Phaleth, 702. 

Pharan, 1248, 3646, 3696. 
Pharao, \ 774, 1 1 7 1 , 2073, 2095, 
Pharaon, ( 2118, 2126, 2137, 
Pharraon, ( 2187, 2357, 2394, 
Pharaun, / 2399, 2411, 2539, 
2569, 2634, 2733, 2795, 2837, 
2862, 2869, 2881, 2931, 2940, 
2957, 2965, 2986, 8002, 3008, 
3013, 3016, 3022, 3029, 3053, 
3064, 3073, 3091, 3098, 3109, 
8117, 3123, 3212, 3213, 3259, 
Pharaofh, (Pi-hahiroth) 3210. 
Putifar, \ 1991, 1995, 2009, 
Putiphar, j 2037, 2145. 

Rachel, 1646, 1653, 1669, 1683, 
1688, 1690, 1693, 1699, 1700, 



Ilaguel, 2741. 

B^e^;, 12416.2553, 3203. 

Rebecca, 819, 1376, 1393, 1407, 
1422, 1460, 1534, 1579, 1587, 

Reu, 703. 

Ruben, 1697, 1890, 1939, 1959. 

Saba, 2686. 

Sale, 701. 

Salame, 891. 

Salamon, 1296, 1877. 

Salem, 904, 1842, 1857. 

Salmona, 3893. 

Sana, ) 711, 741, 765, 771, 772, 

Sarrai, } 777,799,818,963,969, 

Sairay, ) 973, 996, 1024, 1170, 

1178, 1192, 1196, 1215, 1845. 
Sarucb, 703. 
Seboys, 838. 
Sede (Seth), 4042. 
SeUa, 465. 
Sem, 701. 

Seth, ) 425, 493, 498, 540, 558, 
Seht, ) 901. 
Seen, 3911. 

Sephora, ) 2763, 2839, 2847, 
Sephoram, ) 3401. 
Seyr, 1836, 1899, 3847. 
Sichem-, 744, 1706, 1841, 1852, 

1855, 1863, 1929, 1933. 
Sicbin, 4066. 
Sinay, 3309. 
Si^hingt^ 1288, 

Sodoma, ) 840, 887, 909, 1034, 
Sodome, | 1050, 1163. 

S^^^j 1841, 2203, 3209. 

Sur, 3296. 

Symeon, 1695, 1855, 1862, 2196, 

2197, 2265. 
Synai, ) 2853, 2879, 3362, 3438, 
Synay, ] 3599, 3646, 3850. 
Syon-gaber, 3698. 

Tarbis, 2689, 2695. 

Thare, 703, 723, 732, 735. 

Tbaram (Charam), 1634. 

Tema, 1261. 

Teman, 1262. 

Teremutb, 2603, 2615, 2628,2629, 

Tubal, 466. 
Tur adcr, 1889. 

Yephres, 2540. 

Ysaac, 819, 908, 1198, 1203, 1207, 
1211, 1213, 1266, 1283, 1287, 
1305, 1321, 1325, 1336, 1363, 
1406, 1408, 1432, 1451, 1455, 
1459, 1475, 1479, 1513, 1527, 
1595, 1612, 1656, 1893, 1905, 
2784, 3480, 3481. 

Ysakar, 1704. 

Ysmael, 1000, 1212, 1214, 1216, 
1223, 1245, 1249, 1265, 1455, 
1458, 3639. 

Ysi-acl, 3678. 

Zabri, 4081. 
Zabulon, 1704, 4081. 
Zelfa, 1678, 1701. 




LiiirvrasF"' df wiCKitiiH